Chapter 2
Main Concepts of Process Modeling
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Additional Recommended Literature
• A good overview over MILOS can be found in
http://ser..ucalgary.ca/~milos/Library.htm
• B. Dellen, F. Maurer: Change impact analysis support for
software development processes, International Journal of
Applied Software Technology, ISSN 1198-5577, Vol 4, No
2/3, International Academic Publishing, Scarborough,
Ontario, Canada, 1998.
• H.D. Rombach: Practical Benefits of Goal Oriented
Measurements. Software Reliebility and Metrics. Elsevier
Applied Sycience,1991
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
PART 1
General Principles
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Motivation
• The main tasks for a software project are the creation of a
project plan in order to deliver certain software products.
• This can be supported in various ways:
– coordination of different activities within a project following a
defined development process
– coordinating planning and enactment (execution)
– providing access to multiple information related to the current
project context. This information can be
• distributed, heterogeneous, unstable and hard to find.
• The support is provided by Process-centered Software
Engineering Environments (PSEE).
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Socio-Technical Processes (1)
• Software development processes are processes where the
participating members („agents“) can be humans as well as
machines.
• This requires a careful organization of the division of labor:
– What do humans?
– What do machines?
• A particular problem is the communication between humans
and machines:
– Humans have difficulties to understand the results of machines
– Machines have difficulties to understand the results of humans
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Socio-Technical Processes (2)
• Conflicting demands:
– Machines need precise instructions
– Humans want to use creativity.
• Plans and Executions:
– They alternate, before all requirements are present and before
planning is finished execution of some actions start.
– Requirements may change over time
– Requirements are often imprecise and incomplete
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Human versus Machine
• Who is better, human or machine?
• This is the wrong question. Better: Who is better, human
with machine or human without machine?
• The relation is not symmetric:
– The human has the responsibility and makes the decisions
– The machine is a servant and does what it is told (it is an assistant
system).
• In extreme cases there are only humans or only machines.
• In relality, there will be a mix. This mix is not fixed. If a
task is fully understood it can switch from a human to a
machine agent.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Socio-Technical Processes are Concurrent
Concurrent, parallel:
Collecting
Information
Planning
Execution
All three arrows represent again complex concurrent activities.
Concurrency creates communication problems!
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Consequences
• Because of
– Incomplete information and knowledge
– Creativity of human agents
– Partially unknown behavior of machines:
• Planning on the level of details is often impossible
• Therefore: Planning is essentially organization
• Questions:
– How should that be done?
– What has to organized?
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Formal versus Informal Communication
• Traditionally, computer scientist prefer a formal
communication: They exchange formal documents.
• This may not always be the best choice because the two
partners in the discussion can have different contexts and
formal statements may have a different meaning in these
contexts. Also, formal statements are often too detailed.
• As a consequence one can use informal expressions which
the partner interprets using his/her own intelligence.
• Therefore a support system should allow informal entries.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Semi-Formal Documents
•
Semi-formal documents combine formal and informal
parts.
• Formal parts can be programs, strict advises (e.g.
deadlines) or structures for documentation (e.g. a graph
structure). They can be interpreted by machines.
• Informal parts can be texts, annotations etc. They can only
be interpreted by humans.
• In process modeling semi-formal documents occur
frequently.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Execution (1)
• Planning takes place in a model.
• There is also an external world. In this world
– actions are executed; executions can never be retracted, they are
done. In contrast to planning, an execution can fail.
– costs apply (“in reality”)
– additional information may be available.
• The external world is partially mapped into a model world
but it exists independent of the model.
• It can be influenced by the user but not completely
controlled.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Execution (2)
• Planning steps can withdrawn on the cost of planning steps,
execution steps can never be withdrawn. There may be only
other steps that reverse some activity and this is sometimes
impossible:
– If you inform someone the information cannot be withdrawn
– If you delete something etc.
• In any case, some costs will apply.
