What are the Options for Portable WBI? by Javier Leung, Latina Barnes, Michael Jasek & Marc Churchwell Introduction Learning is categorized into four phases 1st phase • F2F (Face to Face) • Teacher and student in the same location • Distance education • Implementing available communication media and technologies to 2nd phase overcome geographically dispersed audiences 3rd phase 4th phase • E-Learning • Use of the Internet and network technologies for learning • M-Learning • Use of mobile communication tools Introduction What is portable WBI and how does it fit in with these 4 levels of learning? Combination of levels 3 & 4 (E-learning and M- learning) as delivery models for web based instruction. These devices provide portability and availability of cross platform ubiquitous learning. Important point regarding portable WBI Not designed as specific replacement for F2F but as an alternative educational opportunity that otherwise may not be available. Overview Presentation points of interest Research data from a variety of sources regarding handheld/mobile devices in education. Pros and cons of portable WBI Impact of mobile devices on WBI development and implementation – including effect on pedagogical applications Examples of available devices being used for portable WBI Summary Closing thoughts Research Data Literature Review submitted by Hezel Associates, LLC specifically for DANTES regarding Wireless/Hand-Held Devices and Education provided following key points http://www.hezel.com/index.html Prediction of hybrid system of smartphones (PDA + media technologies) to be known as PACE (personal assistant, communication, and entertainment device). “Mobility and reachability” are key characteristics of mobile devices – students can read materials on bus using wireless phones, pick up assignments remotely, communicate with other students and professor anytime. Some studies indicate students see these devices as fun and exciting resulting in an enhanced motivation and engagement among the students using them. Some studies also indicate “knowledge creation” through experiential learning is improved by mobile technologies and attitudes and performance improve with use of handheld devices. Use of PDAs in nursing education has been linked to reduction of student stress and reinforcement of core knowledge. Research Data Mobile learning is generally defined as e-learning through mobile devices (Trifanova and Ronchetti, 2003) Mobile technologies have the power to make learning even more widely available and accessible than we are used to in existing e-learning environments (Brown, 2003) Pros and Cons Cons McLean(2003) identifies the obstacles in mobile learning: Limited memory and storage are major inhibitors. Screens are generally too small for the use of any sophisticated applications. Intermittent connectivity is a major barrier. Cross-platform solutions are not yet possible. Cost of accessing major third-party networks is punitive. The industry is plagued by proprietary solutions. Pros and Cons Cons Transmitting across different browsers and platforms is almost impossible. Existing applications are not easily integrated to the mobile technology environment. Start-up costs are invariably high. Tracking outcomes is difficult. Security is a major issue. Multiple permissions are necessary in terms of negotiated access. Links to learning management systems or enterprise systems are in an embryonic stage of development. Pros and Cons Pros Berger (2001) lists the implications that mobile technology can bring to teaching and learning: Better realization of “anywhere, anytime” Freedom of organization in and out of the classroom Collaboration among students separated geographically Transparent Remote sensing and integration of information Shift from “anywhere, anytime” to “everywhere, every time” connection to nets Pros and Cons Pros Milrad (2004) explains the number of features that mobile technologies have for education: Portability Merging Digital and Physical Realms Context Sensitivity Social Interactivity Individuality Pros and Cons Pros Portable Learning and Assessment - Towards Ubiquitous Education Make best use of limited financial resources Have minimal size and maximal portability Are designed to be 'immediately to hand' Impact on WBI Development Pehkonen and Turunen (2003) propose m-learning components for designing learning actions and materials Impact on WBI Development Leung and Chan (2003) say that mobile learning framework includes four levels: 1st level Mobile Learning Applications 2nd level Mobile User Infrastructure (browser, handheld devices, mobile phones) 3rd level Mobile Protocol (adoption of content with WAP or other protocols) 4th level Mobile Network Infrastructure (cellular systems, satellites, etc.) Impact on WBI Development Main mobile learning application development environments are: Java Micro Edition Microsoft.NET Compact Framework Impact on WBI Development Scripting languages such as WML, XHTML and cHTML can be used for developing browser based applications. Meisenberger (2004) developed a Java based application which is Mobile Learning Engine (MLE). MLE is a computeraided multimedia based learning application Learning objects written in XML, an open and international standard. Supports interactive questions, intelligent help and audio and video playing Examples of Devices iTouch Blackberry PDA Meta Pad Pepper