Skipshopphugging –
gjeldende og fremtidig internasjonalt rammeverk
Sveinung Oftedal
seniorrådgiver
Miljøverndepartementet
Opphugging av skip –
Hvordan ble det en norsk sak?
• 1997 – Avisen ”Baltimore Sun” fikk Pulizer prisen
• 1998 – Bergens Tidende reportasje fra Alang-India:
«Sykdom, ulykker og brutal død følger i kjølvannet
når utrangerte norske skip strander på verdens
største skipsopphuggingsplass»
• Statsråden (MD)  internasjonal løsning i IMO
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Ble fulgt opp av: Kartlegging
•
Veritasrapporten (MD/NR/MARMIL)
Decommissioning of Ships - Environmental Protection and Ship
Demolition Practices



India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Kina har 90%
Boom kommer
Mange miljøfarlige stoffer -håndteres uforsvarlig
B u lk an d T an ke r T o n n ag e e n te rin g th e ag e o f o f 25 in
th e co mmin g ye ars (> 10.000 D WT )
80 000 000
70 000 000
60 000 000
DW T
50 000 000
40 000 000
DW T
30 000 000
20 000 000
10 000 000
•
Ulfsteinrapporten (MD)
Legal Aspects of Scrapping of Ships



3
0
1998
1999
Gjeldende rett er ikke tilstrekkelig
IMO-løsning anbefales
Grunnlag for håndhevelse av gjeldende rett (SFT kontroll)
Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
2000
2001
Ye a r
2002
2003
Miljøverndepartementet
Internasjonal aktivitet
• 1999 – Norsk dokument til IMOs miljøkomite
(MEPC 43) om å ta inn saken på IMOs
arbeidsprogram
• 1999 – Norge tok opp saken i Baselkonvensjonen
• Også på ILOs agenda
• CSD 7 pekte mot IMO som koordinerende
organisasjon
• 2002-2004: 3 sett med retningslinjer
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
The 3-set UN Guidelines
• Technical Guidelines for the Environmentally Sound
Management of the Full and Partial Dismantling of
Ships (Sixth Meeting of the Conference of the
Parties to the Basel Convention, 13 Dec. 2002,
Decision VI/24);
• IMO Guidelines on Ship Recycling (twenty-third
session of the Assembly, 5 December 2003
Resolution A.962(23); and
• Safety and Health in Shipbreaking: Guidelines for
Asian countries and Turkey, approved by the
Governing Body of the International Labour Office
(289th session, March 2004).
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Frivillige retningslinjer var ikke tilstrekkelig
• 24th Session of IMO Assembly adopted
Resolution A.981(24) in December 2005 and
agreed to request:
” the Marine Environment Protection
Committee to develop a new legally-binding
instrument on ship recycling….”
• Target date: consideration and adoption of the
instrument in the biennium 2008-2009
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
A.981(24) - The Instrument
• …provide regulations for:
” .1
the design, construction, operation
and preparation of ships so as to facilitate safe
and environmentally sound recycling, without
compromising the safety and operational
efficiency of ships;
.2
the operation of ship recycling
facilities in a safe and environmentally sound
manner; and
.3
the establishment of an
appropriate enforcement mechanism for ship
recycling (certification/reporting
requirements);”
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Gjeldende rett
•
•
8
Baselkonvensjonen –
Grenseoverskridende transport av farlig avfall
– Vedtatt i 1989
– I kraft i 1992
– 170 parter
– To hovedprinsipper:
Prior Informed Concent (PIC), and Environmentally
Sound Management (ESM)
BAN amendment (1995) forbyr eksport av farlig avfall
fra OECD land til ikke-OECD land. Endringen er ikke i
kraft, men gjennomført i EU rett og norsk rett.
•
EUs transportfordning (Regulation (EEC) No 259/93),
etterfulgt av Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006)
implementerer Baselkonvensjonen inkludert BANamendment
•
F-loven/avfallsforskriften
Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Gjeldende rett (Basel)- hovedbudskap
9
•
Partene til Baselkonvensjonen har ikke foretatt en
omforent klargjøring av hvordan skip omfattes av
baselkonvensjonen.
•
•
EU og Norge: Skip omfattes
Tre nøkkelbegrep:
”Waste”, ”State of export”, ”transboundary movement”.
– Skip defineres som avfall når rederen foretar
beslutningen om å hugge opp skipet (”discarded”
”waste”
– ”State of export”. Mange muligheter vedr. skip, men i
Baselkonvensjonen knyttes begrepet til hvor skipet var
når beslutningen som gjorde skipet til avfall ble
truffet.
– ”Transboundary movement”. Mange muligheter
vedrørende skip.
•
Konklusjon: Skipet må ikke være i en norsk havn før det
skal til opphugging i India.
Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Gjeldende rett - Skipssikkerhetsloven
Kapittel 5 Miljømessig sikkerhet
§ 36 Skip som tas endelig ut av drift
”Et skip som skal tas endelig ut av drift skal
håndteres på en forsvarlig måte, slik at det ikke
oppstår fare for liv, helse eller miljø.
Departementet kan gi nærmere forskrift om
kravene i første ledd, herunder om meldeplikt og
om fjerning av skadelige stoffer om bord.”
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
The draft Convention
• Norway submitted a first draft of a new freestanding Convention to MEPC 54 (March 2006).
• Present negotiations on the basis of that proposal.
• The draft Convention intends to
– solve the identified problem,
– set out requirements which can be implemented
by industry, and
– enforced by authorities,
– contain no loopholes, and
– be attractive for ratification in order to enter
rapid into force.
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
!!!
Please note that this presentation
informs on a Convention which is under
development. The draft Convention
presented at this seminar is expected to
be further developed towards the
Conference which will adopt the final
instrument.
!!!
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Compliance throughout all phasesMiljøverndepartementet
Completed
App. 30 years
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
The draft Convention – Structure
Preamble
Articles
” establish the main legal
mechanisms “
Regulations – ” contains technical requirements”
Chapter 2
Chapter 1
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Part A, B and C
Appendices – ”contains forms for certificates etc”
Guidelines – ”mainly procedures to assist the requirements”
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Some main principles
• Treats all Parties equally (at present)
• No more favourable treatment clause
• Non-application for warships (UNCLOS
Article 236)
• A survey and certification regime for
ships
• An authorization regime for recycling
facilities
• A system for control, exchange of
information, communication of
information, reporting and auditing
implementation to ensure a high and
efficient level of control.
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
The Convention – Article 3 Application
• Applies to ships entitled to fly the flag of a Party
• applies to ship recycling facilities operating under
the jurisdiction of a Party
• Do not apply to warships etc. (UNCLOS art. 236)
• Do not apply to ships below 500 GT
However, Parties shall adopt measures ensuring
that ships act in a manner consistant with the
Convention, as far as reasonable and practicable.
• No more favourable treatment of non-Party ships
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Fundamental obligation of a Party
&
Fundamental right of a Party
• Fundamental obligation:
– Ensure compliance by its ships by survey and
certification (Article 5)
– Ensure compliance by its ship recycling facilities
by authorization (Article 6)
• Fundamental rights:
– To inspect ships in its ports (PSC) (Article 8)
– To be informed on the basis for the
authorization of facilities (by other parties)
(Article 7)
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
A comprehensive system for detection
of violations and follow-up actions
• Article 9 and 10:
– Co-operation among Parties
– Investigation and gathering of
evidence
– Initiate proceedings
– Information to Parties involved
– Establish sanctions which are
adequate in severity to discourage
violations of the Convention
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Certified ship seeks authorized facility
A ship
designed,
constructed,
operated and
prepared for
recycling in
accordance
with the
Convention...
…should find a
recycling facility
authorized to
recycle that ship
Regulation 8 (2): ” If the recycling facility is authorized to handle the hazardous
materials identified in the Inventory prior removal shall not be required unless the
recycling facility decides otherwise when preparing the Ship Recycling Plan. …..”
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Chain of documentation ensures compliance
”From cradle to grave”
International
Certificate for a
Ship Inventory of
Hazardous
Materials*
- Inventory of
Hazardous
Materials Part I
(Ships’ structure
and equipment)
- Ensure that
prohibited materials
are not used
International
Ready for
Recycling
Certificate
- Inventory Part I,
Part II (operationally
generated wastes)
and Part III (stores)
- Ship Recycling
Plan
Form of the
Authorization of
Recycling Facilities
- identifies the
capabilities of the
facility
- Recycling Facility
Management Plan
* Different requirements for new and old ships
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Statement
of
Completion
Miljøverndepartementet
The Convention – The regulations
• Outlined in the Annex to the Convention:
– Chapter 1 General provisions
– Chapter 2 Requirements for ships
•
Part A
•
•
Part B
Part C
Design, construction, operation and
maintenance of ships
Preparation for ship recycling
Surveys and certification
– Chapter 3 Requirements for ship Recycling
facilities
– Chapter 4 Reporting Requirements
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Chapter 2 – Requirements for Ships
Part A –
Design, Construction and
maintenance of ships
• Regulation 4 Controls of ships’ hazardous
materials
Prohibition and/or restriction on ships and at ports
and yards (appendix 1)
• Regulation 7 Inventory of Hazardous materials
Inventory of Hazardous Materials (part I) approved by
the Administration. Difference between new and
existing ships
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Chapter 2 Requirements for Ships
Part B - Preparation for ship recycling
•
•
23
Regulation 8 General requirements
–
Choose a facility authorized to recycle your ship
–
Provide the facility with the relevant information, complete the
inventory and aquire the ready for recycling certificate
Regulation 9 Recycling Plan
–
Be developed by the ship recycling facility in
consultation with the shipowner;
–
in the language accepted by the Party of the facility
and if its not English, French or Spanish, the plan shall
be translated into one of these languages.
Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Chapter 2 Requirements for Ships
Part B – Surveys and certification
•
24
Regulation 11 Surveys
–
initial survey; for new ships: before the ship enters into service, for
existing ships: before the inventory is issued;
–
periodical surveys, on the basis of a five yearly cycle, verifying
continuing compliance with the Convention and ensuring that any
relevant alterations are reflected on the inventory;
–
additional surveys, which the shipowner may request to take place at
his option after alterations to the structure, machinery or equipment of
the ship; and
–
a final survey prior to the ship being taken out of service, so that all
three Parts of the inventory are completed and checked, the Recycling
Plan is examined and checked against the inventory, and the Ready for
Recycling Certificate is issued.
–
Surveys may be conducted by officers of the flag Administration, or by
surveyors nominated by the Administration, or by surveyors of a
Recognized Organization.
Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Chapter 2 Requirements for Ships
Part B – Surveys and certification
• Regulation 12
25
Issuance and endorsement
of certificates
–
International Certificate for a ship Inventory of
Hazardous Materials; for new ships: before the ship
enters into service for the first time, for existing ships:
shall be issued following the survey for the first
renewal of the [Safety Construction] Certificate after
the entry into force of the Convention;
–
International Ready for recycling Certificate,
shall be issued after the final survey.
Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Chapter 3 – Requirements for ship
recycling facilities (1)
• Regulation 16
Controls on ship recycling
facilities
Adresses the system a Party has to establish regarding
controls on ship recycling facilities, e.g. legislation
• Regulation 17
Authorization of ship recycling
facilities
Adresses the system for authorization of ship recycling
facilities. Verification of documentation and site
inspection. Includes a possibility for delegation to a
RO, and addresses period the authorization is valid.
• Regulation 18
General Requirements
The facility shall only recycle ships it is authorized for.
Have the documentation available
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Chapter 3 – Requirements for ship
recycling facilities (2)
•
Regulation 19
Plan
Recycling Facility Management
Sets out requirements for a management plan which i.a.
includes:
– Identification of roles and responsibilities
– A programme for training of workers
– An emergency preparedness and response plan
– monitoring and record keeping
•
Regulation 20
Prevention of accidents
Adresses i.a. establishing procedures for ensuring ”gas-freefor-hot-work” conditions
•
Regulation 21
Safe and environmentally sound
removal and management of hazardous materials
Includes the general requirement and specific provisions for
specific materials. The requirements do not go beyond the
facility
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Chapter 3 – Requirements for ship
recycling facilities (3)
• Regulation 22
Emergency preparedness and
response
A plan and specific requirements
• Regulation 23
Worker safety and training
Training programme and specific requirements for
personal protective equipment
• Regulation 24
Reporting on incidents and
chronic effects
Reporting on incidents to the competent authority and
information on response action taken
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Appendices
•
•
29
Controls of hazardous materials
1.
Controls of Hazardous Materials
2.
Inventory of Hazardous Materials
Forms of relevant Certificates and other documents
3.
Form of the International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous
Materials.
4.
Form of the International Ready for Recycling Certificate.
5.
Form of the authorization of recycling facilities.
6.
Form of the Statement of Completion of the Ship Recycling.
7.
Reporting forms [to be developed].
Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Draft list of Guidelines to the Convention
1. Guidelines for the Inventory of Hazardous Materials.
2. Guidelines for Survey and Certification
3. Guidelines for Inspection of Ships
4. Guidelines for the Authorization of Ship Recycling Facilities
5. Guidelines for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Ship Recycling
6. Guidelines for the Development of the Ship Recycling Plan
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Fundamentale punkter som må avklares
– The issue of for the recycling of ships flying the flag
of a Party State in recycling facilities of a State
which is not a Party, if that facility can demonstrate
in an acceptable way that it is capable to recycle
ships in a safe and environmentally sound manner
–
the idea of establishing a “transitional period clause”
–
a new proposal for reporting requirements (an opt. in for
explicit acceptance)
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
Miljøverndepartementet
Fremtidig juridisk regime
•
Observasjon: Eksisterende og fremtidig internasjonalt regime har
ulik tilnærming
•
Våren 2009 - Vedtakelse av ny IMO-konvensjon
•
2009+
Klargjøring av eksisterende juridisk rammeverk
(Baselkonvensjonen/EUs transportforordning)
•
Hjemmel for fremtidige forskrifter er tatt inn skipssikkerhetslovens
kap 5 Miljømessig sikkerhet § 36
•
En dag i fremtiden - ikrafttredelse av ny IMO konvensjon (med
Norge som part….)
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Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007
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Skipshopphugging – gjeldende