• Execution needs extra agents with special skills and special
knowledge is necessary.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Realizing Flexibility: The Overall View
• Techniques & methods for integrated planning and execution
– Detailed Planning during execution
– Plan correction during execution
• Techniques & methods for dependency derivation and
administration
• Controlling dependencies and the flow of activities and
artifacts (products)
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
PART 2
Details
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
MILOS
• The terminology is taken mainly from the MILOS-System
(which is a specific PSEE) but is essentially also in most
other systems: The difference to other support systems is
mainly notationally (e.g. Protege´). The successor of
MILOS in Calgary is MASE.
• MILOS: Minimally Invasive Long Term Organizational
Support is a support system for socio-technical processes
which realizes most of the concepts and method presented
in this chapter.
• It supports knowledge management activities.
• The main additions are
– scheduling and release planning
– experience support
– explanation aspects
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Process Modeling Languages
• Systems that support planning and coordination of
software development have to represent the entities used in
project plans. They allow representing knowledge about
software development processes.
• We need to define
 
Process, product and resource models
 
Project plans
 
Product deliverables developed within projects
 
Background knowledge such as guidelines, business
rules, studies etc.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Overview: Basic Concepts (1)
Concept
Description
process
Description of a set of activities that have to be
executed in order to reach a given goal
containing e.g. input and output documents etc.
method
A method describes how a process goal can be
achieved.
complex
method
Problem solving method that refines a process
into one or more subprocesses.
atomic method
Leaf within the process/method hierarchy. It
produces or modifies a product.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Overview: Basic Concepts (2)
process attribute
product
product type
parameter
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Attribute of a process.
A product is an information unit for example
a document or a piece of code.
The description of type and structure of a
class of products.
Describes a product within a process. It consists of
product name and type (e.g. ClassDiagram or URL)
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Overview: Basic Concepts (3)
product attribute
product reference
produce
product
resource
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Attribute of a product.
Product references stand for the type of products
that are used and/or produced by a process or
a method. We distinguish between products that
are consumed for planning, consumed for execution,
produced, and modified.
This parameter type stands for a product of a
given type that is produced by an atomic
method of a process.
Resources are used for the execution of the
project.
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Overview: Basic Concepts (4)
resource
attribute
agent
precondition
postcondition
Attribute of a resource.
A human or machine that carries out
activities within a process.
A condition that has to be valid to carry out a
process.
A condition that has to be valid after a
process has been executed.
process
models
Process models are generic, reusable
descriptions of how to execute projects
project
plan
A project specific model
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Plan-Processes and Methods (1)
• In a project plan there are alternating
– Processes
– Methods
• Each process is realized by some method. The method can be atomic or
complex. Often one has the choice between different methods and has to
select one.
• Below some complex method one or more subprocesses can be created.
• Atomic methods cannot be refined furthermore.
• This gives a hierarchical organization.
• To each process one or more agents can be assigned. The agents are taken
from an agent pool („Resources“) that has to be filled before.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Plan-Processes and Methods (2)
• Methods are either complex or atomic. Complex methods refine a
process into one or more subprocesses whereas the application of an
atomic method results in the production of products that are the outputs
of the process.
• Inputs of a process may either be products that are produced by other
processes during project enactment or predefined background
knowledge (e.g. manuals or guidelines) taken from generic process
models.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Example: Project Plan
Requirements
Design Process
System Design
Java
OO
Create
class diagramm
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Implementation
Class
diagram
Define
operations
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Code
Example in the
representation langua
of Milos:
We see a top-down p
of a task.
Each plan is realized
a method.
Each complex metho
subdivided into diffe
subplans.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Partial Tree View of the Same Project Plan
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Process Description (1)
Formal definitions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Process:
<process name>
Goal:
<process goal description>
Instructions:
<process instructions>
Input Products:
{<product name>’:’<product type>}*
Output Products:
{<product name>’:’<product type>}*
Modify Products:
{<product name>’:’<product type>}*
Context Products:
{<product name>’:’<product type>}*
Entry/Exit Conditions: {boolean expression}
Methods:
{<method name>}*
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Process Description (2)
Process name: It is a process identifier, unique within the scope of a
method.
