Command Syntax
Using the DIR Command with
Parameters and Wildcards
Ch 2
1
Overview
Will learn to read a syntax
diagram and explain the
function of each part of the
diagram.
Ch 2
2
Overview
Will learn some basic
commands, their syntax, and
how to make commands
more specific.
Ch 2
3
Overview
Will be able to define prompts
and explain how they are
used.
Ch 2
4
Overview
The purpose and function of
defaults will be explained.
Ch 2
5
Overview
Will learn how to change the
default drive and directory.
Ch 2
6
Overview
Will learn how to use
subdirectories and wildcards
with the DIR command.
Ch 2
7
Overview
The purpose and function of
redirection will be explained and
then will learn how to redirect the
output of the DIR command to a
file or a printer.
Ch 2
8
Overview
Will learn to use the Online
Help feature.
Ch 2
9
Command Syntax
All languages have rules or
conventions for speaking
and writing.
Ch 2
10
Command Syntax
To communicate with computer at
command line prompt:
 Learn its language (commands)
 Follow its syntax (word order)
 Use correct punctuation
Ch 2
11
Command Syntax
The graphical user interface
in Windows operating system
uses syntax and rules.
Ch 2
12
What Are Parameters?
Parameter:
Information to modify or
qualify a command
Ch 2
13
What Are Parameters?
Parameters can be:
 Variable
 Fixed
Ch 2
14
What Are Parameters?
Variable parameter:
x+y=z
Ch 2
15
What Are Parameters?
Fixed parameter:
x+5=z
Ch 2
16
Reading a
Syntax Diagram
Command line interface language has:
 Vocabulary (commands)
 Grammar (punctuation)
 Syntax (order)
Ch 2
17
Reading a
Syntax Diagram
DIR command syntax used earlier:
DIR [drive:] [path] [filename] [/A [[:]
attributes]] [/B] [/C] [/D] [/L] [/N] [/O[[:]
sortorder]] [/P] [/Q] [/S] [/T[[:]
timefield]] [/W] [/X] [4]
Ch 2
18
Using Fixed Parameters
with the DIR Command
Fixed parameter:
 Referred to as a switch.
 Begins with / (the slash).
Ch 2
19
Using Fixed Parameters
with the DIR Command
 Slash = forward slash (/).
 \ = Backslash.
Ch 2
20
Using Fixed Parameters
with the DIR Command
DIR command with /P
parameter displays one screen
of information at a time.
Ch 2
21
Using Fixed Parameters
with the DIR Command
Notes for lab activities:
 Check notes at beginning of each activity
 At end of work session return to Windows
desktop and follow shut-down procedure
 Know your laboratory procedures
 If system varies from text refer to the
Configuration Table in Chapter 1.6
Ch 2
22
Activity—Using Fixed
Parameters with DIR Command
KEY CONCEPTS:
 Clear Screen
 Display directory using:
 /P parameter
 /W parameter
 /P /W parameters
 Delimiter
Ch 2
23
Using File Names as
Variable Parameters
File specification (name) consists of:
 File name
 File extension
Ch 2
24
Using File Names as
Variable Parameters
Conventions for Naming Files
 All files in directory (subdirectory) must have unique
names.
 File names - mandatory - may be less than but no
longer than 256 characters
 File extensions - usually three characters long.
 Following characters illegal - may NOT be used in
file name:
\/:*?<>|
 All other characters, including periods and spaces, are
legal in Windows file names.
Ch 2
25
Using File Names as
Variable Parameters
 File name reflects subject of file.
 File extension usually given by
application creating file.
Ch 2
26
Using File Names as
Variable Parameters
When naming files, many older
16-bit application packages
adhere to older 8.3 DOS rules.
Ch 2
27
Using File Names as
Variable Parameters
 Can locate specific file by using file
name.
 Give DIR command information
about file you seek:
DIR [drive:] [path] [filename] [/P] [/W]
Ch 2
28
Using File Names as
Variable Parameters
 In some syntax diagrams you will
see:
[filename[.ext]]
 If a file name has an extension, it
must be included.
Ch 2
29
Using File Names as
Variable Parameters
A dot (.), delimiter, is used between
file name and file extension.
Example: MYFILE.TXT
Ch 2
30
Activity—Using a File Name
as a Variable Parameter
KEY CONCEPTS:
 System messages
 DIR command with long file names
 File extensions - more than 3 characters
 8.3 file name
 Use of quotation marks
 Use of /x parameter
How 8.3 name derived from LFN
Reasons for keeping file names short/concise
Ch 2
31
Command Line Editing
Can reuse last command keyed in
without rekeying it:
 <F1> - recalls one letter at a time
 <F3> - recalls entire command line
Ch 2
32
Command Line Editing
Table 2.1 Editing Keys Command Summary p. 53
Ch 2
33
Command Line Editing
Table 2.1 Editing Keys Command Summary p. 53
Ch 2
34
Command Line Editing
Table 2.1 Editing Keys Command Summary p. 53
Ch 2
35
Activity—Using
Command Editing
KEY CONCEPT:
 Use editing keys to recall and edit
commands
 Overstrike mode
 Insert mode
 Delete line quickly by using <Esc> key
 How to search for previously entered
command
Ch 2
36
Drives as Device Names
Device is a place to read
information from/to.