Pad Kimble Examples of Devices iTouch; the iPhone without the phone capabilities, takes the video iPod a step further by allowing users to use wifi connections in order to access and even transmit data. Has built-in icons on the touch screen which enable users to manipulate certain functions, such as YouTube and iTunes easily. features • Excellent clarity of icons and graphics • Large screen for videos (larger than the iPod) • Easy-to-read numbers and symbols • Audio adjustable • Can easily repeat programming • Can easily create customized playlists • Can play directly from YouTube when there is wifi connection Examples of Devices I touch; features (cont’d) Can play directly from YouTube when there is wifi connection • Long-life battery • Comfortable, light, easy to use • Easy to navigate playlists • Can repeat content as necessary • Convenient to use in conjunction with books and notes, paper, etc. • Can download music, podcasts, vodcasts, and other video through iTunes Examples of Devices Blackberry; features Multimedia – listen to music or watch news/sports clips. Transfer files via USB and bluetooth Camera & Video Recording Website Browser Email Phone Social Networking – facebook, Instant Messaging Organizer –calendar/memo pad Examples of Devices PDA (personal digital assistant); very similar features to Blackberry and iTouch. Some models have phone capability. The PDA even though a solid performer for several years is now being overtaken by more advanced technologies. Devices such as the iTouch is easier to use and more appealing to students. Examples of Devices Pepper Pad3 – handheld web computer Developed by Hanbit Size: 11.4” x 5.9” x 0.9”; 2.2 lbs, 7” LCD, Li Poly Battery for 2-4 hours of use Memory: 20GB hard drive, 256 MB SDRAM Has: Qwerty Keyboard, touch screen, Fanless system, WiFi, Bluetooth, dual infrared, USB & Mini USB, video out, headphone jack, stereo speakers, Built in video camera, built in microphone Sale price is $500.00-$999.00 on amazon.com Links: http://www.pepper.com/solutions/web-devices.html Examples of Devices Kindle: Amazon's New Wireless Reading Device: Not used for WBI delivery but a portability option for textbooks to be used in conjunction with course delivery devices Expensive up front cost ~ $400 Revolutionary electronic-paper display provides a sharp, high-resolution screen that looks and reads like real paper. Simple to use: no computer, no cables, no syncing. Wireless connectivity enables you to shop the Kindle Store directly from your Kindle—whether you’re in the back of a taxi, at the airport, or in bed. Buy a book and it is auto-delivered wirelessly in less than one minute. More than 100,000 books available, including more than 90 of 112 current New York Times® Best Sellers. New York Times® Best Sellers and New Releases $9.99, unless marked otherwise. Free book samples. Download and read first chapters for free before you decide to buy. Examples of Devices Kindle: Amazon's New Wireless Reading Device (cont’d) Top U.S. newspapers including The New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and Washington Post; top magazines including TIME, Atlantic Monthly, and Forbes—all auto-delivered wirelessly. Top international newspapers from France, Germany, and Ireland; Le Monde, Frankfurter Allgemeine, and The Irish Times—all auto-delivered wirelessly. Lighter and thinner than a typical paperback; weighs only 10.3 ounces. Holds over 200 titles. Long battery life. Leave wireless on and recharge approximately every other day. Turn wireless off and read for a week or more before recharging. Fully recharges in 2 hours. Unlike WiFi, Kindle utilizes the same high-speed data network (EVDO) as advanced cell phones—so you never have to locate a hotspot. No monthly wireless bills, service plans, or commitments—we take care of the wireless delivery so you can simply click, buy, and read. Includes free wireless access to the planet's most exhaustive and up-to-date encyclopedia—Wikipedia.org. Email your Word documents and pictures (.JPG, .GIF, .BMP, .PNG) to Kindle for easy on-the-go viewing. Examples of Devices Meta Pad : IBM's Prototype Modular Computer IBM researchers have invented a prototype 9-ounce portable computing device that could pave the way for a new set of functionality in the handheld space. It can transform in seconds into a handheld, desktop, laptop, tablet or wearable computer, without having to be rebooted. Size: 3” x 5” x 0.75” Memory: Transmeta Cursoe at 800 MHz, a 10 GB hard drive, and 128 MB SDRAM Can run operating systems such as Windows XP or Linux Accessories: Docking station with keyboard and mouse, 3” x 5” touch screen Sale price would be around $1,000.00 Currently a prototype and not for sale H. Links: http://www.geek.com/ibms-meta-pad-the-future-ofcomputers/ Summary Virtually impossible to stay current with technology advancing on market place. Any technical solution decided upon by an institution for portable WBI delivery must be thought of as transitory not a permanent solution. The best advantage of portability is a combination of the ultra portable and the Kindle (by Amazon) devices for course delivery and textbooks in a light, compact and easy to use configuration. With the rapid advances in technology appealing to more and more students of all ages and lifestyles, a question comes to mind; Is the expectation of continuous education (life long) now truly a reality?