Process goal: Textual description of the intended results of a process
execution.
Process instructions: Textual description of special tasks and guidelines
how to perform the process.
Product name: It is a product identifier, unique within the scope of a
method.
Product type: Each product has an uniquely associated product type. For
example, a TestReport can be of type TextProduct. Each possible
product type is discussed in more detail in the Product Model
description
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Process Description (3)
• Context products: products that are already accessible at modeling time.
For example guidelines, handbooks, etc.
• Entry/Exit conditions: determine the control flow between processes.
Entry condition should be fulfilled to start the process execution. Exit
Input/Output/Modify products: products that can be consumed, created or
changed by a process. It is a parameter declaration.
• condition state the condition that should hold after the process has been
finished.
• To control the process flow Entry/Exit conditions can reference the state
of processes and products.
• Product state: A product attribute that indicates the development grade of
a product. For this work we considered four possible states: no-existent,
to- Review, toChange, complete. The state transition diagram depicts
detailed relationships between these product states.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Table of Method Description
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Method:
<method name>
Goal:
<method goal>
Instructions:
<method instructions>
Additional Input/Modify/Output Products:
»
{<product name>’:’<product type>}*
Refined Input/Modify/Output Products:
»
{<product name>’:’<product sub-type>}*
Additional Entry/Exit Conditions: {boolean expression}
Parameter Mappings:
{<process name>’.’<product name>
’-->’<process name>’.’<product name>}*
Sub-Processes: {<process name>}*
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Process Models
• A project plan describes an individual process.
• A process model describes a set of processes, it allows to
define specific processes.
• Therefore: A process model may contain plan processes that
have more then one method, e.g.
– one may use Java or C++ for an implementation
– one may use the GUI A or the GUI B.
• These methods are seen as alternatives and can be seen as
experiences. Therefore they are stored as experiences.
• For a specific plan one method is selected.
• In experience bases it is important to mention under which
conditions some alternative is useful.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Process Models and Methods
• Within process models activities and their interrelationship are described.
• A more general description of processes in process models defines a
–
–
–
–
–
–
the process goal,
a set of conditions,
process attributes,
the products needed to plan and to execute the process,
a set of alternative methods to reach the process goal,
the products to be produced and resource allocations.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Example: Process Model for Software
Development (1)
Processes, Inputs, Outputs
requirements
system design
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
design process
implementation
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
system design
code
Example: Process Model for Software
Development (2)
Alternative Processes
Implementation
Design process
Atomic methods
Complex
methods
Use
Java
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Use
C++
Use
Cobol
Object
oriented
design
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Procedural
design
Example: Process Model for Software
Development (3)
Design process
Object
Oriented
design
Process refinement
Create
class diagram
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Define
operations
Example: Process Model for Medical
Applications
Alternative Processes
Methods used
Evaluation process
Atomic methods
Complex
methods
Use
X-Ray
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Use
MR
Use
Ultra
Sound
Local
statistical
evaluation
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
National
evaluation
Product Models
• We need the specification of hierarchical, object-oriented
product models. A product type defines the structure of a set of
products with the same behavior.
• A product type is either basic or complex.
• Basic types are predefined and may be integer, real, string, text,
date, or external references such as a www page URLs or word
documents. A complex type consists of one or more typed
subproducts and attributes. Complex product types can be
specialized (IS-A relation).
• Based on a given product model, products instances
(synonyms: products, deliverables) that contain general and
specific project knowledge of a company can be defined.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Example: DICOM-Standard
• DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine)
is a standard covering medical data format for digital medical
data.
• It is developed by the American College of Radiology and the
National Electric Manufacturs Association.
• The standard deals with the exchange of digital information
between medical image equipment.
