科技發展與大眾媒體簡史
傳播科技
世新大學
圖文傳播暨數位出版學系
劉耀仁
傳 播 的 過 程
傳播(Communication)係指交換資訊的一
種過程,簡單的說,資訊(Information)
係指傳播的內容
 傳播的過程可分為八個構程要素,而在
每一次資訊的交換中被使用
(Schramm,1982):
發訊者(source):為傳播的創作者或起源處

訊息(message):為傳播的內容,指將被交
換的資訊
製碼者(encoder):將訊息轉譯為可被傳播的
形式
管道(channel):將訊息由某處傳輸至另一處
時,所使用的媒介或傳送系統
解碼者(decoder):將所接收到的符碼訊息,
轉議成為人們可了解的形式
受訊者(receiver):為傳播的最終目的地
回饋(feedback):為介於發訊者與受訊者之
間的一種結構,可被用來作為調整傳播
之流通的途徑
雜訊(noise):為資訊交換時可能發生的失真
或錯誤
傳 播 的 類 型

個人內在傳播

人際傳播
針對個人本身
• 思考
• 私人日記
面對面
• 交談
• 肢體語言
單向面對多向
• 電話
• 電子郵件

小群體傳播
單向面對多向
• 散佈的傳真訊息
• 電子郵件名單
面對面
• 群體間交談
單向面對單向
• 討論式對話
單向面對多向
• 會議式電話

大群體傳播

大眾媒介
• 演講
• 授課
中心式的發訊者對個別
的受訊者
• 報紙
• 電視、無線電廣播
新的科技與大眾媒介

大眾媒介的發訊者
• 宣偉伯(Wilbur Schramm)—提出大眾
媒介之傳統定義
• 議題設定(agenda setting)—由守門
人(gatekeepers)的精英人員,決定受
眾應該接收哪些訊息

大眾媒介的訊息
• 從前,大眾媒介的訊息並未經過區隔
化,而僅是將其傳送給盡可能多數的
受訊者; 首要策略是將受訊者的喜好
及觀念加以均質化(homogenize) ,
以達成工業化社會中的大量市場目標
• 新的大眾媒介更傾向於迎合特定的群體,
甚至不斷的界定出新群體

大眾媒介管道
每一種媒介均需要有為特定目標而
設傳送或分配系統,其訊息也非是永久
性的
目前的管道數量與種類,產生了極
大的改變

大眾媒介的受眾
• 傳統觀念受眾是一個未經區隔化的群體
• 大眾媒體訊息受眾是一群沉默的接受者
• 媒介的經濟狀況需要受眾來製造或維繫
大眾媒介系統所花費的
巨額支出,盡可能的由
這些廣大的受眾身上取
得





傳播媒介與傳播科技的重要性
大眾媒介與資訊科技之融匯與市場結合
的概念的代表意義
傳播的種類
傳播的互動性
新的科技對大眾媒介的影響?市場將如何
受影響?
Communication Technology
What is it?




Provides a transfer of knowledge to people all
over the world.
Records, stores, manipulates, analyzes, and
transmit data.
Includes computers, graphic media, electronic
transmitters, recognizing devices, and
entertainment products etc.
Deals with information in digital form.
Communication Technology:
Why is it Important?


Assist people in making decisions and solving
problems
Allow individuals research and check out facts
of messages



Form of entertainment: Radio, movies, TV,
videogames.
Gather facts on how to use other technologies to
help society
Understand influences of technology (i.e., timing
culture, sequencing etc.)
MILESTONES IN
COMMUNCATIONS






Early words (3500-1BC)
Printing (AD100-1600)
Cameras and microphones (1700-1840)
Telegraphs and telephones (1850-1900)
Pictures—still and moving (1880-1900)
Entertainment and information (1900present)
Early words (3500-1BC)







In about 3500 BC ancient Egyptians used papyrus, pressed into flat
sheets, as a writing surface. Later they used parchment (the dried
skin of animals like sheep).
In around 3000 BC the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia developed
cuneiform writing. Having a writing system allowed people for the
first time to record information and ideas.
By about 1700 BC a 22-letter alphabet was used by the ancient
Phoenicians.
In about 1100 BC the first dictionary was compiled by the Chinese.
Paper was invented by the Chinese in about 140 BC, but there is little
evidence that it was used for writing at the time.
By 40 BC the library at Alexandria in Egypt was the greatest
storehouse of knowledge in existence, containing more than 400,000
scrolls.
In around 5 BC Roman physician Celcus compiled an early
encyclopedia, devoted to medical subjects. The modern encyclopedia
was published on 1728 by British publisher Ephraim Chambers(c. 16801740).
象形文字
Printing (AD100-1600)





