The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
The Shift from Political to
Ethnic Concepts in Modern
Missions
Copyright © 2005 Orville Boyd Jenkins
March 2005
The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
Early Modern Missions – Country-Oriented
Followed the Colonial Empires of
European Powers
 Nation-States in the Post-Colonial Era
 Geo-political map and view of the world
 Immigration and Logistics is by Country
March 2005
Orville Boyd Jenkins
The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
Countries and Peoples
Countries – 265 (ROG 2003)
 Languages – 6912 (Ethnologue 2005)
 Peoples – 10,700 (Registry of Peoples

2005)
March 2005
Orville Boyd Jenkins
The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
Kenya – Peoples and Languages
1996 Research on Kenyan Peoples

118 Ethnicities

85 languages
March 2005
Orville Boyd Jenkins
The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
Africa – Peoples and Languages
African Continent

48 Countries (more or less)

2058 languages (The Ethnologue)

Several Thousand Peoples
March 2005
Orville Boyd Jenkins
The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
Languages and Peoples
Language – Everybody speaks
one (or more)
What language do you learn?
 How does language relate to ethnic
identity?
 What strategies are implied?

The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
Languages
Living Languages -- Ethnologue
6528 (1992)
 6703 (1996)
 6809 (2000)
 6912 (2005)

13 years – increase of 384
identified languages
 (Plus thousands more dialect divisions)

The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
Languages – Illustration
Living Languages -- Ethnologue
France – 29 indigenous, plus 38
others
 USA – 176 indigenous, plus 163
others, and several dozen nonspecified
 Each of these represents at least
one ethnic group

The Ethnologue, 2000
The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
Kenya –Languages and Strategies
Baptist Approaches
Swahili national language – general
society, government business, education
 Church Work in Meru, Kikuyu, Luo,
others, later Kamba, Maasai, others
 1976 Giriama Project
 Indigenous Music Development in
many languages

March 2005
Orville Boyd Jenkins
The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
Kenya –Languages and Strategies
Baptist Approaches
Language and Orientation Program –
Swahili language as medium of African
culture learning
 Facilitating other languages
 Radio broadcasts in several languages
 Churches in the appropriate local
language

March 2005
Orville Boyd Jenkins
The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
Kenya –Languages and Strategies
Perspectives
The missionaries learned the language
needed to communicate meaningfully
 They lived and worked among the people
 Some missions worked only in English
or Swahili
 Limited to the elite
 Or at the mercy of a translator
 What are the people really understanding
and deciding?!

The Remaining Task
Countries to Peoples
The Shift from Political to
Ethnic Concepts in Modern
Missions
END
Copyright © 2005 Orville Boyd Jenkins
March 2005
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