• Main application areas:
–
–
–
–
–
Network image management
Structured reporting
Network print management
Image procedure management
Offline storage media management
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Example: Computer-Based Patient Record
• A Computer-Based Patient Record (CPR) is an electronic patient
health record that documents and provides access to information about
the patient´s general health condition, present and past illnesses and
diagnosis, the status and treatment data.
• A DICOM Structured Report is a structured Document which contains
documentation of a patient´s examinations, diagnosis and treatment
data.
• It may also contain embedded references to other structured reports,
images, waveforms, and audio.
• It contains context information, such as scheduled procedures,
observer, previous reports and images.
• It encodes only semantic information and not presentation information.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Example: Medical Imaging Application
DICOM Application Entity
DICOM
Network
Transport
Section
DICOM Data
Link
DICOM
Upper
Layer
Protocol
for TCP/IP
Association Control Service
Element (ACSE)
OSI Presentation Kernel
TCP
OSI Transport
OSI Session Kernel
OSI Network
IP
DICOM
Physical
Conection
(50 pins)
Point-to-Point
Environment
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
LLC
Standard Network Physical Layer
(Ethernet, FDDI, ISDN, etc.)
Network Environment
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
OSI Upper
Layer
Boundary
Parameter Mappings (1)
If two processes use the same product this has to be documented.
This is done by mappings between the corresponding parameters.
We distinguish vertical and horizontal mappings. Example:
Parameter 1
Process1
map 1 on 2
Parameter 2
Process 1.1
Parameter 3
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Process 1.2
Parameter 4
Parameter Mappings (2)
• Vertical mappings connect two input or two output
parameter in a process refinement.
• A horizontal mapping in a refinement map an output
parameter of one process to an input parameter of the other
process.
• The parameter mappings describe the flow of products in a
project.
• An extension of this principle becomes necessary if one
wants to describe the product flow between different
projects.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Precedence Relations
•
•
•
This relation says:
One process B must precede another process B
The major reason for such a relation is: an output
parameter of one process A is an input parameter of the
other process B.
This means: The flow of products determines to some
degree the order of the enactment of the processes.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Agents (1)
• The participants in an assistant system are also called agents.
• Intelligent machine assistants that use software tools are often
called softbots.
• Softbots have knowledge, methods and strategies.
• Agents may act
– on demand
– on their own: Pro-active
• Actions of agents must be triggered.
• The behavior of agents may be known to other agents. The
behavior of softbots may not be known even to humans (e.g.
search machines in the internet).
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Agents (2)
• „Agent“ is used as a modeling concept to describe active
entities that carry out tasks. In order to make this precise the
properties of an agent have to be specified precisely.
• Two sub-concepts of agent are defined:
– Actor: A human agent working on a project like a project planner or
developer. An actor interacts with the system via graphical interfaces.
– Computer agent: A software entity that can be started on a computer
and performs a task, e.g. a delegation or compilation of a program.
• Both, actors and computer agents have qualifications that
determine the tasks they can carry out.
• Both can use tools.
• Both are not restricted to a specific location.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Agents (3)
• Agents occur essentially in two ways:
1) A company has agents, organized in a pool.
2) A task requires agents in order to be performed.
• This defines a matching problem.
• Because of restricted available agents this also is an
optimization problem.
• In a project plan this match has to be performed. However,
the plan does not say how this is done; for this purpose one
needs extra support by scheduling tools.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Resource Models
• The resource pool component manages roles, agents and
agent properties. It allows representing the organizational
structure of a company as well as a skill ontology.
• An agent can have a set of skills. Resource models allow
assigning roles and qualifications to project team members.
• These models describe knowledge needed by project
managers to find appropriate people for a task. The project
planner can query the resource pool for all agents with
specific skills.
• Agents can be humans or software agents
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Project Planning
• Project planning is essentially an instantiation of process
models.
• Planning a project comprises:
  Selecting appropriate processes (e.g. from some experience
base), and inserting them into the plan,
  Selecting applicable development methods according to the
characteristics of the organizations (e.g. familiarity with
specific methods) and the goals of the project.