In the first millennium AD, China was the source of a
number of important inventions for communicating.
In 110 the oldest surviving writing paper was made
in China.
In 748 the world’s first printed newspaper was
produced in Beijing, China.
By 751 the earliest printed text, a Buddhist scroll,
was completed.
Arab physicist Alhazen (965-c. 1040) proposed a way
of studying an eclipse of the sun, which formed the
basis of the pinhole camera, or camera obscura,
described by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1400s and
invented in 1570 by Giovani Battista della Porta.
Printing (cont.)






In about 1045, the Chinese were printing using movable type,
an invention that was developed in Europe 400 years later, in
1453, by German printer Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1468). The
first English book was printed in 1474 by William Caxton
(c.1422-c.1491).
In 1107 printing with several colors was developed in China,
initially to make the forgery of paper money more diffcult.
In 1155 the earliest known printed map was produces in China.
By 1189 the earliest paper mill in Europe was established.
By about 1250 the quill pen (goose feather) became the most
popular writing instrument in Europe.
In 1565 German natural scientist Konrad Gessner (1516-1565)
invented the graphite-filled pencil.
Cameras and microphones
(1700-1840)





The year 1702 saw the launch of the Daily Courant in London,
Britain’s first daily newspaper.
In 1725 French inventor Basile Bouchon devised the punchedcard system to control a loom; this was the forerunner of
computer programs.
In 1796 Czech printer and playwright Alois Senefelder (17711834) invented lithography, a nonrelief printing method using
limestone and frease. He used the process, which he discovered
by accident, as an economic way to duplicate his scripts.
In 1824 French teacher Louis Braille (1809-1852), blind from
age 3, invented a raised-point writing system for the blind.
In 1839 the earliest photographic print on silver chloride
paper was made by British physicist W. Fox Talbot (1800-1877).
In the same year, the daguerreotype photographic process
was invented by French painter Jacques Daguerre (1789-1851).
Telegraphs and telephones
(1850-1900)



Scientists had been experimenting with telegraphs for many
years before British physicists Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875)
and William Cooke (1806-1879) patented the telegraph in
1837. The invention transformed communications by making
fast, long distance communication possible for the first time.
In 1837, American inventor Samuel Morse first demonstrated his
code for transmitting messages. Morse code became the
standard used in telegraphy.
The year 1854 saw the installation of an electric telegraph
between London and Paris. In the same year, the cathode ray
tube was invented by German glassblower Heinrich Geissler
(1814-1879).
Telegraphs and telephones
(cont.)




In 1858 the first telegraph cables were laid across the Atantic
Ocean. By 1872, most of the world’s major cities could
communicate with one another by telegraph.
In 1867 the mechanical typewriter was invented.
In 1876 the telephone was invented by British-born American
inventor Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922). Several other
scientists were working on the device on the device at the same
time, but Bell was the first to receive a patent. The carbon
microphone, developed by American inventor Thomas Edison
(1847-1931) the following year, vastly improved the phone’s
sound quality.
In 1878 the first telephone exchange opened in New Haven,
CT. The exchange offered a slow service until the mechanical
automatic selector was designed a decade later. Electronic
exchanges, providing an even faster service, were introduced in
the 1960’s.
Pictures—still and moving
(1880-1900)



In 1881 the earliest color photograph was
produced by American invetor Frederick lves (18561937). In the same year a forerunner of the movie
camera was devised by French physiologist EtienneJules Marey (1830-1903) to analyze movements.
In 1885 continuous photographic film was
invented by American invetor George Eastman (18541932), making cheap photography and moving
pictures possible.
In 1890 British inventor William Frieze-Green (18551921) pioneered motion pictures, showing his first
movie; he later devised color and 3-D
cinematography.
Pictures—still and moving
(cont.)




