Technology
in Action
Alan Evans • Kendall Martin
Mary Anne Poatsy
Ninth Edition
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Technology in Action
Final Review
Chapters 8-13
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2
Technology in Action
Chapter 8
Digital Lifestyle:
Managing Digital Data and Devices
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How Cellular Works
• Sound enters microphone as sound wave
• Analog-to-digital converter chip converts
voice sound waves into digital signals
• Digital signal processor compresses the
signal so it will transmit more quickly
• Digital signal processor decompresses
incoming message
• Amplifier boosts signal to make it louder and
passes it to speaker
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4
Cell/Smartphone Processors
• Processor coordinates sending all data
among other electronic components
• Runs the cell/smartphone’s operating
system which provides user interface
• Popular processors include:
– Qualcomm Snapdragon
– Apple A4
– Marvel XScale
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5
Cell/Smartphone Operating Systems
• Each manufacturer makes own small
changes and designs own user interface
• Number of operating systems available
– Windows Phone 7
– Apple’s iOS for iPhone
– webOS for HP Pre
– Android by Google
– Open source systems
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Text Messaging
• Short message service (SMS)
– Allows you to send short text messages
– Up to 160 characters
– Convenient and quicker than e-mail
• SMS uses cell phone network to send
messages to any SMS device in world
• MMS is an extension that allows you to
send messages that include, text, sound,
images, and video
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7
Chapter 8 Summary Questions
4. How is digital media different from
analog?
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8
Technology in Action
Chapter 9
Securing Your System:
Protecting Your Digital Data and Devices
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9
What Viruses Do
• Main purpose
– Replicate themselves and copy code to as
many other files as possible
• Secondary objectives
– Slow down networks
– Display annoying messages
– Destroy files or contents of hard drive
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Catching a Virus
• If exposed to an infected file, the virus will
try to copy itself and infect a file on your
computer
• Sources of virus infection
– Downloading infected audio and video files
– Shared flash drives
– Downloading or executing a file attached to
e-mail
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Computer Safeguard: Antivirus
Software and Software Updates
• Antivirus software is designed to detect
viruses and protect your computer
• Popular antivirus software companies
– Symantec
– Kaspersky
– AVG
– McAfee
• Comprehensive Internet security packages
protect you from other threats
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Antivirus Software
• Designed to detect suspicious activity
– Scan files for virus signatures (unique code)
– Identifies infected files and type of virus
– Provides choice of deleting or repairing infected
file
– Places virus in secure area (quarantining)
– Records key attributes about file and rechecks
these statistics during scan (inoculating)
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Denial-of-Service Attacks
• In a denial-of-service (DoS) attack, users are
denied access to computer system because
hacker is making repeated requests
• When flooded with requests, the system
shuts down
• Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack
launches attacks from more than one zombie
computer
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Firewalls
• Software program or hardware designed to
protect computers from hackers
– Consider installing both for maximum protection
• Software firewalls
– Most operating systems include firewall
– Many security suites include firewall software
• Hardware firewall devices
– Routers
– Keep unused logical ports closed
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Malware, Adware, and Spyware
• Malware
– Software that has malicious intent
• Adware
– Displays sponsored advertisements
– Pop-up windows
• Spyware
– Unwanted piggyback programs that download
with other software you install from Internet
that transmit information about you
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Spam
• Unwanted or junk e-mail
• Avoid spam in primary e-mail account
– Create free Web-based e-mail account
– Use spam filter
– Read privacy policy
– Don’t reply to spam to remove yourself from
list
– Subscribe to e-mail forwarding service
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Cookies
• Small text files that Web sites automatically
store on hard drive to make return visit more
efficient and better geared to your interests
• Web site assigns ID number to computer
• Provide Web sites with information about
browsing habits
• Some sites sell information cookies collect
• Not a security threat
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18
Phishing and Pharming
• Phishing lures users to reveal personal
information that could lead to identity theft
– E-mail messages look legitimate
• Pharming is when malicious code is
planted on your computer
– Alters browser’s ability to find Web addresses
– Directed to bogus Web sites that gather
personal information
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19
Scareware
• Type of malware
downloaded onto
computer that tries
to convince you
that computer is
infected with virus
• Then directed to
site to buy fake
removal tools
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Chapter 9 Summary Questions
5. What is a firewall, and how does it keep
my computer safe from hackers?
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Chapter 9 Summary Questions
11. How do I protect my physical computing
assets from environmental hazards,
power surges, and theft?