 Instantiating the variables in pre- and post conditions,
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Typical Problems in Project Planning
•
•
•
•
Are concerned with the specific task
Selection of processes
Instantiation of general steps
Obtaining missing information
• Decisions about details and execution
• Availability of resources
• Sequence and ordering problems
• Time planning, scheduling
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Project Plan Management
• The project plan management component allows
customizing a process model, resulting in a project plan.
• It includes as major elements
– adding/removing tasks
– scheduling planned start and end times of processes
– assigning agents to processes.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Activities in Project Planning
• Planning activities
–
–
–
–
–
–
Add/Delete of processes
Assigning resources, temporal planning
Method selection as a „macro“ for several planning steps
Change of plans, replanning
Replanning triggers automatic update of execution states
Notification of involved agents (change management)
• The project plan management component allows
customizing a process model, organizing the activities
resulting in a project plan.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Planning as an Activity (1)
• Planning has many creative aspects. A radical solution is to
reduce the machine support to documentation. If this is well
structured it has ist merits.
• There can also be additional service:
– Notification if something is missing or was changed
– Availability of a process model
– Providing knowledge support by connecting information needs and
information sources
– Supporting the interleaving of planning and execution.
• MILOS is very close to this kind of support. The real
intelligent“ work is done by the human.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Planning as an Activity (2)
• The tendency is to add more machine support.
• Examples:
– Extending the process models to an experience base that gives
proper recommendations.
– Defining specific tasks formally so that they can be performed by
machines like:
• scheduling
• resource planning.
• It is important that this automatic support should still be
considered as the work of an assistant. This agent gives
only recommendations but can often do better than a
human.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Because no specific agents have
been defined the project
manager has to do all the jobs
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Project Execution (1)
• In the project execution the products are created. These
products are considered as dynamic project data and are
stored in attributes.
• The different activities have to be coordinated
• These activities include:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Access on input products has to be provided
Generating and changing of output products
Temporal predictions
To-Do-lists for participating agents have to be generated
Connection of external product editors have to provided
Access to information on the project state has to be made
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Project Execution (2)
• The PSEE guides the execution.
• For this purpose the project plan has to be interpreted what
is done by a workflow engine.
• The workflow engine provides the execution environment.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Example: Execution Coordination
Peter
System-Design
Version 1
System-Design
Version 2
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Implementation
Code
Version 1
See change
management
Notify Peter!
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Part 3
Change Management
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Change Management
• Because events produce new situations the situations
change continuously.
• An important aspect of the required flexibility is to react
properly on such changes.
• Such reactions are actions of some agents.
• The systematic treatment is called change management.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
ECA-Rules
• The most important management concept is the
Event-Condition-Action rules
• Event: Something which happens
• Condition: Description of special circumstances
• Action: Any kind of action
• The rule is of the form
• IF
– Event AND Condition
THEN Action
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Pro-Active Actions, Triggering
• We distinguish two kinds of actions:
– Actions on demand
– Pro-active actions: Without explicit demand
•
Pro-active actions should not be done at random: There,
where it is necessary but not unnecessarily.
• Therefore a trigger is needed for starting such actions.
• The most important form of a trigger is represented by
ECA-Rules
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Events
• Events are executed actions that produce a partially new
situation. Therefore the result of an event is one or more
knowledge units.
• The specific aspect of an event is its origin from an action.
This action may result from
– A planned action
– From an external agent
• They can be
– Expected or surprising
• It may contain
– Expected or unexpected information
• Events happen at a certain time
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Reminder: Events in Java (2)
• The Java Event Model (1) :
• An object in which „something happens“ can generate
an event
• Example: A button, if pushed, generates an
ActionEvent
• An event is again an object; it contains information
about the happened event (e.g. The generator of the
event)
• All interested listener will get the event and can work
on it, independent of the object which generated the
event
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
The Java Event Model (2)
• We distinguish the „observer“ (event listeners) and the
„observed“ (event generator)
Observer 1
Observer 2
Event generator
Observer 3
Events are objects (subclasses of
java.util.EventObject)
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Conditions
• The conditions describe how and when the action has to be
performed.