In 1895 Italian inventor and electrical engineer Guglielmo
Marconi (1874-1937) made his first successful transmission by
wireless telegraphy, or radio. Six year later, he sent
transatlantic radio signals for the first time. Commercial radio
broadcasts began in the US in 1920, when station KDKA,
Pittsburgh, PA went on air.
Also in 1895, the cinematograph, a cinema projector, was
used to project a moving film.
In the late 1890’s, the zoetrope was one of a number of
optical toys that produced “moving” pictures.
In 1896 American statistician Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) set
up International Business Machines (IBM) after his success in
using the punched-card system to process the 1890 US
census.
Entertainment and
information (1900-present)



In 1904 gramophone records were invented.
In 1924 American electrical engineer Edwin
Armstrong (1890-1954) devised frequency
modulation (FM), a static-free way of the
transmitting radio signals that achieved great
popularity with music stations in the 1950’s and
1960s.
In 1926 the first “talkie” motion picture –The Jazz
Singer, starring AI Jolson-was released. During the
same year, the television pictures were produced
by British electrical engineer John Baird (1888-1946).
Color television was first broadcast in 1940.
Entertainment and
information (cont.)




In 1936 paperback books were first marketed
under the Penguin Books imprint.
In 1937, American inventor Chester Carlson (19061986) discovered the process of xerography, which
was later developed by Xerox Corporation in
photocopying machines.
In 1952 the first transistor radio was developed by
the Sony Corporation.
In 1956 the first computer programming
language, FORTRAN, was devised by IBM. Other
computer languages developed later include COBOL
and BASIC.
Entertainment and
information (cont.)





Audio cassettes were introduced in 1963, and video
cassettes in 1969.
In 1981, IBM launched the first personal computers (PCs),
giving individuals access to computers for the first time.
In 1982 compact disk (CD) players were introduced. CDs are
a digital system of recording, as opposed to analog, and cannot
wear out.
In 1985 the CD-ROM (compact-disk read-only memory) was
introduced, greatly expanding data storage capacity.
The 1990s saw the introduction of the “information
superhighway.” One aspect of this is Internet, which
connects users to a range of information sources and activities –
including newspapers, archives, and electronic mail—though
computer link-ups and telephone lines. There are an estimated
15 million users in the US, and 25 million worldwide.
Satellite join to communication

"Sputnik 1" was
the first satellite in
space. It was
launched in October
4, 1957 by the
USSR. It was a
sphere with a
diameter of 58
centimetres that
weighed 84
kilogrammes.
A History of Information and
Communication Technologies
引用自:William J. McIver, Jr.
School of Information Science & Policy
University at Albany
Albany, New York
31
Information and
Communication Technologies






Information Use
Computing Devices
Electronic Computers
Other Computing Technologies
Telecommunications Systems
Programming technologies / languages
Information and
Communication
Information


Knowledge derived from study, experience, or instruction
A collection of facts or data
Communication

The act of communicating
Communicate

The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech,
signals, writing, or behavior.
Modes of Information Use in
Human History













Oral cultures (> 1,000,000 years ago)
Painting (> 20,000 B.C.E.)
Writing (7,000 - 3800 B.C.E.)
Printing (circa 800 B.C.E. - 1456 C.E. )
Non-electronic Computation (1623 - 1940s)
Telegraphy (1844)
Telephone (1876)
Radio (1895)
Television (1929)
Electronic Computation ( circa 1945)
Computer networking (1969)
Commercial Internet (1990)
World Wide Web (1992)
Ancient Computational Devices
Hand Devices

Counting bones (circa 6,000 B.C.E.)


Khipu (or Quipu) (600 - 1000 C.E.)




calendar or enumeration systems
Andean peoples
made from string
used to record various kinds of information,
including numbers
Abacus (circa 500 B.C.E.)


counting boards (500 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.)
Chinese, Korea, and Japan 1200 C.E. - 1600 C.E.
Early Computational Devices
Mechanical Calculators



Wilhelm Schickard (1624)

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication
Blaise Pascal’s Pascaline (1645)
Gottfried Leibniz Calculator (1694)


Development influenced by:



division, square root
European Scientific Revolution
Growth in Commerce
Not widely adopted


Most people did not yet understand their benefits
Expensive and hard to fix
Early Computational Devices
Industrial Revolution

Joseph Marie Jacquard -- The Jacquard
Loom (1801)




automated weaving
cards used to “program” the loom
widely adopted
11,000 Jacquard looms in France by 1812.
Early Computational Devices
Programmable Machines

Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine (1822*)



Charles Babbage and Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace’s
Analytical Engine (1837*)





* never completed
designed to automate the process for calculating the roots of
polynomials
* never completed
introduced concept of stored program
borrowed concepts from Jacquard
Ada is said to be the world’s first programmer.
Pehr George Scheutz’s Difference Engine (1854)

