From Multiculturalism
to Anti-Racism to Equity
The challenges of putting theory
and policy into practice
York University
March 14, 2013
Karen R. Mock, Ph.D., C.Psych.
I know that you
believe you
understand what
you think I said,
but I am not sure
you realize
that what you heard
is not
what I meant
What ARE the Challenges?
Where have we been?
(before Multiculturalism)
2 “founding” nations
i.e. the 2 largest “minority” groups
1960’s
– the Quiet Revolution
– the Bilingual and Bicultural Commission
(B & B Report)
- a “third voice” heard!
- multiculturalism acknowledged as a reality
within the bilingual framework
National and International
Obligations

1970’s
-hate laws adopted as amendments to
criminal code, hate propaganda a criminal
offense
- Canadian Human Rights Act
- Canada ratifies the International
Convention on the Elimination of all forms of
Racial Discrimination (CERD adopted by the
UN in 1965, signed by Canada in 1966)
March 21st

The International Day for the Elimination of
Racial Discrimination is observed annually on 21
March. On that day, in 1960, police opened fire
and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration
in Sharpeville, South Africa, against the
apartheid "pass laws". Proclaiming the Day in
1966, the General Assembly called on the
international community to redouble its efforts to
eliminate all forms of racial discrimination
(resolution 2142 (XXI)).
Multiculturalism Policy
1971
 Multiculturalism declared an official policy
of Canada
 Support provided for :
- heritage languages
- ethnocultural community activities
- settlement and integration
- “Celebrating our Differences”

Ontario Education
Leads the Way…
“Now is Not Too Late” – Walter Pitman
“ We are all Immigrants to this place”
– Toronto Board
- Report on Multiculturalism
- Report on Race Relations
(development of policies to promote equality in the system,
procedures for handling inter-ethnic tensions and racial incidents
when they occur)
Charter, Codes and Commissions

1980’s
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Ontario Human Rights Code
“Equality Now!” Task Force
“Employment Equity” Commission
“Who Gets the Work?”
+Urban Alliance on Race Relations, Ontario Multicultural Association,
Ontario Multicultural Anti-Racist Educators’ Network, Local, Provincial and
Federal Advisory Committees and Councils, etc. etc. etc….
The challenge of putting
policy into practice
Evaluation of implementation of
multiculturalism and race relations policies
disappointing by mid ’80’s
 Resistance to organizational change
 Marginalization of staff and advocacy
leaders – parents and community groups
 Backlogs as harassment and violence
against minorities increase

Further Studies and Reports

“Towards a Model Race Relations Policy” (1986)
(OHRC/Citizenship and Culture/Education)

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“Access to Government Services by Racial
Minorities” (1987)
“Race Relations Training Manual” (1988)
“Implementing Race and Ethnocultural Equity
Policy in Ontario School Boards” (1989)
Task Force on Race Relations and Policing
Ongoing Curriculum, Resources and
Policy Development
From Multiculturalism to
Anti-Racism to Equity
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Canadian Multiculturalism Act 1988
Anti-Racism Secretariat
Employment Equity Policy
Anti-Racism, Access and Equity Departments
Stephen Lewis Commission (1992)
Memorandum 119 (1993)
....
...more challenges in practice
From Multiculturalism to
Anti-Racism to Equity ?
40 years later….
Why aren’t the ISms WASms?
(CRRF/TDSB, 2003)
Backtracking
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Feelings of frustration, anger, betrayal
Fiscal restraint – cutbacks on “soft” areas
Recession leads to ethnocentrism
Backlash and scapegoating of minorities and
immigrants  repeal of key legislation!
Changing demographics (Ethnic Diversity Survey)
International rise in racism and violence
Increasing divisiveness between and within
communities