• If the action is a notification then the condition says who has
to be notified. This is not necessarily the name of some agent,
it is often better to describe the function of the agent:
– notify the persons responsible for task 4, and not: notify Bill (because
at the time when the action is performed this agent may be Joan).
• It is difficult to formulate the condition exactly. Types of
errors
– someone is notified unnecessarily
– someone who should be notified is not
• One has to consider which errors are more costly.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Change Rules
• A Change Rule references an an Action Class and a
Condition
• The Action Class describes an executable action (e.g. a
NotifyAction)
• This action will be executed under certain conditions
(described in Condition),
• After a certain event has happened (implemented in a
Basic Event)
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Change Operators
• The actual change is described by operators. These operators
are defined on information units, e.g. on attributes, formulas
etc.)
• We distinguish (as usual) three types of operators:
• ADD operators: Adding an information unit.
• REMOVE operators: Removing an information unit.
• MODIFY operators: Replaces some information unit by
another one. This can be defined as a macro operator in terms
of ADD and REMOVE.
• Operators are defined on a general level and can be
instantiated.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Example: Change Rule (1)
• „If some agent gets by email-address a task then notify the
agent“
• Action: „notify the agent“
– ActionClass: NotifyAction
• Condition: „Agent has an email-address“
• Event: „some task is associated“
– EventClass: AgentAssigned
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Example: Change Rule (2)
ConditionClass:
AgentAssignmentTests
eval()
(4b) true
(4a)
(2)
addAgentAssignedListener()
ChangeRuleClass: (1)
AgentAssignment
Data structure:
PlanProcess
(5)
perform()
eventOccurred()
ActionClass:
NotifyAction
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
(3)
Event:
AgentAssigned
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Agent
assigned
Example (1): Support of Planning
• Rules (on an abstract level)
– IF <Process-1> is delayed (EVENT) AND <Process-1> is
predecessor of <Process-2> (CONDITION)
AND<Planner> is responsible for <Processs-2>
(CONDITION)
 THEN notify <Planner> ! (ACTION)
• Concrete situation (instances of conditions):
– System design is predecessor of implementation
– Karin is responsible for implementation
• Event (Instance) :
– System design is delayed
• Action: notify Karin!
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Example (2): Notification Rule
• Event:
output type for system_design changed
Cond.:
component_design needs input of type
OMT-Doc &
planning task for component_design is
assigned to agent x
Action:
notify agent x
system_design
OMT-Doc
OMT-Doc
UML-Doc
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
component_design
Example: A Change Rule in MILOS
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
The Key Structure: Dependencies
• Actions are not isolated but have various dependencies of a complex
character.
• Many dependencies are „silent“ and activated by certain events.
• In actual situations dependencies have to be identified and put into
actions.
• Management requires
– a thorough understanding of these relations in order to perform optimal
activities.
– to structure the dependencies.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Dependency Management
• Changes require notification and updates. What is involved?
• Sources of changes
• Process models: Flow of data, decomposition
• Domain knowledge: Product models, types of tasks
• User knowledge
• Management of change rules:
– Definition of change rules: Heuristics
– Mappings: Dependencies to change rules
– Propagation of change effects
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Representation of Dynamic Dependencies
•
•
•
Changes lead dynamically to activities
All dynamic activities are governed by ECA rules:
ECA rule:
– events: changes to the project plan/state
– conditions
– actions: e.g. notifications
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Types of Dependencies
In principle there are two types of dependencies:

Those derived from a process.

Those specific for the application domain.
