IMT-2000 Network, Operations
Support Systems and Service
September 25, 2002
Kouzou Sakae
NTT DoCoMo, Inc.
Outline
• Mobile communication environment
• Overview of IMT-2000
• Introduction of DoCoMo Network, OSS concept
& architecture
• Multimedia services and necessary technologies
• Mobile networks beyond
IMT-2000
Mobile Communication Market in Japan
No. of Subscribers
10
7
Cellular
phone
started
Car
phone
started
Pager
started
‘68
Cellular
10
5
1970
‘92
‘94
‘86
‘79
Pager
6
75
1980
85
Cellular
62.7Million
PHS
started
Liberalization of terminal
10
8
NTT DoCoMo
10
1990
‘95
PHS
5.79Million
Pager
1.41Million
as of the end
of May 2001
PHS
95
2000
PHS: Personal Handy-phone System
Mobile Communications Era
Number of Subscribers
×million
90
Digital
80
80
70
Fixed Line + ISDN
60
Fixed Line
50
72.8
62.2
55.5
52.7
48.5
40
Mobile Phone
30
(Cellular + PHS)
20 Less
than
10
0
1M
Internet
Wireless Internet
’90 ’91 ’92 ’93 ’94 ’95 ’96 ’97 ’98 ’99 ‘00 ‘01
The projected values are calculated based on information and assumptions available today. However, there is no guarantee
that the actual results would fall in line with the projected figures, given the inherit uncertainties in projections, as well as possible
fluctuations due to future business performances and changes in internal/external circumstances, etc.
05
’
(Fiscal Year)
“ i-mode ” Subscribers and Site Growth
million
No.of Sites
60,000
30
25
Subscribers
34 million
No. of Sites
53,000
50,000
20
40,000
15
30,000
10
20,000
5
10000
0
0
2/99 4/99 6/99 8/99 10/99 12/99 2/00 4/00 6/00 8/00 10/00 12/00 2/01 4/01 6/01 8/01 10/01 12/01
Evolution Scenario towards IMT-2000
’80S
’90S
Initial stage
Voice
Growing stage
Voice
Low speed data (~64kbps)
1st Generation
2nd Generation
Analog Cellular
Digital Cellular
AMPS・TACS・NMT
NTT High Cap
2000S
Expansion stage
Voice
High speed data (~384kbps、2Mbps)
3rd Generation
IMT-2000
Mature stage
Super high speed
4th Generation
W-CDMA
cdma2000
TD-SCDMA
GSM・IS-95
PDC・PHS
2001/10
2004/3
Covered over
97% for the
From Tokyo Metropolitan to population
Nationwide
An Overview of IMT-2000
• Trend, Goals, Requirements and Features
• NW architecture
Why IMT-2000?
• IMT-2000: International Mobile
Telecommunication-2000
• The figure “2000” stands for
•Kickoff: around year 2,000
•Frequency: 2,000 MHz
•Transmission rate: 2,000 Kbps (max.)
Goals of IMT-2000
Multimedia Service Capability
Up to 2Mbps
High Quality Services Comparable
to Fixed-Line Networks
Clear Voice
Multiple Operational Environment
Capability (Outdoor/Indoor )
Anywhere
Global Mobility Capability
International
Requirements for IMT-2000
1. Supporting the transmission rate of minimum
144kbps in any radio environment and 2Mbps
in indoor environment.
2. Supporting roaming between different IMT-2000
operating environments and international roaming.
3. Guaranteeing communications quality equivalent
to that of the fixed network.
Mobile Communications in the 21th Century
Universal Service usable
anywhere in the world
Global (Universal)
IMT-2000
Personal
Personal Services
usable by anyone
Multimedia
Variegated, High-quality
Multimedia Services
Global Roaming
Enjoy telecommunication services
everywhere in the world, through the user's
own mobile terminal and number.
Personal Services
Virtual Home Environment (VHE)
Supplementary services are provided in the home NW
and the other NW,
with the same view and operation.
