The Imperial Russia
Lecture 2
Lyra Riabov
Associate Professor
Southern New Hampshire University
Russian Empire
1613-1917
 Romanov Dynasty
 Westernizing Russia
 The Golden Age of Russian Culture
Northern Russian Architecture, XVIIth Century, Kizhi
Russian Architecture, XVIth - XVIIIth Centuries
The Romanov Dynasty
MIKHAIL
FEODOROVICH
1613-1645
1645-1676
FEODOR
ALEXEEVICH
1676-1682
CATHERINE I
1725-1727
PETER II
1727-1730
ANNA IVANOVNA
1730-1740
PAUL I
1796-1801
ALEXANDER I
1801-1825
ALEXEI
MIKHAILOVICH
NICHOLAS I
1825-1855
IVAN V (IVAN
ALEXEEVICH)
1682-1696
IVAN VI
1740-1741
ALEXANDER II
1855-1881
SOFIA
ALEXEEVNA
1682-1689
ELIZAVETA
PETROVNA
1741-1761
PETER III
1761-1762
ALEXANDER III
1881-1894
PETER THE GREAT
EMPEROR OF ALL
RUSSIA 1721-1725
CATHERINE THE GREAT
1762-1796
NICHOLAS II
1894-1917
Peter The Great
1689 - 1725
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Transformed Russian Society to its
foundation
Military reform: Russia was at war in
every year of Peter’s reign but one
Peter ordered thousands of Church
bells to be melt down and made into
cannons and cannonballs
His army numbered more than
200,000 regular troops, the largest
in Europe
He built ships and had 28,000
sailors
Built St. Petersburg, a new capital of
Russia
Placed Church under control of Holy
Synod, a secular office
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Peter defeated the Swedes in the
battle of Poltava in 1709, obtained
territory on the Baltic coast, and
marked the emergence of Russia as
a military power in Europe
Developed economy and created a
better, more enlightened
administration
Introduced sweeping government
reforms, using western European
models: a Senate was created with
“Twelve colleges”/ministries
Foreign trade increased by 400%
Introduced new taxes
Decreed to shave beards,
westernized clothes, encouraged
learning foreign languages
In 1703 Peter said,“ Here shall be a town.”
Peter I in 1716
Summer Palace of Peter the Great
Peter I Bust in Copenhagen
Grand Palace and Fountains in
Petrodvorets
St. Petersburg –A Window on the West
Peter the Great
The Admiralty
St. Peter & Paul Fortress
Kunstcamera, Peter’s First Museum
Vasilievsky Island – The place of original Peter the Great’s Port More Views
Catherine the Great
Catherine II to Peter I
They both admired Western Culture
Peter had practical nature:
imported western technology
Shipbuilding fascinated Peter
Catherine was interested in culture
and ideas. She built palaces and
purchased grand collections of art
Catherine corresponded with
French philosophers Voltaire and
Rousseau. She also was the
author of essays, plays, poems and
music.
Peter was traveling in Europe as a
The Bronze Horseman
workman learning shipbuilding,
navigation, geometry,dentistry, and On the Shore by the desolate waves
carpentry.
He stood, with lofty thoughts,
Reigned: 1762-1796
Born in Germany
Married Peter III in 1745
Great intelligence, strong will
Passionate and clever woman
Turned her romances to the advantage of the state
And gaze into the distance…
Alexander Pushkin (1833)
Palaces of St. Petersburg, XVIIIth - XIXth Centuries
St. Petersburg & Peterhof, XVIIIth - XIXth Centuries
Catherine the Great
“My aim is to do good…to bring happiness freedom and
well being to my subjects”
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Publication of books increased from 600
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Peter the Great had ended the threat to
during Peter the Great’s reign to 7,500
Russia from Sweden,and Catherine did
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Built Smolny Institute for noblewomen
the same from the Ottoman Empire and
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Founded Odessa, a southern port and
Poland
stronghold on the Black sea
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Established Russian Academy of Science
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Ended the initial concord between the
empress and the writers
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most of Poland, the Crimea,and the
Northern Caucasus
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Confirmed and strengthened gentry’s
ownership of land and serfs. Peasants
Signed the execution sentence of
were serfs since XVIth century.
Alexander Radishchev for his pamphlet
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Expanded Russian territories: annexed
Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow, in
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Seized Church lands for state needs
which he described the evils of serfdom.
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Emancipated Nobility from compulsory
Ended Pugachev rebellion in blood
state service, and granted freedom from
taxation
1812 Russia’s War against Napoleon
Alexander I
Kutuzov, Commander-in
-Chief of Russian Army
1801-1825
Napoleon Bonaparte
invaded Russia with
600,000 troops in 1812.
Interested in the ideas of
constitutional government and
corresponded with Thomas
Jefferson
Only one-tenth of this
number left Russia alive.
The end of Napoleonic
Empire was in sight.
Won the war over Napoleon
This was an epic and popular
victory for Russia, later
celebrated in word (Tolstoy’s War
and Peace) and music
(Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture)
Napoleon Bonaparte
Kutuzov is at Fili meeting
before the Battle at
Borodino
Emancipation of Serfs in1861
It is better to abolish serfdom from
above rather than await the time when
it will begin to abolish itself from below
Alexander II 1855-1881
50 million serfs received freedom
Ilya Repin. Barge Haulers on the Volga.
1870-1873. Oil on canvas. The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
In Search for Truth
It was a quest to grasp the idea of Russia, its nationality,
its character, its history, its customs and conventions, its
spiritual essence and its destiny.
“Nowhere has the artists been more burdened with the task
of moral leadership and national prophesy, nor more feared
and persecuted by the state. Alienated from official Russia
by their politics, and from peasants by their education,
Russia’s artists took it upon themselves to create a national
community of values and ideas through literature and art…if
we look carefully, they may become a window on to a
nation’s life.”
Orlando Figes, Historian
The Golden Age of Russian Culture
Pushkin
Lermontov
Gogol
Glinka
Tchaikovsky
Dostoevsky
Repin
Karl Brullov
Isaac Levitan
Turgenev
Leo Tolstoy
Borodin
Musorgsky
Mendeleev
Hertzen
Orest Kiprensky (1782-1836)
Alexander Pushkin
Evgraf Davydov
Nikolai Ge (1831-1894)
What is Truth?
Peter is Interrogating his Son Alexis
Karl Brullov (1799-1852)
Self-portrait & The Last Day Of Pompeii (Detail)
Ivan Kramskoy (1837-1887)
Leo Tolstoy
Christ in the Wilderness
Serov, Levitan, Miasoedov
XIXth – XXth Centuries
The End of Romanov Dynasty
1613 - 1917
Nicolas
Alexandra
Olga
Tatiana
Marie
Anastasia
Alexei
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The Imperial Russia