English for Careers
Chapter 4
Mastering Nouns—Plurals
and Possessives
Your goals for Chapter 4:
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Form plurals of nouns
Form compound nouns
Capitalize proper nouns
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
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© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Regular NOUNS ending in Y
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If preceded by a vowel, add s
monkey = monkeys
If preceded by a consonant, change y to i and
add es
duty = duties
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
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© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
NOUNS ending in O

Most Add s or es
veto = vetoes
memento = mementos
tomato = tomatoes
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
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© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
IRREGULAR NOUNS change spelling

loaf = loaves

scarf = scarves
When in doubt, consult your dictionary.
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
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© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
More irregulars
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crisis = crises
ox = oxen
man = men
tooth = teeth
foot = feet
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
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© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Sometimes spelling is the same for singular
and plural




aircraft
sheep
deer
statistics
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
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© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
DO NOT change the spelling of proper nouns to make
them plural


Mary = Marys
We had three Marys in class.
Wolf = Wolfs
All the Wolfs came to the reunion.
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
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© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Use the DICTIONARY to determine the spelling
of compound words
Some need a hyphen




hand-me-downs
brother-in-law
tie-in
follow-up
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
9
© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Some need only a space between the words
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
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back talk
time frame
tongue twister
short circuit
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
10
© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Some are written as one word
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


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checkbook
deadlock
blowout
bookstore
doghouse
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
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© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Which part of the compound adds an s to
form the plural?



brothers-in-law
tax write-offs
chiefs of staff
Use the dictionary when you’re not sure.
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
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© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Some “capital ideas”

Official titles
President Barack Obama was born in Hawaii.
Barack Obama was elected president in 2008.
Barack Obama, President of the United States.
I wrote a letter to the president last month.
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
13
© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
More capitals …

Specific names, locations, and directions
I go to college.
I go to Winston College.
Drive north three miles to the stop light.
He lives in the North, but talks like a
Southerner.
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
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© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Names of languages and courses
I learned Swahili in my African Language class
this fall.
Are you taking any language courses this fall?
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
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© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
References to race, national origin, and ethnicity, and religious
affiliations
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
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white/Caucasian
black/African American
Christianity
Hispanic/Latino American
Asian American
Judaism
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
16
© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
Checkpoint
You can…
 Form plurals of regular and irregular
nouns
 Form compound nouns correctly
 Capitalize proper nouns correctly
 Expand your vocabulary
English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10 th ed.
Smith and Moore
17
© 2010 Pearson Higher Education,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved.
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PLURAL OF NOUNS ENDING WITH Y