Why are People in Luxembourg
Happy?
Language as an Identifier of Culture
in the Grand Duchy
by
Dr Ursula Schinzel
00352.621.322.543
[email protected]
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
1
Research Question:
The purposes of this study:
1. to explain where Luxembourg fits
in on Hofstede’s 7 dimensions of
culture
2. to explain Luxembourg people’s
high scores on the measure of
happiness
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
2
Methods
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Review of the Literature
Participant Observation (Primary Data)
Interviews (Primary Data)
Questionnaires (Primary Data)
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
3
Literature Review
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The era before
Hofstede:
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The era after Hofstede:
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Triandis, Harry
Smith, Peter, B.
Schwartz, Shalom
Trompenaars, Fons & Hamden-Turner, Charles
De Mooij, Marieke
Inglehart, Ronald
The GLOBE, House, Robert; Hanges, Paul…
Schein, Edgar
Bond, Michael, Harris
Mintzberg, Henry
Minkov, Michael
Hofstede, Gert Jan
McSweeney
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Maslow, Abraham
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McClelland, David
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Herzberg, Frederick
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Rockeach, Milton
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Hall, Edward
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Kluckhohn, Florence and Strodtbeck, Fred 
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The era besides
Hofstede:
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Scholz, Christian; Böhm, Hans
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Lewis, Richard D.
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Aaker, Jennifer
Spizzo, Daniel
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Briley, Donnel
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Nakata, Cheryl
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Kirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung, Hermans, Kempen….
The era beyond Hofstede:
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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Culture Theories
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The era before Hofstede (- 1980):
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Abraham Maslow
David McClelland
Frederick Herzberg
Milton Rockeach
Edward Hall
Florence Kluckhohn
Fred Strodtbeck
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PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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Culture Theories
 Hofstede’s
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Era (1980-2000):
Christian Scholz
Hans Böhm
Richard D. Lewis
Daniel Spizzo
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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Culture Theories
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The era after Hofstede (2000 - ):
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Harry Triandis,
Peter B. Smith,
Shalom Schwartz,
Fons Trompenaars & Charles Hamden-Turner,
Marieke De Mooij
Ronald Inglehart
The GLOBE: Robert House, Paul Hanges…
Edgar Schein,
Michael Harris Bond,
Henry Mintzberg
Michael Minkov
Gert Jan Hofstede,
McSweeney
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PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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Culture Theories
 New
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theories:
Jennifer Aaker
Donnel Briley
Cheryl Nakata
Kirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung,
Hermans, Kempen….
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
8
Geert Hofstede (1928- )
What did he do?
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Born in the Netherlands in 1928
IBM HRM research in the 1960s
116,000 questionnaires
Identified 4 cultural dimensions, later added more:
 IDV/COLL, UAI, PDI, MAS/FEM,
 LTO, IVR, MON.
Dared to contradict Maslow, Herzberg, McClelland
Brought cultural research from the US to Europe
Emeritus Professor at Maastricht University
http://www.geerthofstede.nl/
Start at 2:36
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
9
Culture
is measured in terms of all of
the following: symbols,
heroes, rituals, values,
practices, norms, beliefs,
self-perceptions, cognitive
ability and behaviours.
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
10
Heroes
are persons that serve as
model, i.e.
S.A.R. Grand-Duc Henri,
Jean-Claude Juncker,
Andy+Franck Schleck,
Charly Gaul,
Obama, Merkel, Hollande…
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
11
Symbols
are words, gestures,
pictures or objects, i.e.
jargon, dresses, hairstyle,
flags or status symbols.
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
12
Rituals
are collective activities
(Schouberfouer),
ways of greeting (Moien),
social and religious
ceremonies (Octave).
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
13
Values
are broad tendencies, feelings
that come in pairings like evil
versus good, dirty versus clean,
dangerous vs safe, forbidden vs
permitted, moral vs immoral,
ugly vs beautiful, unnatural vs
natural, irrational vs rational.