Europe
The same Supp. Services
Home NW
Japan
USA
Mobile Multimedia services (1)
Business
Public
Mobile TV&Phone
Video Conference
Information transport system
Guidance for driving
E-Mail
DB
Private
System for old people
Mobile Multimedia
Communication NW
DB
Emergency system
Information
distribution
service
Music on demand
Karaoke
on demand
Mobile TV
Video on demand
Interactive TV
Interactive game
Electronic news paper
Electronic book
Tele shopping
In-home studying
Remote sensing
& Control
Mobile Multimedia services (2)
Transmission
Speed
2M
384K
Video
Conference
(High quality)
Internet
Access
Video
Conference
(Low quality)
WWW
64K
Remote
medical
service
(Medical image)
Database Access
Video
Catalog
shopping
32K
Telephone
Conference
IP
telephony
Mobile TV
News
Weather
forecast
Electronic
Newspaper
Voice
Mail
ISDN
Karaoke
Traffic
information
pager
Electronic
Publishing
Mobile
Radio
Sports
information
Leisure
Information
etc
9.6K
Information
Distribution
Services
Video on
demand
-Sports
-News
-Movies
e-mail
ftp
16K
Broadcast
Mobile Multimedia
Electronic
Mail
Telephone
2.4K
Image
FAX
Data
1.2K
Voice
Symmetric
Asymmetric
Point to Point
Multicast
Communication
Style
Multi Point
(Broadcast)
Key Functions for IMT-2000
• Support of broad bandwidth to accommodate
services from low-speed voice to high-speed
graphic communications
• Provision of variable-speed communications for
video transmission
• Provision of asymmetric communications as in
video on demand
• Provision of point-to-multipoint communications
as in information-distribution services
IMT-2000 system requirements
- High spectrum efficiency
more than double of current most efficient systems
- Universal mobility
global, personal, terminal
- Intelligent Service and its Portability
flexible and quick service installation, VHE
- Multimedia capability
high speed and multi rate transmission
~144kpbs(vehicular) / ~384kbps(outdoor) / ~2Mbps(indoor)
Features of IMT-2000
• High-speed and Wide-band
• Multiple data rates
– Independent transmission rate for uplink and
downlink
• High spectrum efficiency
• Multimedia compatible
• Global standard
NW Capability for IMT-2000
● Mobile multimedia service capabilities
- High Speed Data Services
- Point to Multipoint Transmission
- Quality of Service
- Various Supplementary Services
● Support of Internet Connection Service
- IP based application services
(ex. E-mail, WWW, ...)
- IP address allocation (fixed and dynamic)
- IP based CUG (Closed User Groups)
- Mobile Oriented Application Protocol (ex. WAP,..)
Creation of Global Common Specifications
◆ In the future, the demand for mobile internet access and
video transmission services will increase drastically, and
the volume of data traffic will far exceed that
of voice traffic.
◆ Along with globalization, mobile communications
should be made available anywhere in the world.
★ Study of radio access scheme was initiated by ITU-R
in 1985.
★ Study of signaling scheme was initiated by ITU-T in 1993.
★ Creation of global common standard specifications was
initiated by 3GPP (in1998) and 3GPP2 (in1999).
ITU and 3GPP Activities
• ITU-R
– Specifications of the Radio Interfaces
• ITU-T
– Framework and Architecture (Family Concept)
– Network Functional Model (Radio Access Network
and Core Network )
– Standardization of the interfaces between family
member systems for roaming
• 3GPP/3GPP2
– Common Technical Specifications and Technical
Reports
– Based on W-CDMA and GSM in 3GPP
– Based on cdma2000 and ANSI-41 in 3GPP2
Network Architecture in IMT-2000
• Core Network (CN)
• Radio Access Network (RAN)
• Terminal
Network Architecture in 3GPP
SCF
CS domain
HLR
(CAP)
(Circuit Switched)
C
(WCDMA)
D
(MAP)
(ISUP)
PSTN
GMSC
MSC/VLR
PLMN,
(ISUP)
Node B
UE
(BS)
Gs
RNC
SGSN
Iu
Radio Access Network
MSC: Mobile-Service Switching Center
GMSC: Gateway MSC
SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node
GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node
