What are the Options for
Portable WBI?
by Javier Leung, Latina Barnes, Michael Jasek &
Marc Churchwell
 Learning is categorized into four phases
1st phase
• F2F (Face to Face)
• Teacher and student in the same location
• Distance education
• Implementing available communication media and technologies to
2nd phase overcome geographically dispersed audiences
3rd phase
4th phase
• E-Learning
• Use of the Internet and network technologies for learning
• M-Learning
• Use of mobile communication tools
 What is portable WBI and how does it fit in with these
4 levels of learning?
 Combination of levels 3 & 4 (E-learning and M-
learning) as delivery models for web based instruction.
 These devices provide portability and availability of
cross platform ubiquitous learning.
 Important point regarding portable WBI
 Not designed as specific replacement for F2F but as an
alternative educational opportunity that otherwise may
not be available.
 Presentation points of interest
 Research data from a variety of sources regarding handheld/mobile devices in education.
 Pros and cons of portable WBI
 Impact of mobile devices on WBI development and
implementation – including effect on pedagogical
 Examples of available devices being used for portable
 Summary
 Closing thoughts
Research Data
 Literature Review submitted by Hezel Associates, LLC
specifically for DANTES regarding Wireless/Hand-Held Devices
and Education provided following key points
 Prediction of hybrid system of smartphones (PDA + media
technologies) to be known as PACE (personal assistant,
communication, and entertainment device).
“Mobility and reachability” are key characteristics of mobile devices
– students can read materials on bus using wireless phones, pick up
assignments remotely, communicate with other students and
professor anytime.
Some studies indicate students see these devices as fun and exciting
resulting in an enhanced motivation and engagement among the
students using them.
Some studies also indicate “knowledge creation” through
experiential learning is improved by mobile technologies and
attitudes and performance improve with use of handheld devices.
Use of PDAs in nursing education has been linked to reduction of
student stress and reinforcement of core knowledge.
Research Data
 Mobile learning is generally defined as e-learning through
mobile devices (Trifanova and Ronchetti, 2003)
 Mobile technologies have the power to make learning even
more widely available and accessible than we are used to in
existing e-learning environments (Brown, 2003)
Pros and Cons
 McLean(2003)
identifies the obstacles in mobile
 Limited memory and storage are major inhibitors.
 Screens are generally too small for the use of any
sophisticated applications.
Intermittent connectivity is a major barrier.
Cross-platform solutions are not yet possible.
Cost of accessing major third-party networks is punitive.
The industry is plagued by proprietary solutions.
Pros and Cons
 Transmitting across different browsers and platforms is
almost impossible.
Existing applications are not easily integrated to the
mobile technology environment.
Start-up costs are invariably high.
Tracking outcomes is difficult.
Security is a major issue.
Multiple permissions are necessary in terms of
negotiated access.
Links to learning management systems or enterprise
systems are in an embryonic stage of development.
Pros and Cons
 Berger (2001) lists the implications that mobile
technology can bring to teaching and learning:
Better realization of
“anywhere, anytime”
Freedom of organization
in and out of the
Collaboration among
students separated
Remote sensing and
integration of
Shift from “anywhere,
anytime” to “everywhere,
every time”
connection to nets
Pros and Cons
 Milrad (2004) explains the number of features that
mobile technologies have for education:
Digital and
Pros and Cons
 Portable Learning and Assessment - Towards
Ubiquitous Education
 Make best use of limited financial resources
 Have minimal size and maximal portability
 Are designed to be 'immediately to hand'
Impact on WBI Development
 Pehkonen and Turunen (2003) propose m-learning
components for designing learning actions and
Impact on WBI Development
 Leung and Chan (2003) say that mobile learning
framework includes four levels:
Mobile User
devices, mobile
(adoption of
content with
WAP or other
(cellular systems,
satellites, etc.)
Impact on WBI Development
 Main mobile learning application development
environments are:
Java Micro Edition
Microsoft.NET Compact Framework
Impact on WBI Development
 Scripting languages such as WML, XHTML and
cHTML can be used for developing browser based
 Meisenberger (2004) developed a Java based
application which is Mobile Learning Engine (MLE).
MLE is a
objects written
in XML, an
open and
intelligent help
and audio and
video playing
Examples of Devices
 iTouch
 Blackberry
 Meta Pad
 Pepper Pad
 Kimble
Examples of Devices
 iTouch; the iPhone without the phone capabilities, takes
the video iPod a step further by allowing users to use wifi
connections in order to access and even transmit data. Has
built-in icons on the touch screen which enable users to
manipulate certain functions, such as YouTube and iTunes
 features
• Excellent clarity of icons and graphics
• Large screen for videos (larger than the iPod)
• Easy-to-read numbers and symbols
• Audio adjustable
• Can easily repeat programming
• Can easily create customized playlists
• Can play directly from YouTube when there is wifi connection
Examples of Devices
 I touch; features (cont’d)
 Can play directly from YouTube
when there is wifi connection
• Long-life battery
• Comfortable, light, easy to use
• Easy to navigate playlists
• Can repeat content as necessary
• Convenient to use in conjunction with books and notes,
paper, etc.
