Navigating the Standards Landscape
BJA Regional Information Sharing Conference
November 28, 2006
Navigating the Standards Landscape

The Business Case: How do functional standards help the
practitioner to develop an information sharing
architecture?

Data Exchange Standards: XML, JXDM and NIEM

JIEM, IEPDs and Components

Missouri Case Study

How Do I Connect the Silos? Here is the Help!
1
The Business Case - Overview

Exploring the value of Standards

Why are standards beneficial ?

How are standards cost effective ?

Functional Standards: An example

What are they and how do they help me as a practitioner ?

Who decides what becomes a Standard ?

How are Standards designed and vetted ?
2
The Business Case - Why

Standards are important if you want to:

SHARE DATA (speak the same language)

SAVE MONEY (use the same products)

LOWER RISK (increase the probability that your exchange
will be interoperable with other justice entities throughout
the nation)

INCREASE PUBLIC SAFETY (get it there faster, more
accurately, in a consumable format)

INCREASE PUBLIC ACCESS (accurate information
accessible through the web)
3
The Business Case - What

Standards Provide

On-demand real time data access by practitioners who
need it to make decisions

Standard products from vendors at lower cost

Leverage for your legacy system investment

Phased evolution to emerging technologies approach

If you care about PUBLIC SAFETY, standards are important
because these standards can help you deliver emergency
services more quickly, with greater dependability

If you care about ACCOUNTABILITY FOR THE PUBLIC’S
MONEY, standards are important because they will help to
significantly lower the lifecycle cost of sharing data
4
Justice & Public Safety Standards Landscape

No Domain-wide standards prior to
September 11, 2001

Each agency re-defined, and each vendor re-invented the
wheel with every project

Evident and growing need to lower cost, reduce risk, speed
delivery and ensure compatibility

2004

Executive Order 13356 and

Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD-5) to
improve information sharing

2005 Justice and Homeland Security partnership to
develop National Information Exchange Model
5
XML: Building Blocks for Information Exchange
XML
Point-to-Point
Canonical Standard
6
Data Exchange Standards: XML

XML provides a natural way to build new vocabularies or
languages

XML tools (parsers, validators, native XML databases) are
abundant, relatively inexpensive and can support any and
every vocabulary that conforms to the XML standard

XML allows us to express information in the operating
system/computer architecture/ language independent way
7
Data Exchange Standards: XML

XML can represent all parts of the information exchange

Information that needs to be shared;

Information about this information (who created it, when,
why, etc.);

Information about destination of this information
(addressing, routing);

Security and authorization information (sensitivity level,
who can read it, how it should be disposed of, etc.);

Validation and verification rules (XML schema, DTD,
business rules)
8
Role of the XML business vocabulary

Describing data objects relevant to the business problem in a
consistent and re-usable format.

XML tags provide both human-readable descriptions and
computer instructions for mapping and validation.
 Two different organizations may express two different
concepts with the same XML tag. Example:


<dmv:Person.identification> in the DMV environment could
mean driver’s license. No further specialization is required.

<immigration:Person.identification> in the ICE environment
could mean passport.
Business vocabularies should be reconciled for the purpose
of the information exchange, creating a new vocabulary:

<infoEx:Person.identification idType = {driver’s license |
passport}>
9
XML Vocabularies

Uniform Business Language (UBL)

Electronic Business XML (ebXML)

Extensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML)

ACORD XML for Life Insurance

eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL)

EDXL (OASIS Emergency Management)

Global Justice XML Data Model (G)JXDM)

National Information Exchange Model (NIEM)
10
XML: Building blocks for information exchange

JXDM started as a “grass-roots” effort to define a common
XML vocabulary for criminal justice and public safety

JXDM provides fairly large objects, reflecting the broad
scope of the effort and attempts to accommodate needs of
everyone across the wide spectrum

JXDM includes constructs not “native” to criminal justice,
such as health or intelligence – created without a benefit of
the subject matter expertise
11
JXDM Evolution
Communities of Interest
Data Dictionary
Reconcilliation:
LegalXML, RISS,
and RAP
AAMVA
Driver History
Local, County,
and State
Representatives
Nlets
SEARCH
JIEM Tool
Exchanges
IACP
CrimNet
CISA
XSTF
GISWG
NIJ
NIBRS
W3C
OASIS
LegalXML
ISO/IEC
ASC
X12.org
XML.gov
UN/CEFACT
ebxml.org
Standards
Intelligence
Community
ICML
US DoD
DublinCore.org
12
The National Information Exchange Model (NIEM)
13
NIEM Goals and Objectives

Support and enable information sharing nationally, among
all branches and levels of government

Extends the “grass roots”, bottom up approach used by
the Justice community of interest