SCF: Service Control Function
HLR: Home Location Register
VLR: Visitor Location Register
Internet
GGSN
Gn
PS domain (Packet Switched)
UIM
Mobile
Station
Gc
Gr
Gi
Core Network
RNC: Radio Network Controller
BS: Base Station
UE: User Equipment
UIM User Identity Module
PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network
PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network
Core Network Architecture
CN
ISDN/
PSTN
Packet-switched Domain
GGSN
SGSN
Radio
Access
Network
(RAN)
SCP
MSC
HLR
GLR
GMSC
Internet
VLR
Circuit-switched Domain
GGSN: Gateway GPRS Switching Node
HLR: Home Location Register
SCP: Service Control Point
VLR: Visitor Location Register
GLR: Gateway Location Register
MSC: Mobile Switching Center
SGSN: Serving GPRS Switching Node
Radio Access Network Architecture
RAN (Radio Access Network)
RNS
Node B
Iu
RNC
Node B
UE
Iub
Iur
Uu
CN
RNS
Node B
Iu
RNC
Node B
Iub
RNS: Radio Network Subsystem
RNC: Radio Network Controller
UE: User Equipment
Terminal Structure
X
UICC / UIM
MT
R
TE
ME
UE
UE: User Equipment
ME: Mobile Equipment
TE: Terminal Equipment
X: UICC-ME Interface
UICC: Universal Integrated Circuit Card
UIM: Universal Identity Module
MT: Mobile Termination
R: Reference Point
Terminal Structure
Introduction of DoCoMo network
• Network architecture
– Approach to IMT-2000
– Network configuration
• OSS concept and architecture
– Network monitoring and control
– Network Quality Management, Planning and Design
IMT-2000 system requirements and Solutions
- High spectrum efficiency
W-CDMA
more than double of current most efficient systems
Standardization
- Universal mobility
global, personal, terminal
- Intelligent Service and its Portability
flexible and quick service installation, VHE
IN, CAMEL
ATM
- Multimedia capability
high speed and multi rate transmission
~144kpbs(vehicular) / ~384kbps(outdoor) / ~2Mbps(indoor)
CAMEL: Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic
Suitability of W-CDMA and ATM
ATM
W-CDMA
control data
- many
- short
- packetized
BTS1
MS
RNC
MSC
BTS2
- W-CDMA and ATM are both statistical multiplexing based techniques.
Taking over statistical multiplexing effect.
- BTSs only send useful ATM cells.
Reduction of unnecessary access transmissions.
Core Network Platform for IMT-2000
Core Network
Internet
/ Intranet
Mobility Management,
Service Control
PSTN
/ ISDN
Packet
Switching
Circuit
Switching
ATM-SVC
RAN
PC
MT
GSM/GPRS Evolution
GPRS : General Packet Radio Service
IMT-2000 Network Architecture
GRIMM Center
Other
PLMN/ISDN
ISP
i -mode
Server
Circuit
Switching
Function
GW
Packet
Switching
Function
Common Channel
Signaling Network
Servers
ATM Network
MMS
Circuit
Switching
Function
Packet
Switching
Function
RNC
BTS
MSCP
HLR
Gateway MMS
GW
Mopera Center
MPS
ASCP
MMS
Circuit
Switching
Function
Packet
Switching
Function
RNC
MMS : Mobile Multimedia switching System
GMMS : Gateway Mobile Multimedia switching System
HLR : Home Location Register
RNC : Radio Network Controller
BTS : Base Transceiver Station
MS : Mobile Station
PLMN : Public Land Mobile Network
ISP : Internet Service Provider
BTS
ASCP : Advanced Service Control Point
MSCP : Mobile Service Control Point
MPS : Message Processing System
Radio Access Scheme adopted in JAPAN
1G ・・・ FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
2G ・・・ TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
3G ・・・ CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
In JAPAN
★ W–CDMA (Wideband CDMA)
★ cdma2000
⇒ CDMA-based radio access scheme
Overview of DoCoMo’s Networks
Business Information System
(Accounting, Contract etc.)
-Before IMT-2000
PDC
NMSCP
POI
MIS
MGS / MTS
ISP/
Mopera/
i-mode
PGW
Voice
STM
MLS
SPE
-Two approaches
for IMT-2000
-Constructing
a new network
-Reusing the 2G network
PSTN /
ISDN /
PLMN
PPM
Packet
BCE
MDE
MS
P-MDE
Overview of DoCoMo’s Networks (cont’d)
Business Information System
(Accounting, Contract etc.)
