The Northwest and the Arctic • Describe how the people of the Pacific Northwest adapted to their environment and used the area’s resources to meet their needs. • Understand how the peoples of the Arctic survived in a cold climate with limited resources. Northwest Coast Kwakiult Makah Chinook Arctic Inuit Aleut People of the Northwest Coast The people that lived here and were dependent on the ocean as their primary source of food. Instead of hunting and gathering plants – fished for salmon and whales. Whale meat could be used as food and the oil melted down and burned for oil. The Kwakiutl only captured whales that had become stranded on the shore. The Makah hunted the whales in large dugout boats with spears. Why do you think these people did not farm? Resources and Trade Wood was a useful resource to the people of the Northwest Coast – dishes, spoons, totem poles. The giant trees of the Northwest Coast provided many groups with wood for houses, tools, and boast. Their longhouses were like the Iroquois, but larger. All members of the family, or clan, lived in one house. Economy – is the way the people of a state, region, or country use their resources to meet their needs. The Dallas and Potlatch Trade was an essential part of life for these tribes. Although they spoke different languages, they did develop a unique language for trade. This language was made up of mixed words from many Indian languages. The trade language allowed them to barter, or exchange goods. All the natural resources made these groups rich, and they had large celebrations. A potlatch celebration was meant to show wealth and divide property among the people. It was a celebration of with dancing, food, and speeches. Potlatch means “to give”. Why would trade lead to the development of such a language? Lands of the North The Arctic is the region near the North Pole. It is mostly a flat plain that stays frozen year round. Igloos The Aleut and the Inuit developed skills to adjust to life in the frozen Arctic regions of Alaska and Northern Canada. The Cree lived as hunter-gatherers in the sub-Artic areas of Canada. Kayaks These peoples most important natural resources were animals such as foxes, caribou, polar bears, walruses, seals. And Ice! Life in the Sub-Artic The extended family was an important part of the Inuit and Aleut society. These families, of 60300 people, formed bands that came together to make important choices for the good of the group. When food was scarce, the families shared seal meat. Summary The rich natural resources of the Northwest helped form a society based on hunting, gathering, and trade. The Arctic and sub-Arctic people adapted to life in a land with limited resources.