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
14
Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture
Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture - Explained Easily :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gJzRS0I7tA&feature=related
Individualism versus
Collectivism (IDV)
Power Distance
Index (PDI)
Uncertainty
Avoidance (UAI)
Masculinity versus
Femininity (MAS)
Long-Term versus ShortTerm Orientation(LTO)
Indulgence versus
Restraint (IVR)
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
Monumentalism
(MON)
11 + 12 September 2012
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Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)
defined as “people looking after themselves and their
immediate family only, versus people belonging to in-groups
that look after them in exchange for loyalty”.
Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)
defined as “the extent to which people feel threatened
by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these
situations”.
Power Distance Index (PDI)
defined as “the extent to which less powerful members of a
society accept and expect that power is distributed
unequally”.
Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)
defined as “the dominant values in a masculine society are
achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine
society are caring for others and quality of life”.
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
16
Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation(LTO)
defined as “the extent to which a society exhibits a
pragmatic future-orientated perspective rather than a
conventional historic or short-term point of view”.
Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR)
defined as “Indulgence stands for enjoying life and
having fun. Restraint stands for regulation of these by
strict social norms”.
Monumentalism (MON)
defined as “ veneration of heroes by buildings, songs,
music, celebrations”.
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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Luxembourg
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Unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy
Grand Duke: Henri
Prime Minister: Jean-Claude Juncker
Official languages: Luxembourgish, French, German
Capital Luxembourg (90,000 inhabitants)
Size: 2,586 km2
Population total: 511,000
Motto: “Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn” “We want to remain what we are”
Anthem: “Ons Heemecht” – “Our Homeland”
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
Queen Mary II and Marie-Astrid
11 + 12 September 2012
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Femmes
Leaders
Luxembourg
HRone
Fairs
‘Foires’
University
Luxbg
American
Chamber of
Commerce
POG –
Personnel
Officer’s
Group
Data Analysis:
Participant
Observation
PaperJam
Business
Club
Libreria
Italiana
Chamber of
Commerce
and Sacred
Heart
University
Luxembourg
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
BEE
SECURE
LPRA –
Luxembourg
Professionals
Recruiters
Association
European
Commission
Brasseries,
Restaurants,
Hotels,
Bars.
Luxembourg prefers:
Meeting in person, in a
Hotel or Bank. Over
Cocktail with Champagne/
Lunch or Dinner
11 + 12 September 2012
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Culture Calculation Formulas
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PDI = 35(mQVAL7 – mQVAL2) + 25(mQVAL23 – mQVAL26) + C (pd)
UAI = 40(m QVAL20 – mQVAL16) + 25(mQVAL24 – mQVAL27) + C (ua)
IDV = 35(mQVAL4 – mQVAL1) + 35(mQVAL9 – mQVAL6) + C (ic)
MAS = 35(mQVAL5 – mQVAL3) + 35(mQVAL08 – mQVAL10) + C (mf)
LTO = 40(mQVAL18 – mQVAL15) + 25(mQVAL28 – mQVAL25) + C (ls)
IVR = 35(mQVAL12 – mQVAL11) + 40(mQVAL19 – mQVAL17) + C (ir)
MON = 35(mQVAL14 – mQVAL13) + 25 (mQVAL22 – mQVAL21) + C
(mo)
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension:
Interviews’ and Questionnaires’ Results
in Collaboration with Lindab Buildings Diekirch
Table 1 Comparison Luxembourg – Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality (Lux. Nat.)
– Hofstede’s estimates on Luxembourg
(on a scale from 1-100, 1 being the lowest and 100 the highest score)
PDI
UAI
IDV
MAS
LTO
IVR
MON
Luxembourg
Lux. Nat.
Hofstede’s
estimates on
Luxembourg
36
97
51.5
47
69
53.5
10
29
95
34
54
65
55
24
40
70
60
50
64
56
-
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
21
Table 2 Cultural dimensions in Luxembourg Lux. Nat. – France – Germany – UK – Belgium FR –
Belgium NL – Italy – the Netherlands NL – China –
USA – Japan (on a scale from 0-100) (0=lowest,
100=highest)
Luxbg
PDI
36
UAI 97
IDV 51.5
MAS 47
LTO 69
IVR 53.5
MON 10
Lux.
Nat.