Based on Babbage’s work.
Early Computational Devices
Programmable Machines

Herman Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine (1884)




used paper cards with holes punched in them
holes in the cards permitted an electrical contact
to be made, activating a counter
developed for the U.S. census of 1890.
reduced the census count to 2 years from 6 years
for the 1880 census.

approx. 60,000,000 cards were processed.
Sources :
Stern and Stern (1983). Computers in Society. Prentice-Hall.
Digital Computers
The Basic Architecture

Due to John von Neumann, a
mathematician at Princeton
University.
Random
Access
Central
Processing
Unit (CPU)
Memory
(RAM)
data bus
Input / Output
Device
Input / Output
Device
...
Digital Computers
Electromechanical computers

Used relays (electro-mechanical switches) to complete circuits.
Influenced by World War II.
Most developers unaware of Babbage’s work.

Z3, Konrad Zuse, Germany (1941)





probably the first fully functional digital computer.
Mark I, Howard Aiken, Harvard University (1944)
Models I - V, George R. Stibitz, Bell Labs (1946)
Sources
Stern and Stern (1983). Computers in Society. Prentice-Hall.
Horst Zuse. (n.d.). http://www.epemag.com/zuse/default.htm
Digital Computers
Electronic computers
First generation computers (1942 - 1956)



ABC, Atanasoff and Berry,Iowa State University (1942)


never completed
ENIAC, Mauchly and Eckert, University of Pennsylvania (1946)


No moving parts.
Used vacuum tubes
programmed by setting switches
EDVAC, Mauchly and Eckert, University of Pennsylvania (1951)

stored programs
Digital Computers
Electronic computers

UNIVAC, Mauchly and Eckert, Remington
Rand (1951)



first commercial computer
used magnetic for input and output
46 machines were sold.
Sources
Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information
Technology.
http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Stern and Stern (1983). Computers in Society. Prentice-Hall.
Digital Computers
Electronic computers
Second Generation Computers (1956 - 1958)

transistors




smaller and more reliable than vacuum tubes
faster
Bell Labs Leprechaun (1956)
Other computers built by IBM, Philco, GE, and RCA
Sources
Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information
Technology.
http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Digital Computers
Electronic computers
Third Generation Computers (1958 - )


computers built with integrated circuits (ICs)

ICs were invented in 1958 by Fairchild Semiconductor

ICs are silicon “chip” containing transistors.
ICs reduced the size of computers and allowed specific functions to be
“packaged” into mass produced units

e.g. adders, flip-flops, memory, etc.
Sources
Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information
Technology.
http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Digital Computers
Electronic computers

Digital Equipment Corporation (1962 - 1971)



produced a minicomputer
$15,000
IBM 360 Computer (1964)


Made using ICs
addressed compatibility and scalability issues


could be expanded
each member of the 360 line was compatible with the other
perhaps the most popular mainframe computer for over 2
decade.
Sources

Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology.
http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Digital Computers
Electronic computers
Fourth Generation (1971 - present)
 Computers built with microprocessors
 Intel invented the first microprocessor in 1971 -- the
4004.
 Microprocessors are large integrated circuits


based on transistors -- like other ICs
all of the logic of a CPU contained in one chip
Sources
Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology.
http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Digital Computers
Electronic computers

First personal computers were developed

Altair (1974)




Bill Gates and Paul Allen license their version of BASIC to Altair
Apple I (1976), Apple II (1977)
IBM PC (1981)
Macintosh (1984) : Graphic user interface, GUI
Sources
Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology.
http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Other Computing Technologies

The first hard drive invented by IBM
(1956)



the RAMAC 305
5 MB
50 platters, each 2 ft in diameter
Other Computing Technologies

Interactive Computing Concepts

Vannevar Bush (1945) essay “As We May Think”


J.C.R. Licklider (1960)



article “Man Computer Symbiosis”
MIT Sketchpad: first interactive graphics system
(1963)
Douglas Englebart (1963 - present)


The Memex concept
mouse and windowing concepts invented and developed
(1963 - 1968)
Xerox PARC (1970s)

developed first commercial windows-based computers
Other Computing Technologies


Computer Plotters (1960s)
Compact Disc Invented at Philips
Research (1969)

Released in 1982 and 1983.
History of Microcomputers
History of Microcomputers






1971
1974
1977
1978
1981
1983
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Who’s Who?

