TEACHING AMERICAN HISTORY – ORANGEBURG 5 – YEAR 1 TAH – Year 1 Topic: African American Beginnings – Slavery, Culture and Contributions Session Objectives: At the conclusion of the session, participants will be able to: 1. Explain the details and use maps to trace, the beginnings, development and processes of the European slave trade, including connections between the Caribbean and South Carolina. 2. Outline the chronology of, and use maps to trace the development of slavery in the American colonies, distinguishing the differences in meanings and applications of indentership and slavery. 3. Identify the African origins of African Americans; their evolving culture and cultural contributions to the American colonies; and their forms of resistance to enslavement. 4. Explain the impact of the growth of the African American population in South Carolina during the colonial period, and evaluate the significance of the African American input into the South Carolina economy. Session Agenda: •Overview of all Standards and Indicators to be addressed in Year One •Content Lecture addressing the following South Carolina Social Studies Academic standards and indicators: 3- 2.7; 4- 2.5;4-2.6;8-1.4 3-2.7 Standard: Explain the transfer of the institution of slavery into South Carolina from the West Indies, including the slave trade and the role of African Americans in the developing economy; the daily lives of African American slaves and their contributions to South Carolina, such as the Gullah culture and the introduction of new foods; and African American acts of resistance against white authority. Topics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Slave Trade -- Portuguese/ Spanish beginnings The English begin colonization and enter the Slave Trade Barbados/ South Carolina connection African American lives -- economic, social and cultural contributions to South Carolina African American acts of resistance 3-2.7 (1) 1. The Slave Trade- Portuguese/ Spanish beginnings • The Age of European Exploration (15th Century) • Enslavement of Africans by Europeans actually began in this age as a result of attempts by Europeans (initially Portuguese) to find trade routes to the East -- India, China, Japan, East Indies, modern Indonesia and Malaysia. 3-2.7 (1) 3-2.7 (1) • As Portuguese navigated around the West coast of Africa , they engaged in raiding parties in search of slaves to work the fields of their island colonies (The Maderia Islands, the Azores, the Canaries) 3-2.7 (1) • Reports of Portuguese kidnapping of Africans – King Nomimansa meets Diego Gomez • Portuguese; however, were not the first to engage in the kidnapping and enslavement of Africans. The Islamic Slave trade had long existed in Africa. Sudanese horsemen had been capturing, mostly women and children, destined for lives as concubines and domestic servants in North Africa and southwest Asia. 3-2.7 (1) • Portuguese plantations were the first venue for African enslavement. • In Africa itself there had been slavery evolving from interethnic rivalries and warfare. Slaves had been put to work primarily as domestic servants. Slavery, however, was not a permanent condition and, in many cases, resulted in assimilation of the enslaved into the population of their enslavement. 3-2.7 (1) • 1492 Columbus paved the way for Portuguese and Spanish colonization of the Caribbean (Columbus’ voyage was sponsored by queen Isabella and king Ferdinand of Spain) • 1493 Pope Alexander VI granted Ferdinand and Isabella all the territories of the new world and by the treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal was granted possession of the West African coast and Brazil; and Spain all the major territories of the Caribbean. 3-2.7 (1) • 1500 -- Spanish settlers in Hispaniola imported the first African slaves into the Caribbean to replace the indigenous population. • 1526 -- first Africans brought to South Carolina as part of a large Spanish shipload from the Caribbean. 3-2.7 (2) 2. The English begin colonization and enter the Slave Trade. • 1554 -- Three English ships attained 10 Africans from Guinea and Benin. 1562 -- John Hawkins led the first major English slave trading expedition attacking a Portuguese ship and seizing 300 Africans whom he sold in the Spanish colony of Hispaniola. 