Synergy with the Federal Enterprise Architecture,
especially the Data Reference Model (DRM)
http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/egov/a-1-fea.html
14
JXDM and NIEM

NIEM aggregates knowledge from multiple domains, where each
“community of interest” (COI) maintains its own domain and
contributes to the common set;

NIEM, having much broader audience in mind from the beginning,
took a different approach than the JXDM to develop core objects:


Start with smallest, universally understood and usable;

Specialize for the particular exchanges, common to some or
many;

Provide a space for additional specialization relevant to a
specific area
Separating concepts into Universal, Common and domainspecific keeps NIEM objects generally smaller, more nimble,
though the number of objects is larger than that in JXDM
15
NIEM Data Component
16
NIEM data component re-use and extension
Universal
Person
Justice
Person
Immigration
Person
17
National Information Exchange Model (NIEM)
NIEM Core (a collection of namespaces)
Core
Structures
namespace
Universal
namespace
Common
namespace
Core: jointly governed through
the NIEM governing body
The minimally supported set
for all participating domains;
universally understood; very
stable; minimal or no subsetting
Requires joint governance and
reconciliation; but relatively stable
BloodTypeCode
Where tiger teams operate
BloodTypeCodeType
Domains
Intelligence
Justice namespace
namespace
Emergency Mgt
namespace
Immigration
namespace
NIEM Participants:
(1) Bring domain content to NIEM.
(2) Conform to NIEM NDR.
(3) Agree to NIEM governance
policies and procedures.
(4) Participate in NIEM governance.
Governed by XSTF-like committees
that coordinate and cooperate with
the NIEM governing body
18
JXDM 3.1 Vision

First major revision of JXDM

Implements associations and roles with metadata

Implements flexible metadata containers

Structures namespace

PropertyType and ActivityType completely refactored

No proxy schemas are used for code lists

External enumeration updates
–

NCIC: break some table dependencies (e.g., make/model)
New content
–
NHTSA crash data
–
Intelligence
19
NIEM 1.0

Partitioned into multiple NIEM domains (including Justice)

Includes Universal, Common, and Structures namespaces (Core)

Re-factors data components across all namespaces

Implements

Associations

Roles

Metadata

Type augmentation

Implements a URI for each component

Re-factors some specialization occurrences into augmentation,
associations, roles, and metadata

Uses original GJXDM 3.0.3 PropertyType and ActivityType
20
NIEM 1.0

Content – (in addition to Justice):

Immigration and Customs Enforcement

Customs and Border Protection / International Trade

Intelligence

Emergency Management

Infrastructure Protection

Person Screening

External standards (Geospatial, EDXL)
21
Requirements for JXDM 4.0/NIEM 1.1 release:

All proposed 4.0 functionality

NIEM Naming and Design Rules (NDR) compliance

Version independence

Lessons learned from NIEM 1.0 implementations

Commitment from NIEM PMO to support local and state
pilots
22
JXDM – NIEM Convergence

XSTF will continue to have governance oversight within
the justice domain

XSTF and Global are participating in the NIEM
governance structure

Convergence/Interlocking will occur with simultaneous
4.0/2.0 releases

“Interlocking” means:
– NDRs and toolsets are consistent
– IEPDs will be developed using both
– The two data models are complementary and
efficient (data is not duplicated) and allow seamless
interoperability via toolsets
23
NIEM 2.0 (2007)
NIEM 2.0 will converge GJXDM 3.0.3, JXDM 3.1,
and NIEM 1.0 into one release with built-in
migration support to subsequent NIEM releases.
GJXDM 3.0.3
NIEM 1.0
JXDM 3.1
NIEM 1.1
JXDM 4.0
NIEM 1.1 summary: Multi-domain, refactored PropertyType
and ActivityType; associations, roles, metadata, type
augmentation, flexible code lists, URI for each component,
database export, and three integrated support tools
24
JXDM – NIEM Convergence

Global has continued to focus on continuing the
development of the NIEM in parallel to the JXDM

Global members have participated in NIEM governance,
Con-ops, architecture, and outreach materials.

The XSTF will govern and manage the justice namespace,
next release will be JXDM 4.0.