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Technology in Action
Chapter 10
Behind the Scenes: Software Programming
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Analysis
• Analysts explore problem to be solved
• Develop program specifications
– Clear statement of goals and objectives of
project
• Feasibility assessment is performed
• User requirements are defined
• Analysts recommend a plan of action
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Describing the Problem
• The Problem Statement
– Staring point of programming work
– Clear description of tasks the computer
program must accomplish
– How the program will execute these tasks
– How the program will respond to unusual
situations
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Design
• A detailed plan for programmers is developed
• Flowcharts and data-flow diagrams are used for
the current and proposed system
Data-flow diagram
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Program Development Life Cycle
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Step 1: Describing the Problem
• Programmers develop a complete
description of problem
• Problem statement identifies task to be
automated
• Statement describes how software will
behave
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Step 2: Making a Plan
• Problem statement is translated into a
set of specific, sequential steps known
as an algorithm
• Algorithm is written in natural ordinary
language such as English
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Step 3: Coding
• Algorithm is translated into programming
code
• Programmers must think in terms of
operations that a CPU can perform
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Step 4: Debugging
• Code goes through
process of debugging
• Programmers repair
any errors found in
code
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Step 5: Finishing the Project
• Software is tested
– Programming team
– People who will use program
• Results of entire project are documented
• Users are trained to use program
efficiently
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Flowchart
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Pseudocode
Bold terms show actions that are common in
programming, such as reading data, making
decisions, printing, and so on.
1. Ask the user how many hours they worked
today
2. If the number of hours worked < = 8,
compute total pay without overtime
otherwise,
compute total pay with overtime pay
3. Print total pay
Underlined words are information items that
appear repeatedly in the algorithm.
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34
Visual Basic 2010
• Visual Basic 2010 is the current version
• Builds object-oriented applications for:
– Windows
– The Web
– Mobile Devices
• Easy to drag and drop entire programming
components into application
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C and C++
• C
– Developed for system programmers
– Provides higher-level programming features
• if statements and for loops
• C++
– Uses same symbols and keywords as C
– Better security
– Support for reuse of existing code
– Includes object-oriented design
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36
Java and C#
• Java
– Object-oriented features
– Large set of existing classes
– Architecture neutral
– Java applets: Small Java-based programs
• C#
– Completing program released by Microsoft
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Objective C
• Language most often used to program
applications to run under Mac OS X
– Object-oriented language
– Superset of the C language
– Often used with library called Cocoa
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Scripting Languages for the Web
• Simple programming language limited to
performing a set of specialized tasks
• Scripts allow decisions to be made and
calculations to be performed
• JavaScript, VBScript, and PHP work well
with HTML
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ASP, JSP, and PHP
• Used by programmers to build Web sites
with interactive capabilities
• User supplies information that is translated
into a request.
• Scripting code controls automatic writing
of the custom page returned to user’s
computer
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Flash and XML
• Adobe Flash
– Used to develop Web-based multimedia
– Includes its own scripting language,
ActionScript
• XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
– Enables designers to define data-based tags
– Makes it easier for Web site to transfer key
information on its page to another site
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AJAX
• Asynchronous JavaScript And XML
– Allows creation of Web applications that can
update information without requiring a page
refresh
– Uses existing technologies to do more
processing in the browser
– Users have a more responsive experience
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42
Technology in Action
Chapter 11
Behind the Scenes:
Databases and Information Systems
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Life Without Databases
• Not every situation demands complexity of
a database
• For simple tasks, lists are adequate
– Table created in Microsoft Word
– Spreadsheet created in Microsoft Excel
• Lists are not appropriate for complex
information
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Advantages of Using Databases
• Databases store and retrieve large
quantities of information easily
• Provide information in seconds
• Three main advantages:
– Enable information sharing
– Promote data integrity
– Allow flexible use of data
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Database Terminology
• Databases have three main components;
– Fields
• Store each category of information
• Displayed in columns
– Records
• Group of related fields
– Tables (or files)
• Group of related records
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Fields, Records, and Tables
Table containing student’s contact information
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Common Data Types
Data Type
Used to Store
Examples
Text
Alphabetic or
alphanumeric data
Cecelia
PSY 101
Numeric
Numbers
512
1.789
Calculated
Computational formula
Credit hours x per-credit tuition
charges
Date
Dates in standard
notation
2/21/2016
Memo
Long blocks of text
I have a dream that one day this
nation will rise up and live out …
Object
Multimedia files or
document
MP3 file
AVI file
Hyperlink
Hyperlink to a Web
page
www.pearson highered.com
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Primary Keys
• Each record must have one field that has
a value unique to that record
• Unique field is called a primary key
– Student ID numbers
– Social Security numbers
– Driver’s license numbers
– Unique order numbers
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Relational Databases
• Organize data in table format
• Logically group similar data into a relation
(a table that contains related data)
• Each record is assigned primary key
• Tables are linked to each other through
their primary keys
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Creating Databases & Entering
Data
• First define data to
be captured
• Data dictionary or
database schema
– Defines name, data
type, and length of
each field
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Query Languages
• Modern databases contain a query
language used to retrieve and display
records
• Most popular is Structured Query
Language, or SQL
• Wizards speed up process of creating
queries
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Types of Relationships
• One-to-one
– For each record in a table, there is only one
corresponding record in a related table
• One-to-many
– Only one instance of a record in one table;
many instances in a related table
• Many-to-many
– Records in one table related to multiple
records in another
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Data Warehouses
• Large-scale electronic
repository of data
• Organizes in one place
all the data related to
an organization
• Consolidate information
• Data organized by
subject
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Populating Data Warehouses
• Source data can come from three places:
– Internal sources
• Company databases, etc.