Protection, Prevention and Partnerships
gave way to

Competition, Contention and Controversy!
Multiculturalism, Race Relations
and Equity Issues
-
Four Broad Areas -
1)
Attitudes and Beliefs
2)
Interpersonal Relations on the Job
3)
Customer or Client Service
4)
Institutional Barriers to Equality/Equity
Inclusion
“Inclusion is not bringing people
into what already exists, it is
making a new space, a better
space for everyone”
Dr. George Safa Dei
(OISE)
MULTICULTURALISM
DO UNTO OTHERS
AS THEY WOULD
HAVE YOU
DO UNTO THEM
Marg Norquay (Ryerson)
RACE RELATIONS …
ANTI-RACISM
(Anti-discrimination)
A perspective that permeates all
company policies & practices,
aimed at eradicating racism in all
its various forms.
Systemic
discrimination
stereotyping
prejudice
racism
Equity
A term used to denote fair, inclusive and
respectful treatment of all people, with regard to
age, gender, race, religion, sexual orientation,
creed and the other grounds of prohibited
discrimination in the human rights code, as well
as any other similar factor.* Equity programs are
designed to remove barriers to equality by
identifying and eliminating discriminatory policies
and practices.
*Any other similar factor is to be interpreted in a manner similar to ‘analogous
grounds’ in Section 15(1) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
FOUR ASPECTS OF RACISM
and all the isms and phobias…
SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION
BELIEFS,
ATTITUDES
policies, practices
DISCRIMINATION
Racism, sexism,
antisemitism, islamophobia,
homophobia, etc.
PREJUDICE
“pre-judge”
STEREOTYPING
“set Image”
Adapted from
B. Thomas and C. Novogrodsky (1983)
Combatting Racism in the Workplace
BEHAVIOUR,
ACTION
CLARIFYING TERMINOLOGY

Racism
Racism is the belief that one race is superior to another. It is the
combination of racial prejudice + institutional power that is used to deny or
grant people and groups of people rights, respect, representation and
resources based on their race, colour or ethnicity. Racism is manifested
through individual action and/or institutional policies and practices. It
extends beyond prejudiced beliefs to actions (whether intended or not) that
maintain and ensure the continuation of privilege relationships and support
the racial status quo.
 Antisemitism
Coined in the late nineteenth century, the term
antisemitic was applied directly to hatred of Jews and not
of all Semitic peoples. Today, antisemitism refers to
latent or overt hostility or hatred directed towards
individual Jews or the Jewish people -- anti-Jewish
oppression -- leading to social, economic, institutional,
religious, cultural or political discrimination. Antisemitism
has also been expressed through individual acts of
harassment, physical violence, vandalism, the organized
destruction of entire communities and genocide.

Islamophobia
A term recently coined to refer to expressions of negative stereotypes,
bias, oppression or acts of hostility towards individual Muslims or
followers of Islam in general. In the aftermath of September 11,
2001, there have been heightened attacks and violence on
individuals who identify as Muslim or are thought to be followers of
Islam. Individuals of South Asian or Arab descent, whether they are
Muslim or not, have been the targets of harassment, racial profiling,
prejudice and discrimination. Some attacks have been directed at
places of worship, and stereotyped media portrayal often equates
Islam with terrorism.

Heterosexism/Homophobia
An ideological system and/or patterns of individual or
institutionalized oppression which deny, denigrate and stigmatize
any non-heterosexual form of behaviour, identity, relationship or
community (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, Two-Spirited,
Queer, Questioning - LGBTQ)
CIRCLE OF ATTITUDES AND
BEHAVIOURS
STEREOTYPE
PREJUDICE
SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION
DISCRIMINATION
How Can You Identify
Discrimination?
HUMAN RIGHTS CODE:
PROHIBITED GROUNDS
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RACE
ANCESTRY
PLACE OF ORIGIN
COLOUR
ETHNIC ORIGIN
CITIZENSHIP
CREED
SEX
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
HANDICAP
AGE
MARITAL STATUS
FAMILY STATUS
RECORD OF OFFENCES
RECEIPT OF ASSISTANCE
HARASSMENT

Any comment or conduct by a supervisor or co-worker
which is intimidating, ongoing hurtful or malicious in
intent.

Persistent, uncalled for an unwelcome disparaging
behaviour by one person towards another.

A course of vexatious comment or conduct that is known
or ought reasonably known to be unwelcome.

