Education in
Europe trends and
challenges
Tapio Säävälä
DG Education and Culture,
European Commission
Education
and Culture
1
Education and Training 2020 work
programme
How does it work?
1. Where are we?
•
Data, indicators, analysis
•
Objectives, benchmarks
•
•
•
•
Recommendations,
Reference tools,
Learning from good practice
Lifelong Learning Programme
2. Where do we want to go?
3. How do we get there?
Education
and Culture
Lifelong learning strategies?
Lifelong learning
Lifelong learning
« From cradle to grave »
Quality of Learning?
•
informal
school
Individuals’ perspective:
• Personal fulfilment
• Social
inclusion/citizenship
• Employability/careers
B) Societies’ perspective:
• Constructive democracy
nonformal
formal
C) World of work – perspective
• Skills for jobs and innovation
Life-wide learning
Education
and Culture
3
Skills needs by 2020 – Cedefop forecast
HIGH SKILLS
LOW SKILLS
Education
and Culture
Future opportunities
More and new jobs in:
•
•
•
•
Low-carbon industries;
Digital technologies;
Health and care and other services;
Infrastructures etc
But this requires:
• High skills combined with all key competences, creativity
and ability to innovate;
• More equitable opportunities for all to high quality;
learning: a broad skills base
Education
and Culture
Education
and Culture
Key competences for lifelong learning
1. Communication in the mother tongue
2. Communication in foreign languages
•
Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and
technology
•
Digital competence
•
Learning-to-learn
•
Social and civic competence
•
Initiative taking and entrepreneurship
•
Cultural awareness and expression
Education
and Culture
Implications to teaching and learning
• Teaching – learning - assessment
• Broadening tests, exams... summative assessment
• Promoting formative assessment
• “Assessment of learning; for learning; as part of
learning...
• Teachers' competences and responsibilities
• From subjects to holistic approach
• Leadership – ethos of schools
Education
and Culture
Improving Teacher Quality
Ministers’ 10 priorities
Professional values and
competences
teacher of
transversal
competences
digitally
literate
leader
manager
linguistic /
cultural
diversity
subject (s)
specialist
pedagogue
responds to
individual
needs
We expect more and more from our teachers ….
Professional values and
competences
autonomous
learner
lifelong
learner
mobile
learner
co-worker
(colleagues,
parents …)
school
developer
researcher
innovator
reflective
practitioner
We expect more and more from our teachers ….
Quality in adult learning
Awareness raising
•Policy makers
•Learners
Data and monitoring
Legislative frameworks
•Staff
•providers
•validation
•flexible routes
Staff competences
•Initial education
•In-service training
Innovation
•European programs
• LLP
• ESF
•Institutional development
•Leadership
Smart and effective funding
•
Education
and Culture
Providers accreditation
12
Renewed Agenda for Adult learning
• A Council Resolution - November 2011
•
- autonomy of the learner but also responsibility for his/her learning
pathway and outcomes;
•
- learning later in life to promote active, autonomous and healthy
ageing and using their knowledge and experience for the benefit of
society;
•
- greater access to higher education for adults;
•
- developing key competences necessary for active participation in
modern society;
•
- solidarity between different age groups, between cultures and
people of all backgrounds;
•
- designation of national coordinators to facilitate cooperation with
the European Commission and effective liaison with multiple
stakeholders in each country.
Education
and Culture
13
Early School Leaving
Identification &
analysis
Prevention
Monitoring of
situation
Coordination of
policies
Intervention
Compensation
Early childhood
education and
care
Measures at
school level
Second chance
opportunities
Measures at level
of
education/training
system
Student focused
measures
Re-entering
mainstream
education
Comprehensive
support
The prison population across Europe
• The total prison population in Europe is estimated
to be approximately 800,000 prisoners
• The mean average per country is 129 prisoners
per 100,000 people
• The number of prisons per 100,000 people ranges
from 19 (Liechtenstein) to 304 (Latvia)
Education
and Culture
Prison population per 100,000 people
High
Latvia (304), Lithuania (276), Estonia (252),
Czech Republic (223), Poland (217), Slovakia
(184), Turkey (175), Serbia (164), Hungary
(163)
Mid – High
UK Scotland (157); UK England and Wales
(155), Spain (152), Romania (146), Malta
(141), Luxembourg (124), Portugal (121),
Bulgaria (120), Croatia (117)
Low - Mid
FYR Macedonia (114), France (111), Cyprus
(110), Italy (110), Austria (104), Greece
(101), Belgium (97), UK: Northern Ireland
(97), Ireland (95)
Low
Netherlands (87), Germany (86), Switzerland
(76), Denmark (74), Norway (73), Sweden
(70), Slovenia (64), Finland (59), Iceland
(47), Liechtenstein (19)
Education
and Culture
Prison occupancy rates
The mean occupancy rate in prisons across those
countries included is 109%
On average prisons across Europe are over occupied
Rates of prison occupancy range from 35%
(Liechtenstein) - 158% (Serbia)
Education
and Culture
The prison population across Europe
Participation amongst adult prisoners remains below
25% in most countries of Europe
Between 3% - 5% of European prisoners are
qualified to undertake higher education
Education
and Culture
The prison population across Europe
The majority of prisoners are male
Females represent 0% of the prison population in
Liechtenstein; 2.6% in FYR Macedonia; 7.6% in
Spain
The largest numbers of prisoners can be found in
the age groups 20-30 and 31-40 years
Education
and Culture
The prison population across Europe
In some countries, the prison population is made up
of a high proportion of foreign prisoners – 71.4%
Switzerland; 5.5% Greece
Age profile most likely young people, those serving
a long sentence or based in a large prison
Education
and Culture
Overview of the current situation (1)
• Consensus that education has a rehabilitative role
and contributes significantly to prisoners’
successful re-entry into society
• Different models of prison education and training
can be observed across Europe – but there is no
one single approach
Education
and Culture
Overview of the current situation (2)
• Prison education falls into three main categories:
• General education
• Vocational education and training
• Non-formal learning
• Common goal is to prepare prisoners for
employability and reintegration into society
Education
and Culture
Key challenges
• Increased diversity in the prison population – high
numbers of prisoners with low levels of education,
basic literacy and numeracy
• Participation levels remain low - prisoners face a
number of institutional and situational barriers to
participating in learning
• Prisoners who have achieved basic education often
find it difficult to continue with higher level
learning
Education
and Culture
Key messages (1)
Prisoners are a heterogeneous group with different
learning needs and require:
•A broad curriculum with wider scope for critical
reflection and personal development
•An individualised approach to learning to create a
tailored learning journey
•A holistic approach to learning and rehabilitation
Education
and Culture
Key messages (2)
• Different approaches to education and training –
e.g. modular or unit based, e-learning and
distance learning, validation of prior learning and
experience
• An alternative approach to education
• Innovative provision
• Learning opportunities that are relevant to the job
market and that support rehabilitation and
reintegration into society
Education
and Culture
Key messages (3)
• A prison environment conducive to learning
• Prison staff to support and encourage participation
in prison education
• Prison educators who are given support and
training to ensure they have the appropriate
competences and knowledge to deliver learning
opportunities
Education
and Culture
Prison education in Europe
Some concluding comments
• Prison education has emerged as an issue which is now ‘on
the map’
• Opportunities now exist for further shared learning and
experiences in the future
• Continued need for political commitment, funding and
collaboration between actors and the wider community is
key
• Continued need for a strong evidence base to inform future
policy and practice
• EU programmes and funding has played a role in supporting
prison education develop and provides a means for the
exchange of good practice
Education
and Culture
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Presentation from DG EAC by Tapio Saavala