– External sources
• Suppliers, vendors, etc.
– Customers or visitors to company’s Web site
• Clickstream data
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Data Marts
• Looking for data in a data warehouse
can be daunting
• Small slices of data warehouse, called
a data mart are often created
• Data warehouses have an enterprisewide depth
• Data marts may pertain to a single
department
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Transaction-Processing Systems
A TPS keeps track of everyday business activities
• Batch processing
– data is accumulated
and several
transactions are
processed at once
• Real-time processing
– database is queried and
updated while
transaction takes place
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Decision Support Systems
• A DSS helps managers develop solutions
for specific problems
– Uses data from databases and data
warehouses
– Enables users to add own insights and
experiences and apply them to the solution
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Technology in Action
Chapter 12
Behind the Scenes:
Networking and Security in the Business World
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Client/Server Networks
• Client/server networks contain servers as
well as client computers
• Server is computer that stores and shares
resources on a network
• Client is computer that requests those
resources
• Servers respond to requests from large
number of clients
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Classifications of
Client/Server Networks
• Networks are classified according to size
and distance between physical parts
• Four popular classifications:
– Local area networks (LANs)
– Wide area networks (WANs)
– Metropolitan area networks (MANs)
– Personal area networks (PANs)
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Other Networks
• Intranet
– Private network of business or organization
– Not accessible by unauthorized individuals
• Extranet
– An area of an intranet that only certain
corporations or individuals can access
– Useful for enabling electronic data
interchange
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Servers
•
•
•
•
•
Workhorses of the client/server network
Interface with many network users
Assist with a variety of task
Small networks have just one server
Large networks use dedicated servers
– Fulfill one specific functions
– Reduce load on main server
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Network Topologies
• Arrangement of computers, transmission
media, and other network components
• Physical topology
– Layout of “real” components of network
• Logical topology
– Virtual connections among network nodes
• Protocol is set of rules for exchanging
communication
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Bus Topology
• All computers are connected in sequence
on a single cable
• Used in
peer-to-peer
networks
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Ring Topology
• Nodes are laid out
in a ring
• A token (data
packet) flows in
one direction from
device to device
• Recent versions
have data transfer
rates of up to 100
Mbps
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Star Topology
• Most widely deployed
client/server network
layout
• Nodes connect to a
central communications
device (switch)
• Switch receives a
signal and retransmits it
• A node accepts only
signals addressed to it
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Twisted-Pair Cable
• Pairs of copper wire twisted around each other
• Twists make the wires less susceptible to
outside interference
• Two types
• Shielded twisted-pair
(STP)
• Unshielded twistedpair (UTP
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Coaxial Cable
• Four main components
– Copper core
– Nonconductive
insulating material
– Braided metal
shielding
– Plastic cover
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Fiber-Optic Cable
• Components include
– Glass or plastic fibers
– Cladding
– Outer jacket
• Transmission in only one
direction
• Signals converted to light
pulses
• Immune to interference
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Wireless Media Options
• Usually add-ons that extend access to
wired network
• Often provided to give employees a wider
working area
• Corporate networks are often a
combination of wired and wireless media
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Comparing Transmission Media
Cable
Characteristics
Twisted Pair
(Cat 6)
Twisted Pair
(Cat 6a)
Fiber-Optic
Maximum run length 328 feet (100 m) 328 feet (100 m) Up to 62 miles (100 km)
Bandwidth
Up to 1 Gbps
Up to 10 Gbps
10 to 40 Gbps
Bend radius
(flexibility)
No limit
No limit
30 degrees/foot
Cable cost
Extremely low
Low
High
Installation cost
Extremely low
Extremely low
Most expensive because of
installation training required
Susceptibility to
interference
High
High
None (not susceptible to EMI
or RFI)
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Switches and Bridges
• Used to send data on a specific route
through network
• Switch makes decisions based on MAC
address as to where data is sent
• Bridge is a device used to send data
between different collision domains
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Routers
• Router is designed to send information
between two networks
• Must look at higher-level network
addresses such as IP addresses