User
Looks at
User interface: Modeling language
#
Modeling
Domain specific dependencies
view:
Operational view: view:
System interface: ECA-Rules
MILOS System
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
enacts
Product Dependencies Induced by Processes
Product Dependency
Design
Document
(UML)
implement
in Java
Product Dependency
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Java
Test Driver
Java
Implementation
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Events in MILOS (1)
• In MILOS events are used in order to send change
notifications between different system components.
• E.g., the project plan triggers an event if the planner has
added a new process to the plan.
• For this event the WFE inscribes as listener.
• This means, the WFE will be notified if a new process is
added to the plan.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Events in MILOS (2)
• Events can also be used for notification of users.
• Example: An agent obtains a new process to work on.
• The WFE triggers an event which is transferred to the
email system. übergeben wird. This generates a mail to the
involved user.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Events in MILOS (3)
• There are 2 kinds of events in MILOS:
• Complex Events combine several events under a
common „headline“.
• Example: MILOSProcessDefinitionChangedEvent
• Basic Events represent exactly one exactly specified
event.
• Example: MethodAddedEvent
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Basic Events
• A single, special event.
• Listener has only to implement eventOccurred()
• Is used if a listener is only interested in a special kind of
events.
• Example: Change Rules
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Part 4
Evaluation and Measurement
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
The Success of a (Support) System
• The problem is that users cannot specify exactly what they
ultimately want.
• In a specific situation they are usually able which
alternative they prefer.
• Therefore any kind of a priori evaluation of a support
system has some risks, some uncertain elements.
• What is desiderable is a system that ultimately can a
correct prediction of the value of a support system.
• Because this is not directly available this points into the
direction of a learning system.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
How to Evaluate a (Support) System? (1)
• The (support) system is a formal object that is applied in reality.
The comparison and the evaluation can therefore not be a
mathematical task.
• Comparisons with reality need experiments in real life.
• Problems:
– Experiments are expensive
– Experiments are hard to control and cannot be exactly repeated.
– The results of experiments are hard to interpret and their conclusions are
of doubtful.
– The influence of specific aspects can hardly be determined
• Traditional benchmarks are only for automated subprocesses of
socio-technical processes adequate!
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
How to Evaluate a (Support) System? (2)
• An alternative to experiments are simulations.
• Advantages:
– Simulations are cheap
– They can be controlled precisely and repeated at any time at any
place.
• Disadvantages:
– Simulations can be far from reality, therefore some real
experiments are still necessary.
• But: Simulations can be used
– To refute certain models
– For sensitivity analysis and improvements of the support system
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Why Evaluation?
?
SUCCESS!?
Costs
OM
OM
Ask the
users!
Benefits
• Effort for • Reuse of
acquisition, knowledge
structuring,
maintenanc • Explicit
e of
documentation
knowledge
of tacit
knowledge
• Software,
hardware, ... • Dissemination of
knowledge
This applies in general, not only
for support systems
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Terminology: Software Measurement (1)
•
•
•
•
•
Measurement is the process by which values are assigned to attributes of entities in the
real world in such a way as to describe them accordingly to clearly defined rules.
Empirical relational system is an ordered tupel (A, R1,..., Rn,o1 ,..., om ) with A a nonempty set of empirical entities, Ri are ki-ary relations on A and oi are binary operations
on A.
Formal relational system is an ordered tupel (B, S1,..., Sn,1 ,...,  m ) with AB a nonempty set of formal entities, Si are ki-ary relations on B and oi are binary operations on
B.
Measure  is a mapping :A B from attributes of empirical entities a  A to formal
entities  (a)  B in such a way as to describe them accordingly to clearly defined rules.
The triple (A,B, ) is a scale if and only if for all i,j and for all a1,..ak,b,c  A holds:
Ri(a1,..ak)  Si((a1),.. (ak)) and (b oj c) = (b)  j (c)
(determining the admissible transformations)
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Terminology: Software Measurement (2)
•
•
•
•
Meaningfulness: if a statement is invariant against all admissible transformations
Measurement unit determines how the attribute is measured.
Measurement range defines a set of permissible values for a measure.