1588 -- English merchants organized the Guinea Co. to increase their effectiveness in participation in the slave trade. • • 3-2.7 (2) • 1609 -- the Virginia Co. established an English colony in North America. • 1623 -- The English began a long term process of Caribbean colonization, beginning in St. Kitts. • 1627 -- a group of Englishmen settled Barbados; in 1640 they turned their attention to African labor when Dutch planters from Brazil took sugar cultivation technology to Barbados. • 1672 -- The Royal African Company was granted a charter by King Charles II to transport slaves to the North American Colonies 3-2.7 (2) • The English and their colonists in America established a triangular pattern of slave trading. English colonies England West Africa Slaves Caribbean West Africa Slaves Caribbean • Profits from the West Africa slave trade funded the industrial Revolution in England 3-2.7 (3) 3. Barbados/South Carolina Connection • • • • 1663 and 1665 -- Charles II of England granted a charter to eight of his “loyal” nobleman to settle “Carolina.” The Proprietary colony of Carolina was settled at Charles Town in 1670. African slavery was immediately legally recognized by the Carolina Grand Council. White settlers escaping overcrowding in Barbados, began pouring into the area that later became South Carolina. They found the hot, humid, semitropical environment with plenty of fertile land to be ideal for the extension of indigo and rice plantation. Slaves from Barbados therefore formed the foundation of the black population in South Carolina. 3-2.7 (4) 4. African American lives - - economic social and cultural contributions to South Carolina. • From the establishment of the colony to around 1700, slaves, skilled as herders from the Gambia river area produced beef and lumber (supplying primarily Barbados) • By 1700, rice cultivation became the focus in S. C.; many of the enslaved Africans had brought with them, rice cultivation skills which had been practiced for thousands of years in West Africa. 3-2.7 (4) • The enslaved suffered from high mortality rates from disease, and poor treatment. Physical force was unleashed against them. There was therefore need for continued replacements of African slaves. • As a result of “miscegenation” (largely as a result of rape) distinct social classes began to develop in the black population based on shadings of skin color. • The dominance in the number of Africans in South Carolina allowed for the preservation of much of their African heritage. As more African women were imported during the 1750’s, African Americans were able to preserve many aspects of West African extended family life and naming practices. 3-2.7 (4) • Many West African words such as; yam and banjo flowed into the dialects constructed by Africans as they attempted to adapt to English language patterns. • West Africans musical characteristics such as “call-and response” and antiphonal styles, polyrhythmic and improvisational techniques, were reborn on the plantations and eventually found themselves into American music. • African trickster tales, proverbs and riddles were transformed on plantations with the use of animals more peculiar to the American environment. 3-2.7 (5) 5. African American Acts of Resistance • Acts of Resistance included: • Shirking assigned work, sabotage (breaking tools), mistreatment of domestic animals, destroying crops, poisoning of owners, stealing, escape to inaccessible regions forming “maroon” communities, or joining Native American Communities. • A major rebellion took place in S.C. in 1739 at the Stone Bridge, within twenty miles of Charleston. 4-2.5 Standard: Summarize the introduction and establishment of slavery in the American colonies, including the role of the slave trade; the nature of the middle passage; and the types of goods -- rice, indigo, sugar, tobacco, and rum, for example that were exchanged among the West Indies, Europe and the Americas. Topics: 1. Introduction and establishment of slavery in the American colonies -- role of the slave trade. (types of goods) 2. The middle passage (capture and process) 4-2.5 (1) 1. Introduction and establishment of slavery in the American colonies-- role of the slave trade. • 1526 -- African slaves landed from Spanish vessels in San Miguel de Gual dope (now Georgia)—some escaped and integrated in Native of American populations. 1565 -- Spain established a settlement at St Augustine, Florida. The settlement included slaves. 1609 -- the Virginia Co. established an English colony -- the Virginia colony in North America. Their main source of labor was initially “poor” whites contracted from England as Indentured laborers. • • • 4-2.5 (1) • In 1619, 20 Africans were captured by a Dutch man-ofwar ship from a Spanish trader. The Dutch traded the Africans in Virginia for supplies. The African Americans apparently fed into the system of indentured labor with the right to freedom after a period of service. • A series of laws (slave codes) passed by the Virginia House of Burgesses between 1639 and 1662 gradually separated white from black indentured laborers, shifting Blacks from indentured servitude of slavery. 4-2.5 (1) • • • • • • • • • The legal status of slaves was declared in : 1641 by the English Massachusetts Bay Colony 1650 by Connecticut 1663 by Maryland 1665 by New York 1682 by South Carolina 1714 by New Hampshire 1721 by Delaware 1750 by Georgia which had previously banned slavery in 1735, legalized it. 4-2.5 (1) • The English and their colonists in America established a triangular pattern of slave trading. English colonies England West Africa Slaves Caribbean West Africa Slaves Caribbean 4-2.5 (1) • The slave trade must be understood in the context of Mercantilism—the basic principles regulating the economic relations of European States in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. • Its main objective was to increase the wealth and power of the State. State action in the form of government orders and regulations was taken to encourage and promote trade and industry, in order to build wealth from outside sources. 