IMT-2000
PDC
NMSCP
A-SCP
POI
SMS
MPS
ISP/
Mopera/
i-mode
G/T-MMS
ATM
L-MMS
MIS
MGS / MTS
BTS
STM
MLS
MPE
SPE
RNC
PGW
PPM
BCE
MDE
UE
MS
P-MDE
PSTN /
ISDN /
PLMN
Network Construction Lifecycle
Planning
NW Design
Service
Construction
DoCoMo Network Structure
Operation Center
OSSs
Radio Access Network
Core Network
MS
G-MMS
ATM-XC
SDH
FTM
FTM
ATM-XC
MMS
RNC
ATM-MUX
SDH
FTM
FTM
CLAD
Leased Line
(ATM )
ATM-MUX
CLAD
ATM-S-MUX
BTS
(IMT)
BS
MS
Office d
Office c
Office b
Office a
(PDC)
VC (SDH)
VP
VC (ATM)
ATM-XC: ATM Cross Connect
CLAD: Cell Assembly and Disassembly
MMS: Mobile Multimedia switching System
BS: Base Station
PDC: Personal Digital Cellular
VC (SDH) : Virtual Container
VC (ATM) : Virtual Channel
ATM-MUX: ATM Multiplexer
FTM: Fiber Transport Module
G-MMS: Gateway MMS
BTS: Base Transceiver Station
MS: Mobile Station
VP: Virtual Path
Operations Support Systems
• Features of DoCoMo’s OSS
• Overview of OSS Architecture
Video Program
• Operations Support Systems
for IMT-2000
Overview of OSS Architecture
Service
Management
Quality
Analysis
Terminal
Service Front
Terminal
Design Terminals
QoS
Monitor
RAN
Planning
CN
Planning
Process
Management
RAN
Design
CN
Design
Transmission
Design
Traffic DWH
OPE (NW
Monitor &
Network
Management Control)
Network
Element
Management
Network
Monitor
OPE
(Backyard)
Major Alert
Aggregation
RAN
NEM
NE File
Station Data
Management
Call Processing
Alert Aggregation
CN
NEM
SCP
NEM
Path
Management
OSS
Configuration
Management
Transmission
NEM
SCP
Network Element
BTS
OPE: OPeration Equipment
Configuration
Part
Network
Control
RNC
SW
DWH: Data WareHouse
Transmission
SW
RNC
BTS
Overview of Network Monitoring & Control
Network
BTS
SW
RNC
NMSCP
Transmission
Call Loss Rate,
Actual Usage Rate,
NE Congestion
Monitor Network
Quality
SW
Individual NE
BS
SW
XC
NE major alert
NE status
NE Monitor
Network Monitor
OPE: Backyard
OPE: Network Monitor
Identify the cause of
network fault
Monitor NE
failure
Network Analysis
NE Analysis
OPE: Network Monitor
Recovery of QoS
→ Network Control
OPE: Backyard
Action
OPE: Network Monitor
Scope of Network Control
Identify the cause
of NE failure
Action
Verify the action
of NE Monitor
operator
Recovery action for
NE failure
OPE:
Backyard
Scope of Facility Maintenance
Data Flow-through
Quality Analysis
Planning & Design
Service Front
Terminal
QoS
Monitor
Service
Management
Network
Management
Element
management
RAN
planning
Traffic DWH
Design
information
RAN
design
Network
Monitor
OPE
Network
Monitor &
Control
CN
design
Station
data
Network
Control
Traffic (batch)
Traffic
(real-time)
OPE
Backyard
CN
planning
RAN
NEM
NE File
Station data
management
OSS
configuration
management
Operation
data
SCP
NEM
CN
NEM
Associated
OSS
SCP
Network Element
BS
RNC
SW
transmission
SW
RNC
BS
Integrated multi-vendor’s NE Operation
Common OPS for multi-vendor
Vender
Specific
Part
Vendor-a
Vendor-b
Vendor-c
Vendor-d
Vendor-e
The common functional
part for NE-B
The common functional
part for NE-A
Signal transmission and reception part
Network Elements
Community AP
for functional
Block
API
Vender
Specific
Part
For NE-A
Vendor-a
For
NE-A
Vendor-b
NE-A
For
NE-A
Vendor-c
For
NE-B
For NE-B
Vendor-d
Vendor-e
NE-B
Parallel File Upgrade Function
Consistency Check,
upgrade commands
…
Conventional Operation System Operation
Switch 00
Status query
Station 00
50 field
engineers
・
・
・
Same