Measurement protocol defines the measurement of a specific attribute in a way that it s
repeatable and comparable.
•
•
Internal attributes: can be measured based on the entity itself
External attributes: can be measured only with related entities
•
•
Direct measurement: does not depend on the measurement of any other attribute
Indirect measurement: involves the measurement of other attribute(s)
•
A measure is valid, if it satisfeis the Representation Condition: captures in the formal
world the behavior we erceive in the empirical world.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Terminology: Software Measurement (3)
•
•
•
•
Descriptive model
Function m = f(x1,..,xn) where m is a measure based on a model integrating n
other measures x1,..,xn
Evaluation model
Function d = f(x1,..,xn) where d {d1,..,dm} set of all possible alernatives and
f is a decision function with the decision criteria x1,..,xn as inputs.
Prediction model
1) Function e = f(x1,..,xn) where e is the estimate of the variable to be
predicted and x1,..,xn are inputs.
2) Function p(e) = f(x1,..,xn) where p(e) is the probability of the occurence of
event e.
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Application scenario : Definition of Measures
Goal: Analyse the SW prozess w.r.t. reliability
from the viewpoint of the developer of the company
Definition
Question: How are the errors distributed ...
over the modules of the SW system?
Model : #errors M1/#errors total; ...
% errors
M1
M2 M3 ...
Measures?
Measure1: Total # of errors
Measure.2: # of per module
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Principle of the Goal-Question-Metric
Technique: Retrieval System
Success of
Retrieval
Business Goal
Utility of
retrieved
information
Interpretation
Definition
GQM Goal
Q1
Model1
M1
M2
Q2
Model2
M3
Q3
Model3
M4
Q4
...
...
(Questions)
(Models)
...
(Measures)
G
Q
Q
MM MM
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Impact of
document origin
on degree of
maturity?
Per retrieval
attempt: for
each chosen
doc: doc
attribute “doc
origin”
Measurement and Evaluation in Software
Development
• Goal/Question/Metric (GQM) Approach:
GQM 1. First study
GQM 2. Definition of GQM goals
GQM 3. Development of GQM plan
GQM 4. Development of data collection plan
GQM 5. Data collection, validation and storage
GQM 6. Data analysis and interpretation
GQM 7. Post-mortem analysis
GQM 8. Storage of experiences
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Practical Application of the GQM Technique
•Lessons
Learned about
OM evaluation
6 - Package
•Rework according
to decisions made Interpret
Evaluate
in feedback sessioncollected
data and
•Feedback
session with
experts
•
compare
to goals
Usage trials with
experts
Execute
4 - Collect
data
Prestudy
•Identify evaluation focus:
analyze whether system is
successful, or not •Prepare next step
•
Interviews with
Identify
experts:
GQM goals
GQM goal setting
Plan
•Interviews with
Develop
GQM plan
experts: fill out
abstraction sheets
•
Construct GQM plan
3 - Derive
measurement •Derive and implement
plan
G
measurement
plan for CBRQ Q
PEB
MM MM
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
Example: Definition of Goals
SE Glossar
•
•
•
•
GQM •
Goal •
•
Object
Purpose
Quality focus
View
Context
•
requirement document: A document that specifies the
requirements for a system...
software: Computer programs, procedures, and possibly
associated documentation and data pertaining to the operation
of a computer system.
...
SE Thesaurus
•
•
•
implementation: programming.
requirement document: specification.
....
SE Entity
maintainability
correctability
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
expandability
quality factor
usability
...
understandability
...
reliability
...
Discussion
• The GQM approach is expensive: Reuse of measure plans
can be useful: See experience factory.
• The GQM approach does only implicitly deal with the
customers utility: Do really measure what the user wants?
• For systems like MILOS and others the GQM approach
does not make use of
– The process model
– The detailed relations between the process steps and in the attached
info needs and info sources
Process Modeling
Calgary 2004
Prof.Dr.Michael M. Richter
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