Justice domain will be renamed in NIEM to “jxdm”

Bottom Line: JXDM is alive and well – investments, to date,
will be preserved
25
NIEM IEPD Lifecycle
26
Analyze Exchange Requirements

Mapping the business Process: The Justice
Information Exchange Model (JIEM)

Conceptual framework for understanding, describing, and
reengineering information exchange

Consists of five dimensions that identify exchanges

Each exchange is a unique combination of entries for each
dimension, plus additional data
27
How JIEM and SSGT interoperate
SSGT Mapping Tool
JIEM
Schema Subset Generation Tool (SSGT)
Mapping Report
Wantlist
SSGT
.XMI
ArgoUML
Subset.zip
28
JXDM Specifications and Service Models

Biometrics (ANSI-NIST ITL-2006)

FBI Electronic Fingerprint Transmission Specification
(EFTS)

Uniform Rap Sheet

NCIC 2000
– Sex Offender, Serious Violent Offender, Wants,
Warrants, Hot Files Protection Orders

OASIS Court Filing 3.0
29
Missouri Judicial Environment

Statutory project begun in 1995

Judiciary Information Architecture

Statewide Infrastructure Standards

Statewide case management system

Many other statewide technologies
30
Missouri’s Participation in Standards
Development

OASIS LegalXML Member Section

Electronic Court Case Filing

Specifications 3.01; 1.1; 1.0

Court Document Specification 1.1

Electronic Case Filing Functional and Technical Standards
(National Center for State Courts)

Global Justice XML Data Model (U.S. Department of
Justice)
31
Missouri Example

Business Problem: Converting legacy case management
information from a variety of proprietary disparate systems

Office of State Courts Administrator executive staff
requested the development of a generic criminal/traffic
conversion and a case transfer for Prosecuting Attorneys
32
Background Information

Prior to implementing GJXDM, custom
conversion programming was required for
each legacy system:

Limited code reuse

On average 18-24 months development time

Serial development activity
33
Successful Projects

Criminal Initial Filing



The transfer of criminal information from the local
prosecutors to the court
City of St. Louis case conversion

36 million records

1.3 million cases

Less than 8 months versus 18-24 months
Clay and Jefferson Counties
34
Future GJXDM Projects

E-Warrants


E-Filing


The transmission of warrant information to state and local
law enforcement
Electronic transmission of civil case information from
attorneys to the court
Drug Lab Results


Testing results for mandatory drug testing
from multiple contract labs
35
Implementing Advantages

Reusable components

Future projects can benefit

Improved communication between information provider
and project team

Reduce overall project delivery time


Conversions are now averaging 6 to 9 months
Reduce overall project costs
36
Levels of Standards

Choose the level of standard applicable to the
exchange
NIEM
JXDM
OASIS ECF 3.01
37
JXDM Building Blocks
Justice XML Data Dictionary
Court Data
Dictionary
Court Filing
Driver’s Arrest Warrant
License
Court Document
Incident Report
38
Standards for Courts

Consolidated Case Management System Functional
Standards

JTC of COSCA and NACM

Civil Case Management Functional Requirements

Domestic Relations Case Management Functional
Requirements

Criminal Case Management Functional Requirements


BJA
Juvenile Case Management Functional Requirements

OJJDP
39
Standards for Courts available via NCSC

Traffic Functional Requirements


Electronic Filing Processes (Technical and Business
Approaches)


SJI
LegalXML Member Section XML Court Document


NHTSA
JTC of COSCA and NACM
Electronic Court Filing XML Standard

JTC of COSCA and NACM
40
OASIS Electronic Filing 3.01 Specification

Began in 1999; First Specification in 2002; Latest revision
August 2006

Scope expanded in latest version

Components currently include:

Bankruptcy

Civil filing

Criminal filing

Court policy

Domestic filing

Service information

Queries

Docket information

Traffic citation
41
How Do I Connect the Silos?
Resources !
Available today

OJP and NIEM web sites

SEARCH JIEM IEPD Tool

JXDM - NIEM Spreadsheets

NCSC Wayfarer Search Tool

Schema Subset Generation Tools

Unified Modeling Language Tools

JXDM and NIEM National Virtual Help Desk

GTTAC Technical Assistance and Training
42
OJP Information Site
www.it.ojp.gov
43
NIEM Information Site
www.niem.gov
44
SEARCH JXDM/JIEM/NIEM Initiatives

XML Structure Task Force (XSTF)

Global Training and Technical Assistance Committee
(GTTAC)

IJIS Institute XML Committee

Technical Assistance and Training

(G) JXDM User Guide

Sponsor 1st Annual (G) JXDM User Conference

Lead developer of Reference Information Exchange
Package Documentation (IEPDs)

JXDM National Virtual Help Desk support

Global and NIEM committees
45
SEARCH 2006 - 2007 Focus

JIEM-IEPD Tool Development

IEPDs, horizontal analysis of components

Reusable component library

Reference Models

Expanded domains (emergency management, incident
command, intelligence and fusion)

Privacy

Service Oriented Architecture

Messaging/Transport
46
Thank you!


Catherine Plummer
SEARCH, The National Consortium
for Justice Information and Statistics


916-392-2550 x 301
[email protected]
Robin Gibson, PMP
Manager-Court Automation Fiscal and Planning
Office of State Courts Administrator
(573)751-4377
[email protected]
47
Q&A
XM
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Navigating the Standards Landscape