Same
operation
operation
・
・
・
・
・
・
Consistency Check,
upgrade commands
…
Center
Autonomous
messages
Switch 49
Monitoring task only
Station 49
Reducing labor
Switch 00
Zero field
engineers
e.g. PDC-P
Saving 1M$
a year
Parallel
Operation for
50 switches
・
・
・
Switch 49
Consistency Check,
upgrade commands
…
・
・
・
Consistency Check,
upgrade commands
…
File transfer,
File upgrade
FOCUS
Operation
Center
File Transfer and File upgrade
Operation for multiple Switches
from one single window
Monitors multiple switches from
one single window
Element Management GUI: Sample
ASCP SMS
セクタ BTS RNC MPE MMS ARE
施 設 OPS
IMT・BTS選択画面
IMT・RNC選択画面
モード 検 索 補 助
IMT・MMS選択画面
1
2 消去
2 消去
実 行
消
中央 3
4
中央 地域
中央
5
6
回復未確認
12 エリア
23区
23区外
神奈川
千葉
埼玉
群馬
山梨
茨城
栃木
長野
13
MJ装置
15
7
MJ運転
8
MN発生
0001
0003
0005
0007
横浜山下MM0020 0020
横浜山下20RN10 10
22
横浜山下20RN20 20
横浜山下20RN30 30
20
17
23
MJジャーナル
規制MN
RNC
十条MMS0003 0003
十条3RNC01 01
十条3RNC08 08
十条3RNC30 30
横浜山下
横浜山下MM0020 0020 18
横浜山下MM0030 0030
16
規制MJ
10
19
MMS
十条
十条MMS0001 十条MMS0003 十条MMS0005 十条MMS0007 14
9
24
MNジャーナル
25
規制ジャーナル
21
11
5
全ノード
12 エリア
6
回復未確認
MJ装置
15
23区
23区外
神奈川
千葉
埼玉
群馬
山梨
茨城
栃木
長野
13
7
8
MJ運転
9
MN発生
十条
十条MMS0001 十条MMS0003 十条MMS0005 十条MMS0007 0001
0003
0005
0007
29
MJジャーナル MNジャーナル
23
BTS
十条3RNC08 08
BTS03M8R02 02
BTS03M8R07 07
BTS03M8R12 12
BTS03M8R27 27
横浜山下MM0020 0020
横浜山下20RN10 10
22
横浜山下20RN20 20
横浜山下20RN30 30
20
17
11
規制MN
RNC
十条MMS0003 0003
十条3RNC01 01
十条3RNC08 08
十条3RNC30 30
横浜山下
横浜山下MM0020 18
0020
横浜山下MM0030 0030
28
規制MJ
19
MMS
16
10
21
地域選択
中央
MJ監視
全ノード
全ノード
去
地域選択
横浜山下20RN30 30
26
BTS20M30R5 05
BTS20M30R9 09
24
25
エリア
ビル
23区
23区外
神奈川
千葉
埼玉
群馬
山梨
茨城
栃木
長野
新潟
23区
十条
唐ヶ崎
国領
ビルA
ビルB
ビルC
ビルD
ビルE
ビルF
ビルG
ビルH
30
MMS
▲
▲
十条
十条 LS(F)-A
十条
十条
十条
十条
十条
MMS監視制御
重要作業状態強制解除
OCSE-CN 運転監視
LS(N)-B
LS(N)-C
LS(N)-D
LS(F)-E
LS(F)-F
▼
備考
▲
局建工事中
▼
規制ジャーナル
▼
装置状態表示画面
(ID:1406XX)
監視機能
▼
消 去
OMCE 通信中。
中央・ 23区・十条 LS(F)-A
SEF99A
SDHS
STIS
A-DTS
PSUS
B-DTS
ACIS
MSCS
AIFS
ACT
保守
障害
関連 OUS
増設中 H-SBY
ATIS
CMPS
TRKS
CRSWS
LTS
LICS
SIGS
OPSS
SGCS
PR
ES
CSP
CLP
TSWC
IPUS
RMP
OMP
EATMS CLKS
CEXTS
ガイダンス表示部
INS
OUS
ACH
診断
詳細
履 歴
Network Monitor & Control GUI: Sample
Network Quality Management, Planning and Design
Business Information System
QoS Analysis
Terminal
Network
Quality
Management
(Accounting, Contract etc.)
Planning & Design
Planning
RAN
Design
Schedule/Process Management
CN
Design
Transmission
Design
Traffic DWH
Planning
Data
RAN NE
Data
CN NE
Data
Transmission
NE Data
Unified
Management
NE Data Management, Distribution
Unified
Management
Traffic Information
RAN NEM
Network
RAN NEs
CN NEM
CN NEs
Transmission NEM
Transmission
NEs
OSS Architecture – Common Platform
•layered and hierarchical operational functions
•mature technologies and open AP interfaces
Client (OPE Terminal)
Network Management/Service Management Functional Blocks
Network
Management
Function 1
Common
GUI
(Client)
Naming
Service
Network
Management
Function 2
CORBA Interface
Network
Management
Easy functional extension
Function n
and effective development
by using CORBA interface
Event
Service
Element Management Functional Blocks
Element
Management
Function 1
CORBAインタフェースにより
Integrated OPE and
OPE
~サーバ間の連携が
OSS servers
through
容易に実現
CORBA interface
NE
Element
Management
Function 2
Element
Management
Function n
NE
NE
Features of DoCoMo’s OSS
• Operator friendly
– The root cause and the range its influence is well
expressed.