Ch 2
37
Drives as Device Names
Disk drives have assigned
device names.
Ch 2
38
Defaults
Default:
 Implied instructions
 Value used unless another value
is specified
Ch 2
39
Defaults
As an example, when A: \ > is
displayed on screen it is the:
 Prompt
 Default drive
 Designated or logged drive
Ch 2
40
Activity—Working
with the Default
KEY CONCEPTS:
 “Shelling out to DOS”
 Using Default drive
 Determining drive to be searched
Why DIR A: HELLO TXT is a very
clear request
Ch 2
41
Brief Introduction to
Subdirectories—The Path
Subdirectories:
 Used primarily on hard disks
Ch 2
42
Brief Introduction to
Subdirectories—The Path
Subdirectories permit the . . .
 grouping of files by type.
 disk to be divided into smaller
more manageable sections.
Ch 2
43
Brief Introduction to
Subdirectories—The Path
Ch 2
44
Brief Introduction to
Subdirectories—The Path
Root directory:
 Created and named by OS when
disk is formatted
 Indicated by the backslash (\)
Ch 2
45
Brief Introduction to
Subdirectories—The Path
 Other subdirectories created and
named by user.
 Naming rules same as rules for
naming files.
Ch 2
46
Brief Introduction to
Subdirectories—The Path
 First backslash - root directory
 Following backslashes –
delimiters.
Ch 2
47
Brief Introduction to
Subdirectories—The Path
Path:
 Route followed by OS to locate,
save, and/or retrieve a file
 Subdirectory name
Ch 2
48
Brief Introduction to
Subdirectories—The Path
Fig 2.1 File Cabinets and Subdirectories p.63
Ch 2
49
Activity—Using Path with
the DIR Command
KEY CONCEPTS:
 Delimiter for path names
 Backslash (first and others)
Ch 2
50
Changing Defaults
Default drive can be changed.
Command line is not case
sensitive.
Ch 2
51
Activity—Changing
the Default Drive
KEY CONCEPTS:
 Changing default
 Locating file not in default directory
 C:\ - major subdirectory
Ch 2
52
Changing Directories
Default directory
can be changed.
Ch 2
53
Changing Directories
Partial command syntax:
 CD [/D][Drive:][path]
Ch 2
54
Changing Directories
 CD with no parameters - current default
directory.
 CD followed by path name - change
default.
 /D parameter - change drive and
directory.
Ch 2
55
Activity—Changing
Directories
KEY CONCEPTS:
Results of keying in
 CD alone - display current default
directory
 CD followed by path - will change
default directory
 CD \ - will always return to root
directory
Ch 2
56
Global File Specifications:
Wildcards, the ?, and *
Global file specifications (wildcards):
 Can
operate on group of files
instead of just a single file
Ch 2
57
Global File Specifications:
Wildcards, the ?, and *
 * - represents a group of characters.
 ? - represents a single character.
Ch 2
58
Activity—DIR and
Wildcards
KEY CONCEPTS:
 Locating files with insufficient data
 Using * and *.*
 Using ? and ???
 Using *.SYS
Ch 2
59
Redirection
Keyboard:
 Standard input device
Screen:
 Standard output device
Ch 2
60
Redirection
Redirection:
 Changes output from monitor to
somewhere else (usually file or printer)
 To work with printer must be local
printer
 Works only with commands that write
to standard output
Ch 2
61
Redirection
Redirection syntax command:
 COMMAND > DESTINATION
(Space required on both sides of >)
Ch 2
62
Activity—Redirecting
Output to a File
KEY CONCEPTS:
 Redirecting output to a file
 Redirection is “instead of” procedure
Dealing with write-protected disks
Ch 2
63
Redirecting Output
to the Printer
 Can redirect computer output to a
file or to a printer.
To
redirect to printer need a local
printer.
Ch 2
64
Redirecting Output
to the Printer
Printers device names:
 PRN, LPT1, LPT2 and sometimes
LPT3.
Ch 2
65
Activity—Redirecting the
Output to the Printer
KEY CONCEPTS:
 Redirection
 Hardware solutions
Ch 2
66
Activity—Redirecting the
Output to the Printer
Fig 2.2 Redirected Output p.79
Ch 2
67
Getting Help
Documentation:
 Reference manual that comes
with any software package
Ch 2
68
Getting Help
In DOS 6.0 and above,
documentation provided less
in written form and more
online.
Ch 2
69
Getting Help
For help in DOS environment:
 Key in command, then a space,
forward slash, and question mark
 Use HELP followed by command
name
Ch 2
70
Activity—Getting Help
with a Command
KEY CONCEPT:
 Results of commands:
?
O-N
BLP
ON
S
B/L/P
E
D
Ch 2
71
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Ch 2 Command Syntax