France Germany UK
Belgium
FR
Belgium Italy
NL
NL
29
95
34
54
65
55
24
68
86
71
43
63
48
68
93
71
60
82
57
-
61
97
78
43
82
57
-
38
53
80
14
67
68
35
65
67
66
83
40
16.5 9.9
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
35
35
89
66
51
69
35.4
11 + 12 September 2012
50
75
76
70
61
30
China USA
80
30
20
66
87
24
35.2 11.9 0
Japan
40
46
91
62
26
68
54
92
46
95
88
42
57.2 4.0
22
Logistic Regression
What is Logistic Regression?
Logistic regression allows prediction of group membership, for
example, prediction of whether someone is a belly dancer based
on gender, occupational category, preferred type of reading
material and age. Logistic regression allows to evaluate the odds
(the probability) of membership in the group of belly dancers
based on the combination of values of the predictor variables, 25
year old female sports professor, teaching hip-hop and reading
dance books.
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
23
Logistic Regression
Definition:
Logistic Regression is a statistical method used to model
the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable –
like for example ‘happiness’ – and a combination of
independent variables – like for example ‘taking risk’, ‘free
time for life’, ‘level of education’ ‘job level manager or nonmanager’, ‘state of health’, ‘religion’.
Logistic Regression is calculated in SPSS. SPSS is a computer
program from IBM. SPSS means ‘Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences’. Between 2009 and 2010 it was called PASW –
‘Predictive Analytics SoftWare’.
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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Logistic Regression
Table Logistic regression – Being happy – Regression coefficient and Odds Ratio
Taking Risk
Free Time for Life
Level of Education
Contradict boss
State of health
Importance of
Religion
Constant
Regression
Coefficients
0.931
0.974
-0.930
1.096
1.485
0.677
Odds Ratios
-0.628
0.534
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
2.538
2.647
0.394
2.993
4.416
1.969
25
Correlation Matrix
Taking
Risk
Free Time Level of
for Life
Education
Contradict
boss
State of
health
Taking Risk
1.000
Free Time for
Life
Level of
Education
Contradict
boss
State of health
0.214
1.000
0.054
-0.213
1.000
-0.149
0.126
0.182
1.000
0.105
0.006
-0.279
-0.233
1.000
Importance of
Religion
0.195
-0.101
-0.122
-0.065
0.086
Importance
of Religion
-
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
1.000
26
Constant -0.628
For a person who takes risks
+(0.931)x1
And who takes free time for
himself/herself
Who has a high level of education
+(0.974)x1
Who dares to contradict the boss
+(1.096)x1
Whose state of health is good
+(1.485)x1
For whom religion is important
+(0.677)x1
+(-0.930)x1
e = 3.605
z = 3.605
= 36.7817
+ 1 = 37.7817
logit = p
with z =
with the constant
p=
p=
p = 0.97
The probability for this person to be happy is 0.97. This is a very high probability,
near 1.
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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Logistic Regression:
The probability of Luxembourgers of
Who takes risk
being happy
Who takes free time for life for him/herself
Person
1
Probability
of being
happy =
0.97
Who has a high level of education
Who dares to contradict the boss
Whose state of health is good
For whom religion is important
Who does Not take risk
Person
2
Probability
of being
happy =
0.94
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
Who takes free time for life for him/herself
Who has a high level of education
Who dares to contradict the boss
Whose state of health is good
For whom religion is important
11 + 12 September 2012
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Correlation among all variables in SPSS
PDI
UAI
IDV
MAS
LTO
IVR
HAPPY
MON
N=134; * p<.05; ** p<.001
GENDER
EDUCATION
AGE
PDI
-
UAI
-.021
-
IDV
.135
-.011
MAS
.206*
LTO
.138
.059
.000
-
IVR
.031
.043 .318** .272**
.042
MON
.068
.023 .245**
.129
-.089 .244**
-
HAPPY
.038
.160
.045
.014 .268** .293**
.001
-
GENDER
-.030
.073
-.041
-.012
.004
-.029
-.105
.029
-
AGE
-.117
.031
-.059
.022
-.076
.108
-.312**
.040
-.128
-
.037
.