4-2.5 (1) • Wars of aggression were carried out between and among European nations in the quest to gain wealth, first in the form of precious metals especially gold, then in slaves and raw materials. Europeans perceived that whatever was gained by one was lost by the other. • Upon the discovery of the American lands, trading companies holding royal charters and patronage sought to create monopolies in the trading of raw materials—tobacco, sugar, cotton and dye-woods, produced by slave labor. The chief means of achieving their objectives was through Navigational Acts passed by governments. • During the 17th and 18th centuries, England gained ascendancy in the Atlantic trade over its European rivals. 4-2.5 (2) 2. The Middle Passage (capture and process) • Initially, Africans who cooperated with Europeans during the trading process turned over to Europeans, Africans whom they had enslaved as war criminals. Later they engaged in capturing and kidnapping of individuals and families. • The captured were marched for hundreds of miles to the Atlantic coast; slaves were traded and then, sometimes housed for periods as long as a year before ships arrived, facilitating another level of trading for passage to the Americas. The voyage sometimes took as long as six months. 4-2.5(2) • Elmina Slave factory, GHANA 4-2.5 (2) • Several sources provide vivid descriptions of conditions on slave ships during the Middle passage. Conditions include: – Cramped and insanitary living quarters leading to the spread of disease and suffering; undernourishment as a result of poor nutrition; and death. – Separation of family members and members from the same ethnic group in order to avoid insurgencies. – Rape of African Women – Application of torture to force Africans to eat. (applying hot coals) – Many of the enslaved Africans committed suicide; others attempted insurrections. 4-2.5 (2) • Upon disembarkation from the slave ships another trading process occurred for transfer to the workplace. 4-2.6 Standard: Explain the impact of Indentured Servitude and slavery on life in the new world and the contributions of African slaves to the development of the American colonies, including farming techniques, cooking styles and languages. Topics: 1.The impact of indentured servitude and slavery on life in the new world. • white indentured servitude • from African indentured servitude to African slavery 2. The contributions of African slaves to the development of the American colonies -- farming techniques, cooking styles, and languages. 4-2.6(1) 1. The impact of Indentured servitude and slavery on life in the new world. • A) White Indentured Servitude: Initially the Chesapeake colonies (Virginia and Maryland) found it cheaper to contract white indentured laborers to plant, weed, harvest, cure and pack their high-income generating tobacco crops, than to purchase Africans. • They contracted many English and Irish “poor” whites and prisoners, eager to exchange their labor for passage to America. 4-2.6(1) • As late as 1680, indentured white laborers greatly out numbered African slaves in the Chesapeake. • Rhode Island, like Virginia employed mainly white indentured servants. • Bacon’s Rebellion in 1675 led by poor white settlers served as an incentive for Chesapeake planters to switch from their focus on white laborers to African slavery. • The Seven year’s war (1756-1763) was largely responsible for cutting off the supply of white indentured laborers from Ireland and Germany. 4-2.6 (1) • B) From African Indentured Servitude to African Slavery • The English and their colonists in America established a triangular pattern of slave trading. • In 1619, 20 Africans were captured by a Dutch man-of-war ship from a Spanish trader. The Dutch traded the Africans in Virginia for supplies. The African Americans apparently fed into the system of indentured labor with the right to freedom after a period of service. • A series of laws (slave codes) passed by the Virginia House of Burgesses between 1639 and 1662 gradually separated white from black indentured laborers, shifting Blacks from indentured servitude of slavery. 4-2.6(2) • The contributions of African slaves to the development of the American colonies. • A. Economic contributions: African existed as: – basic commodities – workers, and producers including those in urban areas who hired out their time as teamsters, household servants, barbers, tailors, hotel and tavern keepers. • They helped to create mercantile fortunes e.g. John Brown of Rhode Island. • They made possible the industrial revolutions of both America and England, which began with manufacture of textiles in mills that spun raw fiber into yarn and wove yarn into fabric. 