Antislavery Movements in the
Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Katherine Wiley
Department of Anthropology
Indiana University
[email protected]
Slavery in Mauritania
http://johomaps.com/af/afrique1.html
Who lives in Mauritania?
• Bidhan (people of
Arab and Berber
descent)
• Haratine (former
slaves or descendants
of slaves of Bidhan)
• sub-Saharan African
groups (Pulaar, Wolof,
Soninke)
What is the situation like today?
Problems with this reporting
• Misunderstanding or reduction about what
being a slave means
• Exaggerating Haratine misery and poverty
• Overlooking the fact that it’s common for
Mauritanians to have servants who are paid
and can (and often do) leave their jobs
• May confuse unfair labor and wage policies
with slavery
What do we mean by “slave” in Northwest Africa?
Buying Slaves, Havana, Cuba, 1837; Image Reference mariners10, as shown on www.slaveryimages.org, compiled by Jerome Handler and
Michael Tuite, and sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and the University of Virginia Library.
What do we mean by “slave”?
• In northwest Africa where kin relations are
very important, many argue a slave is
someone who is excluded from kin relations
• There were many different kinds of
dependents in Mauritania
• Slaves had different statuses (e.g. those who
had been captured vs. those born into
families)
How many slaves were there in
French West Africa?
• In various parts of the Sahel in 1904,
approximately 40 percent of population was
slaves
• In Kayes, 30,000 of the population of 71,421
were slaves (42 percent)
• The numbers of slaves varied throughout
the French colony and may have been
underreported
History of slavery in Northwest
Africa: Early slave trade
• Most slaves were captured through
raiding
• Others were taken to pay debt or as
criminal penalties
• There was some voluntary
enslavement (if people were severely
strapped financially)
“Enslaved Africans in a Coffle, Eastern Sudan, 1848; Image Reference illustration 369, as shown on www.slaveryimages.org, compiled by
Jerome Handler and Michael Tuite, and sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and the University of Virginia Library."
History of slavery in Northwest
Africa: French colonial policy
Photo by Odette du Puigaudeau; “Poste de Boutilimit. Arrivée d’une caravane [The post of Boutilimit. Arival of a
caravan]. From the Archives nationales d’outre mers; FR CAOM 30Fi39/67
Anonymous. 1945. “Au campement du groupe nomade d’Akjoujt [In the camp of the nomadic
group of Akjoujt].” In Archive nationales d’outre-mer. FR CAOM 30Fi35/44
French colonial antislavery policy
• The French were largely ambivalent about
abolishing slavery in Mauritania
• They feared that ending slavery would
damage their relations with allies and hurt
the economy
• They said they wanted to avoid disrupting
local customs
• They sometimes justified their colonial
expansion as a way to abolish slavery
Slave agency
• Despite the ambivalence of the French and
local leaders, many slaves managed to shift
their own statuses by
– Running away
– Working in wage labor (provided by French)
– Joining religious orders
– Renegotiating relationships with masters
– Buying their freedom
– Fighting in French wars
– Being freed by their masters
http://colonialwarfare18901975.devhub.com/blog/570966-tirailleurs-senegalais/
History of slavery in Mauritania
post-independence
We can’t really talk about an end to slavery, but
rather a gradual transition away from it
Post-independence policy on slavery
• 1961 constitution declares that all citizens
are equal
• Slavery officially declared illegal in
Mauritania in 1980 (enforced in 1981 law)
• 2007 law condemns slavery as a criminal
act and introduces mechanisms to punish
those who practice it
El-Hor (Freedom) Movement
• Haratine political movement that formed in
1970s
• Sought increased rights and recognition for
Haratine
• Charter promises to fight against economic
exploitation, promote mass education, and
support property and marriage rights
• Made gains in municipal elections
Principles of El-Hor
• Argued that a distinct Haratine ethnic
group exists that is separate from
Bidhan (vs. Haratine who wanted to
assimilate with the Bidhan)
• Not all Haratine were united behind
principles of El-Hor
IMAGE OF EL-HOR
El-Hor methods
• Carry out series of demonstrations for
equality
• In 1980 protest selling of woman in north;
several leaders are arrested and tortured
• Their imprisonment leads to much
international attention which may have
contributed to government reforms
Later Movements
• Many private
organizations have
missions to fight
against slavery today
– SOS Esclaves (SOS
slaves)
– Initiative for the
Resurgence of the
Abolitionist Movement
in Mauritania (IRA)
One incident
• December 2010: anti-slavery organization
(IRA) identifies two young, female slaves in Nkt
• IRA takes them away from their masters
• Some of the IRA activists are jailed when
protesting during the trial (they are later
released); the slave owner is sentenced to six
months in prison
• Many underage domestic workers are let go
across Mauritania
Complications and Challenges
• Difficulty of defining what it means to be a
slave
• Fact that antislavery groups attract many
funds from international donors
• Continued lack of nuance in understanding
of what it means to be Haratine or Bidhan
• Increased emphasis on human rights in
general would be positive step
Resources
• UT Austin curriculum on comparative systems
of slavery (in Haiti, East Africa, Egypt, etc.)
– http://www.utexas.edu/cola/orgs/hemispheres/cu
rriculum/slavery.php
• PBS curriculum on slave trade in Ghana
– http://www.pbs.org/wonders/Classrm/lesson3.ht
m
• Comprehensive overview of slavery in Africa
– http://autocww.colorado.edu/~blackmon/E64Con
tentFiles/AfricanHistory/SlaveryInAfrica.html
Thank you!
Please feel free to contact me with
any questions.
[email protected]
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