.230**
-.155
.106
.094
.119
.112
.060
.082
.120
-.025
-
.210*
-.001
.016
.080
-.043
.090
.006
.162 -.490**
-.084
EDUCATION
RANK
-
-.060 .517**
-
.030
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
-
11 + 12 September 2012
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Conclusion
LONG-TERM ORIENTATION

Luxembourgers are
 highly uncertainty avoidant
take their language as identifier
 long-term oriented
 have low power distance
 highly collectivist
 and are happy
HAPPY
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
30
EXPLANATIONS
PDI (Power Distance Indicator) in
Luxembourg is low with 36/100.
• Lux.Nat. have an even lower PDI of 29,
compared with China (80) and France
(68)
• Luxembourg being small, hierarchy is
not felt that much, boss and employees
meet in the same sport clubs,
supermarkets, bars, evening events
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
31
EXPLANATIONS
UAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Indicator) is
high, near 100 in Luxembourg (97) and
Lux.Nat.(95)
• Uncertain and unknown situations are
avoided,
• Secure, regulated, clear life without
surprises, is preferred
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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EXPLANATIONS
IDV (Individualism versus Collectivism) is
medium (51.5) in Luxembourg and
diverges from Lux.Nat. (34).
• Lux.Nat. are highly collective people,
preferring the well-being of the group
and country
• This is contrary to people in USA (91)
and Italy (76), where people take their
time for themselves or their immediate
family
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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EXPLANATIONS
MAS (Masculinity versus Femininity) is
medium (47) for Luxembourg and Lux.Nat.
(54)
• This shows a country where the
characteristics of a masculine dominant
country = competition and success, and
those of a feminine dominant country =
caring for others and quality of life, are
equally distributed
• The most masculine countries are Japan (95),
Austria and Venezuela, the most feminine are
Sweden, Norway and The Netherlands
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
34
EXPLANATIONS
LTO (Long-Term Orientation versus ShortTerm Orientation) is high in Luxembourg
(69) and Lux.Nat. (65)
• Long-term is characterized by foreseen,
and planned events and by
perseverance and thrift
• Contrary to USA (26) where short-term
decisions are taken.
• Germany with score of 83 on LTO is the
example for a highly long-term oriented
country
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
35
EXPLANATIONS
IVR (Indulgence versus Restraint) is
medium in Luxembourg (53.5) and
Lux.Nat. (55)
• In general people in Luxembourg
indulge on life, they love profiting from
the benefits of life, they enjoy life
• Italy has an IVR of 30, where religion,
traditions and social rules limit personal
enjoying of life
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
36
EXPLANATIONS
MON (Monumentalism) is low in
Luxembourg (10) but more than the double
for Lux.Nat. (24).
• Lux.Nat. love their national traditions
and nationality, the Grand Ducal family,
National Day, National Hymn and are
living their national identity.
• The USA (54.2) are living a strong MON,
contrary to Japan (4); US people love
symbols, banner, heroes, their
president, elections…
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
37
LANGUAGE AS IDENTIFIER
After World War I the need was to assure the national identity,
to give value to the concept of ‘citizenship’, why it is important
to be ‘Luxembourger’ and the advantages that come with the
citizenship. When Nazism (World War II) engulfed small
Luxembourg, because for Germans this small land seemed to
be German, the Luxembourgish language attained its
importance, the discriminating factor to distinguish between
who is able to benefit from Luxembourgish citizenship and its
advantages, and who not. Luxembourgish language defines the
in-group. In order to benefit from all of the advantages of the
Luxembourgish nationality, one has to be able to speak
Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is not only a dialect, but the
key giving access to the advantages of the rights of the
citizenship. French is for bureaucratic problems, German for
religious ceremonies, Luxembourgish to define the in-group
(Spizzo, 1995).
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture
in Luxembourg: Why are people in
Luxembourg happy?
Luxembourgers are happy because they:
are highly uncertainty avoidant
take their language as identifier
are long-term oriented
have low power distance
are highly collectivist
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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Thank you for your attention
PhD Days 2012 Presentation by Dr Ursula Schinzel
11 + 12 September 2012
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