4-2.6(2) B. Cultural Contributions: • • • • Farming techniques: They applied the African focus on group organization that led to the “gang system”. Cooking styles: Barbecued pork, fried chicken, black eyed peas, collard and mustard greens. Language: Impact on Southern diction and phraseology, speech patterns and intonations Music: Africans transferred traditional patterns to English ballads. 8-1.4 Standard: Explain the growth of the African American population during the colonial period and the significance of African Americans in the developing culture (e.g. Gullah) and economy of South Carolina including the origins of African American slaves, the growth of the slave trade, the impact of population imbalance between African and European Americans, and the Stone rebellion and subsequent laws to control the slave population. Topics: 1. The origins of African American slaves 2. Growth of the slave trade and the African American population during the Colonial period; and the impact of the population imbalance between African and European Americans. 3. The Stono rebellion and subsequent laws to control the slave population 4. The significance of African Americans in the developing culture (e.g. Gullah) 8-1.4 (1) 1. • • The origin of African American Slaves: For the first 25 years after it’s founding, Africans from Barbados formed the foundation of the slave population of South Carolina. By the time of the separation of North and South Carolina (a separate royal crown was established in 1729) Africans imported into South Carolina came primarily from: the gold coast (Lower Guinea including the Ivory Coast; the Angola region; and the area between Senegal and Gambia. 8-1.4 (2) 2. Growth of the slave trade and the African American population during the colonial periods; and the impact of the population imbalance between Africans and Europeans Americans. • The royal Africa Company (established in 1673) had held a monopoly on the Slave Trade to the American colonies. However in 1698 Parliament permitted private merchants to share in the trade. • The Asciento contract between Spain and the British South Sea Company in 1713 gave the company permission to transport 4,800 slaves a year for 30 years. • These two events facilitated a massive growth in the Slave Trade: for South Carolina: 1706 -1724 -1726 --1750 -1765 -- 24 Africans imported 734 Africans imported 1000 Africans imported annually 8000 Africans imported 8-1.4(2) • At the Beginning of the 18th century, the percentages of the population of whites and blacks in South Carolina were 55 to 45. • By 1720, blacks outnumbered whites roughly 2 to 1 • 1726 -- total population of blacks was 40,000. • Alarmed at the growing number of blacks, in 1737 Lieutenant-Governor Broughton warned: “Our Negros are very numerous and more dreadful to our safety than any Spanish invaders. I am also sending for some Cherokee Indians to come down to the settlements to be an awe to the Negros.” By the 1760’s blacks were estimated at 57,253 with 15,000 being adult males, while whites were only about 6,000 of the S.C. population. 8-1.4(3) 3. The 1739 Stono rebellion and subsequent laws to control the slave population. • The largest revolt to occur anywhere on the mainland during the colonial period. • Led by 20 blacks probably Angolans, who attacked a store near the Stono bridge, about 15 miles. southwest of Charles Town. • They killed the store keepers left their severed heads on the building’s steps; seized, gun powder and arms, and beat drums to attract other blacks to join. • Subsequently overcome: some killed, some captured and executed, others pursued along the road to St. Augustine and killed. More than 20 whites and countless blacks killed during the whole encounter. 8-1.4(3) • Results of the Rebellion: • A prohibitive duty on the importation of new slaves. • The 1740 Slave Code which sought to regulate: • Punishments and levels of cruelty exercised against slaves, adequate food and clothing, field work and hours of work, teaching slaves to read and write, the movement of slaves, the ability of slaves to keep weapons, and improvements in the slave patrol system. 8-1.4(4) • • • • • • The significance of African Americans in the developing culture (e.g. Gullah) Cultural Contributions Farming techniques: They applied the African focus on group organization that led to the “gang system”. Cooking styles: Barbecued pork, fried chicken, black eyed peas, collard and mustard greens. Language: Impact on Southern diction and phraseology, speech patterns and intonations Music: Africans transferred traditional patterns to English ballads. 8-1.4(4) • Gullah is the culture and language of the first black inhabitants of the Low country of S.C. including the coastal plain and the Sea Islands. • They are known for preserving their African linguistic and cultural heritage. Their English-based Creole is significantly influenced by African languages in grammar and sentence structure. • Their influence persisted in story telling, food, music, folk beliefs crafts, farming and fishing traditions.