Unwanted sexual solicitations or advances made by a
person in a position to confer, grant or deny a benefit
because an advance has been refused.
SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCLUDES:

UNNECESSARY TOUCHING OR PATTING

SUGGESTIVE OR OTHER SEXUALLY AGGRESSIVE
REMARKS

LEERING (SUGGESTIVE STARING)
AT A PERSON’S BODY
The

DEMANDS FOR SEXUAL FAVOURS
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COMPROMISING INVITATIONS
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PHYSICAL ASSAULT
RACIAL/ ETHNIC/ RELIGIOUS
HARASSMENT INCLUDES:

UNWELCOME REMARKS, JOKES, INNUENDOS, OR TAUNTS ABOUT A
PERSON’S RACIAL, RELIGIOUS OR ETHNIC BACKGROUND, COLOUR, PLACE
OF BIRTH, CITIZENSHIP, OR ANCESTRY

THE DISPLAY OF RACIST, DEROGATORY, OR OFFENSIVE PICTURES OR
MATERIAL

REFUSAL TO CONVERSE OR WORK WITH AN EMPLOYEE BECAUSE OF THAT
EMPLOYEE’S RACIAL, RELIGIOUS OR ETHNIC BACKGROUND

USING INSULTING FEATURES OR PLAYING PRACTICAL JOKES WHICH,
BECAUSE THEY ARE BASED ON RACIAL, RELIGIOUS OR ETHNIC GROUNDS,
CAUSE EMBARRASSMENT OR AWKWARDNESS

PHYSICAL ABUSE
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PERSISTENT, ON-GOING COMMUNICATION (IN ANY FORM) OF NEGATIVE
ATTITUDES, BELIEFS OR ACTIONS TOWARDS AN INDIVIDUAL GROUP WITH
THE INTENTION OF PLACING THAT IN A DISPARAGING ROLE
RACISM IN THE WORKPLACE
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Racial jokes, slurs, verbal abuse
Graffiti
Interracial conflicts / harassment by co-workers
Grouping / isolation
Under-employment
Ghettoization in job categories
Promotion problems (performance review, the glass
ceiling, the sticky floor)
Under-representation of racial minorities at the executive
level in the unions
‘No problem’ syndrome
HANDLING INCIDENTS
Racial/Homophobic/Antisemitic/Islamophobic, etc

DON’T LET A SLUR PASS UNCHALLENGED

DON’T OVERREACT WITH ANOTHER PUT-DOWN
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DON’T EMBARRASS THE OFFENDER PUBLICLY
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DON’T MAKE OTHERS SCAPEGOATS FOR YOUR FRUSTRATIONS
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DON’T LET INTANGIBLE FEARS BLOCK YOUR ABILITY TO ACT
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DO VALUE THE FEELINGS OF OTHERS BY ACTIVE LISTENING

DO REMEMBER ATTACKERS FEEL THEMSELVES VICTIMS TOO

DO SUPPORT THE VICTIM, AND GIVE CONSEQUENCES/COUNSELLING TO
THE ATTACKER AND BYSTANDER(S)
Adapted from: Slurs, Stereotypes and Prejudice
Stern, D., Mackenzie, H.
RACIAL/ETHNIC JOKES
Consider all racial or ethnic jokes:
“ Did you hear about the (Black Jew, Newfie,
Polok Scotsman, Chinaman, Catholic)…?
All racial/ethnic jokes contain a slur, i.e. an
insult toward those who are members of a
particular racial or ethnic group.
All racial/ethnic jokes are based on a stereotype describing
a characteristic that all members of the group supposedly
have:

This stereotyped label is associated with a fixed image which is usually negative.
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Stereotyping and labelling can promote prejudice (a judgment based on insufficient, inappropriate
and/or false information) and discrimination (the activation of prejudice)
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Racism – the expression of a negative prejudice towards a specific group.
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Promotes hatred towards the targeted group.
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Someone who already dislikes a certain group has those feelings strengthened.
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and
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Someone who has no knowledge of the group may accept this version and develop a negative
feeling towards them without any direct experience.
G. Guttentag
Race Relations Directorate
Ministry of Citizenship
ASK YOURSELF

WOULD YOU SAY IT IN FRONT OF YOUR MATE, SON
OR DAUGHTER?