– The operator can grasp the trouble and solve it
quickly.
• Cost reduction
– The operator can control the network to utilize
network resources appropriately.
– Network quality control and facility design is
realized by data flow-through.
– The operator can upgrade application software of
network elements remotely.
Multimedia Services of IMT-2000
• IMT-2000 service features
• Mobile multimedia services
• Relevant technologies
– Transport technologies
– Application technologies
• Multimedia service platform
Evolutions of Mobile Communications
Further Evolution by three components
Voice to
Non-voice
To Multimedia
Existing
Industry
To Ubiquitous
All mobilers
To Global
Future Industry Province
Nation to
International
Toward Multimedia of Communications
Business
・TV Conference
・Data Base/Data Center
・E-commerce(for business)
・Location Information Search System
Mobile Multimedia
Network
Personal
Public
・ Remote Medical System for old
・Electronic Newspaper/Book
people
・Interactive TV
・Communication System during
・E-commerce (for shopping)
times of disasters/incidents
・Remote Medical System
・Remote Observation System
・ITS (Intelligent Transport System)
Voice to Non-voice Communications
Market size
Non-voice
(image・ data)
70~80%
Challenging the
Mobile Multimedia
50%
Voice
50%
2000
2005
30~20%
2010
“ i-mode ” Service Structure
HTTP
IP
i-mode
Server
Internet
DoCoMo
Packet
Network
(PDC-P)
IP
IP
Data Base
DoCoMo
Network
(PDC)
Voice
Modem signal
Reasons for Success of “ i-mode ”
★ Packet based telecommunication charge (PDC-P)
– PDC-P network enables cheaper telecommunication charge for
limited text based data exchange.
– Mobile Phone is always ‘stand by’ to get/receive data.
★ One-hand sized terminal
★ HTML based, the world standard
– Subset of HTML 3.0 with some additional tags
– No need to learn special language to deliver content
My Menu
1.My Menu
2.Recommends
3.Menu Search
4.Settings
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>MAINMENU</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY >
<DIV>My Menu</DIV><br>
<A ACCESSKEY=“1” HREF = “http://www.docomo.ne.jp/gw/Main/mymenu.htm”>1.My Menu</A><br>
<A ACCESSKEY=“2” HREF = “http://www.docomo.ne.jp/gw/Main/osusume.htm”>2.Recommends</A><br>
<A ACCESSKEY=“3” HREF = “http://www.docomo.ne.jp/gw/Main/search.htm”>3.Menu Search</A><br>
<A ACCESSKEY=“4” HREF = “http://www.docomo.ne.jp/gw/Main/option.htm”>4.Settings</A><br>
</BODY>
</HTML>
Service features
Mobility
Voice-oriented communications
- High Mobility
- 9.6kbps Data Communication
Max.28.8kbps Packet Communication
e.g., Short Mail/E-Mail
2G
(PDC)
PCS
(PHS)
IMT-2000
Voice and Data communications
- High Mobility
- 384kbps Data Communication
e.g., Motion Picture
- Multi Call
Data-oriented communications
- Relatively Low Mobility
- 64kbps Data Communication
e.g., Still Picture/Music
Transmission Rate
PDC: Personal Digital Cellular
PHS: Personal Handy-phone System
PCS: Personal Communications Services
Visual Communications
• Mobile video phone
• Mobile videoconference
Business Use
Personal Use
Mobile Video Phone
Mobile Internet Services
• IP oriented services with high data rate
– High speed web access, Multimedia email &
messaging, Music or video file downloading, etc.
♪♪
♪Peekaboo♪
i-mode
server
Example of Email Service
BOOM!!!
