EVOLUTION OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Session I
09:30 - 10:15
Dr Deepak B Phatak,
IIT Bombay
SESSION OVERVIEW
Definition
of IT
– Technology That Permits Us To
Capture, Validate, Store, Retrieve,
Analyse, Present, Disseminate, And
Archieve Information
Growth
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Of Modern IT
Evolution Of IT
2
FIVE DECADES OF
COMPUTER EVOLUTION
The
Dark Ages
The Early Electronic Era
The Middle Ages
Proliferation of the IT Culture
The Current Scenario
What does the Future hold
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
3
PRE-HISTORIC COMPUTERS
Mechanical
Computers
Electro-Mechanical Machines
The Early Electronic Era
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
4
MECHANICAL COMPUTERS
Wilhelm
Schickhard
Blaise Pascal
Gottfried Liebniz
Charles Babbage
1623
1642
1671
– Difference Engine
– Analytical Engine
1823
1834
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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Mechanical/Electro-mechanical
Arithmometre,
Charles Thoma 1820
Comptometer, D.E. Felt
1885
Puched-Card Tabulating Machine
– Hervnan Hollerith (Census Data) 1890
– Comparing Tabulating Recording
Company
1911
– Renamed IBM
1924.
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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Mechanical/Electro-mechanical
Mechanical
Computer Z1
– by Konrad Zuse
Design
of General Purpose Computer
– Howard Aiken
Harvard
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
1938
1937
Mark I
Evolution Of IT
1939 - 1944
7
ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS
Information
Transmission at Speed
of Light (3,00,000 km/s)
Triode Vacuum Tube
– Lee De Forest
Attempts
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
1906
by Atanasoft in Late 1930’s
Evolution Of IT
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ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS
ENIAC
built
– John W. Mauchly & J. Presper Eckert
30 tons, over 18,000 Vacuum Tubes
Calculation of Ballistics tables
3 ms for one addition

Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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•STORED PROGRAM
ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS
John
Von Neumann (1903 - 1957)
– Consultant to ENIAC Project
– Proposed EDVAC
EDVAC
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
completed in
Evolution Of IT
1945
1951
10
•STORED PROGRAM
ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS
Manchester
MARK I
– Williams & Kilburn
First
1946
stored Program
– 21 June 1948 (GC tootill’s diary)
– 3.5 million operations to calculate
highest factor of an integer.
– 1,30,000 numbers tested, 52 Min.
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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1945 - 1955
Software
in Machine Language
Assembly Languages Evolve
Work Begins on Higher Level
Languages.
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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1956 - 1965
FORTRAN
Invented in 1956
COBOL Defined & Released in 1960
Algol Developed in Europe
3GL Programming Becomes The
Backbone of Application Software
Operating Systems Begin Maturing
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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•1956 - 1965 (Contd.)
Hardware
“Generations” evolve
Transistors Deployed in Second
Generation Machines
Early Integrated Circuits Mark Third
Generation beginning.
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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•1966 - 1975
VLSI,
4th Generation Hardware
Birth of the Microprocessor
– Intel 1972
Main-Frame
Centric Computing
Becomes Main Stay
Direct Access Storage Devices.
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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•1966 - 1975 (Contd.)
Software
Crisis Recognized
S/W Maintenance Receives Attention
CODASYL Defines First Data Base
Management System
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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•1966 - 1975
Codd’s
work on RDBMS released
– IBM System R
Early
work on UNIX and C
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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•1976 - 1985
RDBMS
gains Acceptance
UNIX Replaces proprietary O.S.
Software Engineering Methodologies
– Mature and get adopted
– Emergence of Standards
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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1976 - 1985 (Contd.)
Electronics
Goes Sub Micron
Processor Does One Million
Instructions Per Second (MIPS)
Winchester Technology for Disks
Semiconductor Memory Used
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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1986 - 1995
Microsoft
emerges as the main PC
Software Company
Client - Server Computing matures
Object Technologies Gain acceptance
RDBMS products standardization,
SQL, SQL-2, Draft SQL3
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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1986 - 1995 (Contd.)
DSS,
Data Warehousing Defined
On Line Analytical Processing
– Notions of Data Mining Emerge
Rapid
Growth of Internet
World Wide Web (WWW)
Intranets for Corporate Computing
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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1986 - 1995 (Contd.)
Transaction
Processing better
understood.
Evoluation of SMP and MPP
architectures
Digital announces one BIPS
processor
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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1986 - 1995 (Contd.)
Serious
work begins on Embedded
Systems
LAN’s and WAN’s Gain Momentum
Network Computer Emerges
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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CURRENT SCENARIO
Broad
spectrum of Resources
Very Large (24 x 7) OLTP Servers
Distributed Computing is the Norm
Embedded Systems are Evolving
– Smart Cards
– Intelligent Appliances
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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CURRENT SCENARIO
Massive
Data Warehouses
Packaged Software Gains Currency
– Make V/s Buy Decision
Media
Independent Data Formats
Flexible Delivery Mechanisms
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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THE EMERGING FUTURE
Internet
Outlets in all Buildings
Information Bonanza
– Anywhere, Anytime, Any form
Intelligent Appliances
Everywhere
Software Crisis will Deepen
Change Management ??
Dr. Phatak, IIT Bombay
Evolution Of IT
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