WOULD YOU SAY IT IF THE QUOTE WAS GOING TO
APPEAR ON THE FRONT PAGE OF THE
NEWSPAPER?
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WOULD YOU SAY IT TO A MEMBER OF THE SAME
SEX IN EXACTLY THE SAME WAY?

WHY DOES IT NEED TO BE SAID? WHAT BUSINESS
OF THE SCHOOL/PROFESSION/SERVICE IS
FURTHERED?
SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION IS:
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USUALLY UNINTENTIONAL
UNIVERSALLY APPLIED
ENTRENCHED IN ORGANIZATION’S POLICIES AND
PRACTICES
SCREENS OUT ENTIRE GROUPS OF PEOPLE FOR
NON JOB-RELATED REASONS
MAY RESULT IN INAPPROPRIATE PROGRAMS AND
INSENSITIVE SERVICE DELIVERY
CONTRARY TO HUMAN RIGHTS LEGISLATION
EXAMPLES OF SYSTEMIC
DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT
AND/OR SERVICE DELIVERY
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CREDENTIALISM
NON-VALID TESTS
LENGTHY EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS
NON-JOB-RELATED QUALIFICATIONS
UNNECESSARY PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
LACK OF ACCESS
LANGUAGE BARRIERS
INADEQUATE KNOWLEDGE OF TRADITIONS
AND VALUES
Where are We Now?
Post 9/11 climate (2001 ff)
 Rights, Freedom and Responsibilities
 Safe Schools !
 Hate Crime Community Working Group
 Falconer Report
 OPS Diversity Initiatives
 Energizing Ontario Education (2008)
– Reach Every Student !

“Equity and excellence go hand in hand.”
Where are we going?
Anti-oppressive Practice!
Realizing the Promise of Diversity -Ontario’s
Inclusive Education
Strategy
(2009 - 2012)
“Equity and excellence go hand in hand!”
Ontario Human Rights Commission
April 16, 2012

Ojibway? Mohawk? Sioux???.......
“Never judge a man until
you have walked a mile
in his moccasins…”
Whose shoes???.....
Chinese Proverb
Those who say it cannot be done
Should not interrupt the people doing it!
African Proverb
If you want to go fast, go alone
If you want to go far, go together
What is an Ally?
An ally is a member of the agent social group who takes
a stand against social injustice directed at target groups
(Whites who speak out against racism, men who are
anti-sexist).
 An ally works to be an agent of social change rather than
an agent of oppression.
 When a form of oppression has multiple target groups,
as do racism, ableism, heterosexism and faithism, target
group members can be allies to other targeted social
groups they are not part of (e.g. lesbians can be allies to
bisexual people, African Canadians can be allies to
Aboriginal Peoples, Jewish people can be allies to
Muslims).
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Characteristics of an Ally
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Feels good about own social group membership; is comfortable and
proud of own identity
Takes responsibility for learning about own and target group
heritage, culture and experience, and how oppression works in
everyday life.
Listens to and respects the perspectives and experience of target
group members
Recognizes that unlearning oppressive beliefs and actions is a
lifelong process, not a single event, and welcomes each learning
opportunity
Is willing to take risks, try new behaviours, act in spite of own fear
and resistance from other agents
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More Characteristics of an Ally
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Takes care of self to avoid burnout
Acts against social injustice out of a belief that it is in her/his own
self-interest to do so
Is willing to make mistakes, learn from them, and try again
Is willing to be confronted about own behaviour and attitudes and
consider change
Is committed to taking action against social injustice in own sphere
of influence
Understands own group and response patterns and when she/he is
on a learning edge
Understands the connections among all forms of social injustice
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Even More Characteristics of an Ally
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Believes she/he can make a difference by acting and speaking out
against social injustice
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Knows how to cultivate support from other allies
Excerpt from Adams,M., Bell,L. and Griffin, P. (1997)
Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice
“Knowing too much about other
people puts you in their power,
they have a claim on you, you
are forced to understand their
reasons for doing things, and
then you are weakened.”
Margaret Atwood
Cat’s Eye
Together We’re Stronger
Together
We CAN make a difference!
Together
We can overcome challenges!
Together
We WILL achieve equity!
Thank you!
Karen Mock
[email protected]
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All racial/ethnic jokes are based on a stereotype