Mobile VPN
• Intranet Access Service via the Internet
– Remote access to corporate network
IMT-2000
GW
Fixed
Network
Remote
Access
Server
LAN
Corporate Network
Requirements for Mobile Multimedia Services
• Rapid supply of various multimedia services
to customers
• Broadband data communication
• Internet interactive solutions to xSP
• Open and unified interface between carrier
and xSP networks
• Security management
Technical Requirements
• Wireless Transport Technologies
• Application Technologies
Wireless Transport Technologies


Wireless TCP
HTTP optimization
Wireless Transport technologies
Broader bandwidth per channel is needed, but …
Higher
transmission delay
Relatively poor communication stability, e.g., loss of
connectivity
Degradation of actual data transfer rate
Some wireless optimizations of transport and
application protocols are required.
Wireless TCP (W-TCP)
HTTP optimization
Technologies applied to Wireless TCP
• Expansion of TCP window size
– RFC793, 1323
• Utilization of Selective ACK (SACK)
– RFC2018
• Expansion of initial window size
– RFC2414, 2581
• Expansion of Maximum Transmission Unit
– RFC793
Expansion of TCP Window Size
Conventional TCP
Client
W-TCP
Server
Client
Data
Ack
Server
Data
Waiting for the
arrival ACK signal
Window size: 2
Ack
Window size: 10
TCP vs. W-TCP
HTTP Optimization
• Performance of HTTP access over IMT-2000
network may degrade when :
– Establishing many TCP connections, e.g., a content
with too many gif pictures
– Inefficient usage of bandwidth caused by higher
transmission delay
Request pipelining improves
web access performance.
Request Pipelining
Request #1
Receive #1
Analyze
Request #2
Receive #2
Request #3
•
•
•
Typical HTTP behavior
Request #1
Receive #1
Analyze
Request #2-#7
Receive #2-#7
•
•
•
Request pipelining
Application Technologies

Markup Languages for Micro browser


Visual communications


Compact HTML (CHTML), Extensible HTML
(XHTML), Wireless Markup Language (WML) …
3G-324M
Application Environment

Mobile Execution Environment (MExE: Java based)
Enhanced Terminal Capability
Progress of Mobile Terminals (MTs) :
• Stronger processing power with lower
electricity consumption
• Larger size of memory and storage
• High-definition and larger color display
The capability of MTs is not equal to general
terminals used in the Internet, such as PCs.
Difference between MTs & PCs
•MTs run on batteries with small capacity.
•MTs have relatively poor processing power, memory,
storage, and a display.
Micro Browser
• Mobile terminals need special browsers, i.e.,
micro browsers in order to meet mobile-specific
requirements.
– Light-weight markup languages
• Compact HTML (CHTML)
• Extensible HTML (XHTML)
• Wireless Markup Language (WML)
Micro Browser (Cont’d)
• What is the trend of micro browser and
markup language?
– XML (eXtensible Markup Language) related
technologies
– Following the evolution of PC’s web browsers
– Expanding features to satisfy common needs in
compact devices, such as PDA
Evolution of Markup Language
XHTML Modularization
PC Browser
XHTML 2.0
plus
Others
XHTML MOD
HTML 4.01
XHTML 1.0
XHTML MOD
XHTML MOD
CSS1
CSS3
CSS2
Profiling
Micro Browser
XHTML Basic
CSS2 Mobile Profile
WAP 2.0
Requirements for the adaptation to mobile and compact devices : few
amount of memory, limited processing power, and so forth
CSS: Cascade Style Sheet
Streaming over wireless
• 3G-324M is a streaming technology optimized for
visual communications over wireless networks.
• Compared with commercialized IP based streaming
technologies, such as WMT, 3G-324M has the following
benefits :
– Stable transfer of stream data
– Better visual quality
– Quick start up of visual communications
– Cost-effectiveness
– Prevention of copying visual contents
WMT: Windows Media Technology
Visual Data Transfer Efficiency
ASF/HTTP/TCP/IP (WMT)
3G-324M
Data
Markup
HTTP
TCP
IP
PPP
Visual
Audio
Control
Data
Markup
MPEG-4
Video
AMR
Visual
Audio
MPEG-4
Video
AMR
H.245
ASF
HTTP
TCP
IP/PPP
H.223 annex.B
Visual
75%
Audio OH
19% 6%
Visual
44%
Utilization of Bandwidth
AMR: Adaptive Multi/Rate
ASF: Advanced Streaming Format
Audio
19%
Overhead
37%
MExE (Mobile Execution Environment)
• MExE classmark 1
– Based on WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
– Limited input and output
• MExE classmark 2
– Based on Personal Java (subset of Java SE)
– Optimized for consumer electric devices
– JavaPhone API
• MExE classmark 3
– Based on Java 2 ME, CLDC and MIDP
– Optimized for embedded devices
SE: Standard Edition
ME: Micro Edition
MIDP: Mobile Information Device Profile
CLDC: Connected, Limited Device Configuration
Multimedia Service Platform
Application Services
Multimedia Application
Content delivery service
Audio/visual information service
Multimedia messaging
Value-added Services
Multimedia Service Platform
Media format transformation
Protocol conversion
Location information
Smart-Pull
Control Billing Function, etc.