• Can download music, podcasts, vodcasts, and other
video through iTunes
Examples of Devices
 Blackberry; features
 Multimedia – listen to music or watch news/sports clips.
Transfer files via USB and bluetooth
 Camera & Video Recording
 Website Browser
 Email
 Phone
 Social Networking – facebook,
 Instant Messaging
 Organizer –calendar/memo pad
Examples of Devices
 PDA (personal digital assistant); very similar features
to Blackberry and iTouch. Some models have phone
 The PDA even though a solid performer for several
years is now being overtaken by more advanced
 Devices such as the iTouch is easier to use and more
appealing to students.
Examples of Devices
 Pepper Pad3 – handheld web computer
 Developed by Hanbit
 Size: 11.4” x 5.9” x 0.9”; 2.2 lbs, 7”
LCD, Li Poly Battery for 2-4
hours of use
 Memory: 20GB hard drive,
 Has: Qwerty Keyboard, touch screen, Fanless system, WiFi,
Bluetooth, dual infrared, USB & Mini USB, video out,
headphone jack, stereo speakers,
 Built in video camera, built in microphone
 Sale price is $500.00-$999.00 on amazon.com
 Links: http://www.pepper.com/solutions/web-devices.html
Examples of Devices
 Kindle: Amazon's New Wireless Reading Device:
Not used for WBI delivery but a portability option for textbooks to be used in
conjunction with course delivery devices
 Expensive up front cost
~ $400
 Revolutionary electronic-paper
display provides a sharp,
high-resolution screen that looks
and reads like real paper.
 Simple to use: no computer, no cables, no syncing.
 Wireless connectivity enables you to shop the Kindle Store directly from
your Kindle—whether you’re in the back of a taxi, at the airport, or in bed.
 Buy a book and it is auto-delivered wirelessly in less than one minute.
 More than 100,000 books available, including more than 90 of 112 current
New York Times® Best Sellers.
 New York Times® Best Sellers and New Releases $9.99, unless marked
 Free book samples. Download and read first chapters for free before you
decide to buy.
Examples of Devices
 Kindle: Amazon's New Wireless Reading Device (cont’d)
 Top U.S. newspapers including The New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and
Washington Post; top magazines including TIME, Atlantic Monthly, and
Forbes—all auto-delivered wirelessly.
 Top international newspapers from France, Germany, and Ireland; Le Monde,
Frankfurter Allgemeine, and The Irish Times—all auto-delivered wirelessly.
 Lighter and thinner than a typical paperback; weighs only 10.3 ounces.
 Holds over 200 titles.
 Long battery life. Leave wireless on and recharge approximately every other day.
Turn wireless off and read for a week or more before recharging. Fully recharges
in 2 hours.
 Unlike WiFi, Kindle utilizes the same high-speed data network (EVDO) as
advanced cell phones—so you never have to locate a hotspot.
 No monthly wireless bills, service plans, or commitments—we take care of the
wireless delivery so you can simply click, buy, and read.
 Includes free wireless access to the planet's most exhaustive and up-to-date
 Email your Word documents and pictures (.JPG, .GIF, .BMP, .PNG) to Kindle for
easy on-the-go viewing.
Examples of Devices
 Meta Pad : IBM's Prototype Modular Computer
IBM researchers have invented a prototype 9-ounce portable
computing device that could pave the way for a new set of functionality
in the handheld space. It can transform in seconds into a handheld,
desktop, laptop, tablet or wearable computer, without having to be
 Size: 3” x 5” x 0.75”
 Memory: Transmeta Cursoe at 800 MHz,
a 10 GB hard drive, and 128 MB
Can run operating systems such as Windows XP or Linux
Accessories: Docking station with keyboard and mouse, 3” x 5” touch
Sale price would be around $1,000.00
Currently a prototype and not for sale
H. Links: http://www.geek.com/ibms-meta-pad-the-future-ofcomputers/
 Virtually impossible to stay current with technology
advancing on market place.
 Any technical solution decided upon by an institution for
portable WBI delivery must be thought of as transitory not
a permanent solution.
 The best advantage of portability is a combination of the
ultra portable and the Kindle (by Amazon) devices for
course delivery and textbooks in a light, compact and easy
to use configuration.
 With the rapid advances in technology appealing to more
and more students of all ages and lifestyles, a question
comes to mind; Is the expectation of continuous education
(life long) now truly a reality?

WBI in the Field