Bill Gates

Paul Allen


Steve
Wozniak
Steve Jobs
First Microprocessor

1971 - Intel 4004 Chip
First Microcomputer



1974 – 75 MITS (Micro Instrumentation
and Telemetry Systems) Altair 8800
Microprocessor was Intel 8080
Ran BASIC
MITS Altair 8800

The MITS Altair 8800 was based on a 2
MHz Intel 8080 with 256 bytes standard
RAM and interfaced with the user
through the octal front panel switches.
The unit shown has an 8" floppy disk
drive.
MITS Altair 8800
MITS Altair 8800
MITS Altair 8800

It was the Altair 8800, on the January
1975 cover of Popular Electronics, that
really set off the (personal computer)
boom. A company called MITS, in
Albuquerque, sold the Altair for $395 as
a kit and $495 assembled. Within three
months 4,000 people had ordered it.
1977
Beginning of Microcomputers

Commodore PET



RAM: 4 – 16 K
Secondary Storage: Cassette Tape
Cost: $495
1977
Beginning of Microcomputers

Radio Shack TRS-80



RAM: 4 – 32 K
Secondary Storage: Cassette Tape
Cost: $600
1977
Beginning of Microcomputers

Apple II



RAM: 16 – 64 K
Secondary Storage: Cassette Tape OR 5 ¼
Floppy Disk Drive
Cost: $1,300
First KILLERAP

1978 VisiCalc




First Electronic Spreadsheet
Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston
Written for the Apple II
Cost: $295
BIG Brother Appears



1981 IBM enters the microcomputer
market
Brought respectability to the
microcomputer industry
IBM’s First Microcomputer


IBM PC
MS-DOS (extra $25 for PC-DOS)
First Integrated Software
Package



1983 Lotus 1-2-3
Word processor, spreadsheet, database
Designed for the IBM PC
Telecommunication
Technologies

Telegraph




Samuel Morse 1844
First telegraph line was between Baltimore and Washington, DC in 1844
Trans-Atlantic communication 1866
Trans- U.S. communciation1869

Facsimile (FAX) (1842 - 1865)

Telephone



Invented in 1876
1,000,000 phones by 1900
First call from NY to San Francisco in 1915
Telecommunication
Technologies

Radio


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Guglielmo Marconi invented radio (1895)
First trans-Atlantic signal (1901)
Television


Vladimir Kosma Zworykin, Russia, invents the kinesope (television
receiver) (1923-1924)
First demonstration 1929 Pittsburgh, USA
Telecommunication
Technologies

MODEM (Modulator/Demodulator)



Computer Networking (1965 - 1969)
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AT&T Bell Labs 1960
300 Baud
MIT, RAND, National Physical Labs in UK develop packet switching
ARPANET started in the U.S. (1969)
50 computers by 1975
Interactive Cable Television (1973-1977)
Minitel/Teletel, France, 1979 - present
Sources
McIver & Elmagarmid (forthcoming)
Telecommunication
Technologies
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

ARPANET --> CSNET, NSFNET, etc. (1980s -)
World Wide Web released for public use 1992
First Web browser released 1993: Mosaic
Sources
McIver & Elmagarmid (forthcoming)
Digital Computers
Software Technologies

Machine languages/programming



Wires and Plug Boards used to program the
earliest computers
Cards encoded with “machine language” then
used.
Short Code -- hand compiled
Sources
BYTE, www.byte.com
Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information
Technology.
http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Digital Computers
Software Technologies

First High Level Languages

compilers -- programs which translated programs from one language to
another






high level language --> machine instructions.
interpreters -- programs which interpret programs in a language
FORTRAN, John Backus (1956)
COBOL, Grace Hopper (1959)
LISP (1959)
BASIC, John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz, Dartmouth College (1964)
Sources
BYTE, www.byte.com
Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology.
http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Digital Computers
Software Technologies

Structured Programming Languages






introduced ideas of variable scope, strong typing, and
disciplined program structure
ALGOL (1960 and 1968)
PASCAL (1970)
C (1974)
Modula II (1980)
Ada (1983)
Sources
BYTE, www.byte.com
Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology.
http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Digital Computers
Software Technologies

Object-Oriented Programming Languages




introduced ideas of information hiding (encapsulation),
inheritance, and polymorphism
SmallTalk (1980)
C++ (1986)
Java (1995)
Sources
BYTE, www.byte.com
Kathleen Guinee. (1995). A Journey through the History of Information Technology.
http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~kguinee/thesis.html
Sun Micrcosystems, Inc. www.javasoft.com

Technology Push

Market Pull
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