Basic Network Services
IMT-2000 Network
Communication service
Call control
Mobility management
Radio resource management
Example - Location Information Where is the
nearest post
office?
Starting point :
Current
Location
Destination Point :
Head east for a little
while.
Turn right at the corner.
Go straight for a while.
You will see the post
office.
Post Office
Example – Location Information – (Cont’d)
Utilized by Third-Party
Utilized by oneself
Locate
Objects
Like Staff
Outside an
Office
Police /
Hospital
Company
Search Local
Information
e.g.
Restaurants
Companies
・
・
Area
Information
Show a
Quickest
Route to a
Next
Destination
Report
SelfPosition in
an Event of
Danger or
Illness
・
・
Navigation
Engineer
Locate
Individuals
・
・
Emergency
Notification
Tracking
Sales
Person
Empty
Vending
Machine
Corporate
Solutions
Brand Name for NTT DoCoMo’s IMT-2000 Services
Freedom Of Mobile multimedia Access
FOMA Services
★ Internet Access “ i-mode ”
for example, Web browsing and E-mail, etc.
★ Video Conferencing
★ Data Communications (circuit-switch and packet-switch)
CS : 64kbps for uplink and downlink
PS : Max 384kbps for uplink and downlink
on the best effort basis
★ Voice Communications
AMR (Adoptive Multi Rate) is adopted as cording scheme.
★ Multi Call
This allows users to use packet-switched services(ex. E-mail)
during a voice call.
FOMA Terminals
P2002
N2002
Standard Type
P2101V
D2101V
Visual Type
P2401
Data-Card Type
With detachable UIM (User Identify Module)
loaded with information to identify users
Depending on a specific usage, users can
select terminals.
FOMA Terminals (Cont’d)
F2601
SH2101V
All from one terminal
Other Services
★ i-motion
- Video clipping(downloading) service by i-mode
- Introduced in December, 2001
★ M-Stage Music and Visual
- Music and Video distribution service for specialized terminals
- Visual: Introduced in July, 2002
★ Dual Network Service with the PDC
- Subscriber can use one phone number for both FOMA (3G)
and PDC (2G)
- Introduced in July, 2002
★ International Roaming
- One mobile terminal can be used anywhere in the world
FOMA’s Growing Possibilities
FOMA continues to evolve as new functions are added
International
roaming
M-stage visual on FOMA
New service deployment
M-stage music on FOMA
Image-clipping with i-mode
i-motion
Image
distribution
Mobile EC
Music
distribution
Location
information
Visual mail
Send visual images instantly as mail
i-mode
TV Phone
Possible to use FOMA and 2G
phones with a single phone number
Dual network service
Handset
enhancement
PDA type
PDC/IMT
dual phone
Music distribution
terminal
Upon service launch
Smaller, lighter handsets with longer battery time
FY 2001
FY 2002
4G Mobile Wireless System
Coverage/Mobility
Everywhere w/ mobility vs. High bit-rate w/ capacity
4G
3.5G
3G
2G
• High-speed
• High-capacity
• Low bit cost
• IP-based?
(~2010?)
IMT-2000
(2001)
Wireless Access
Millimeter-wave
LAN
0.1
1
Bit rates (Mbps)
10
100
Next Generation mobile Networks
Applications /xSPs
Mobile NWs
Other NWs
AP1AP1AP3
Open API
Service Control Intelligence Layer Support APs
Service control in
ITS、Railways, etc.
・Train traffic operation
・Traffic info. mgmt
・Car sensor system
Service control
by 3rd Parties
(Authentication, Charging, Location info., Distribution system)
Network Control Intelligence Layer
・Mobility, QoS control
・Connection control (1:n, n:1, n:m)
ISDN/PSTN
Control Transport
Internet
IP transport
ISP, Mobile Operators
IP backbone
Text
*****
*****
Ad hoc NW
W-CDMA
W-LAN
4G
http://www.nttdocomo.co.jp/english/index.shtml
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IMT-2000 NW, OSS & Service