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Technology in Action
Chapter 13
Behind the Scenes: How the Internet Works
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Management of the Internet
• No single entity is in charge of Internet
• Local networks are owned by:
– Individuals
– Universities
– Government agencies
– Private companies
• Managed by nonprofit organizations and
user groups
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Connecting to the Internet
• Internet backbone
– Collection of large national and international
networks
– T lines: Initially used for backbone ISP
connections
• Carried digital data over twisted-pair wires
– Optical carrier line (OC): Today’s most
common backbone ISP connection
• High-speed, fiber-optic lines designed to provide
high throughput
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Types of Servers
• Web servers
– Host Web pages
• Commerce servers
– Enable the purchase of goods and services
over the Web
• File servers
– Provide remote storage space for files that
users can download
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Circuit Switching
• Technology available in 1960s
• Dedicated connection is formed between
two points
• Remains active for duration of transmission
• Used since early days of the telephone
communications
• Inefficient for computers
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Packet Switching
• Makes computer communication efficient
• Data is broken into small units (packets)
• Packets are sent over various routes to
their destination
• Packets are reassembled by the receiving
computer
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TCP/IP
• Main suite of protocols used on Internet
• Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
– Prepares data for transmission
– Provides error checking
– Enables resending lost data
• Internet Protocol (IP)
– Responsible for sending information from one
computer to another
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IP Address
• Unique number that identifies each device
connected to the Internet
• Typical IP address
– 197.24.72.157
• Static addressing
– IP Address never changes
• Dynamic addressing
– Temporary address from available pool
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Domain Names
• Domain name takes place of an IP address
• Easier to remember
• Organized by level
– Top-level domain (TLD)
• Portion of the domain name that follows the dot
• Includes .com, .org, .gov, .edu, and .net
– Second-level domain
• Unique name within a top-level domain
• Yahoo.com, Whitehouse.gov, Unesco.org
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Domain Name System Servers
• Internet servers that translate domain
names into IP addresses
• ISPs go first to a default DNS to resolve a
name
• Name queries work up the hierarchy to the
root DNS servers if required
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Web Browser Security Protocols
• HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
– For transfer of hypertext documents
• HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)
– Combination of HTTP and network security
protocol
• Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL)
– Protect data integrity of data and security of
transmissions over the Internet
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Client Side Applications
• Programs that run on client computer with
no interaction with a Web server
• Two main types:
– Embedding programming language code
directly within HTML or XHTML code of a
Web page
– Applet is a small application that resides on a
server and when requested, compiled version
is downloaded to client computer
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Communications over the Internet
• Communications revolution began to
explode in the mid 1990s
• Internet e-mail
– Growing exponentially each month
– 97 percent is spam
• Texting and instant messaging
• Voice over Internet protocol
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E-Mail
• Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is
used for sending e-mail along Internet
• Popular client-based e-mail software:
– Microsoft Outlook
– Mozilla Thunderbird
• Web-based e-mail software
– Gmail
– Yahoo!
– Hotmail
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E-Mail (cont.)
• Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
(MIME) simplifies attachments to e-mail
messages
• Handles encoding and decoding
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Instant Messaging
• Act of communicating with one or more
people in real time
• Top IM programs
– AOL Instant Messenger (AIM)
– GoogleTalk
– Yahoo! Messenger
– Jabber
– Windows Live Messenger
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Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
• Turns standard Internet connection into
way to make free long-distance phone calls
• Collection of communication and
transmission protocols
• Uses TCT/IP protocols to route phone calls
across the Internet
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Chapter 13 Summary Questions
1. Who owns, manages, and pays for the
Internet?
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Chapter 13 Summary Questions
3. What data transmissions and protocols
does the Internet use?
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