TEACHING AMERICAN HISTORY – ORANGEBURG 5 – YEAR 1
TAH – Year 1 Topic: African American Beginnings – Slavery, Culture and Contributions
Session Objectives: At the conclusion of the session, participants will be able to:
1.
Explain the details and use maps to trace, the beginnings, development and processes of the European
slave trade, including connections between the Caribbean and South Carolina.
2.
Outline the chronology of, and use maps to trace the development of slavery in the American colonies,
distinguishing the differences in meanings and applications of indentership and slavery.
3.
Identify the African origins of African Americans; their evolving culture and cultural contributions to the
American colonies; and their forms of resistance to enslavement.
4.
Explain the impact of the growth of the African American population in South Carolina during the colonial
period, and evaluate the significance of the African American input into the South Carolina economy.
Session Agenda:
•Overview of all Standards and Indicators to be addressed in Year One
•Content Lecture addressing the following South Carolina Social Studies Academic standards and
indicators: 3- 2.7; 4- 2.5;4-2.6;8-1.4
3-2.7
Standard:
Explain the transfer of the institution of slavery into South Carolina from the West
Indies, including the slave trade and the role of African Americans in the
developing economy; the daily lives of African American slaves and their
contributions to South Carolina, such as the Gullah culture and the introduction of
new foods; and African American acts of resistance against white authority.
Topics:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The Slave Trade -- Portuguese/ Spanish beginnings
The English begin colonization and enter the Slave Trade
Barbados/ South Carolina connection
African American lives -- economic, social and cultural contributions to
South Carolina
African American acts of resistance
3-2.7 (1)
1. The Slave Trade- Portuguese/ Spanish beginnings
•
The Age of European Exploration (15th Century)
•
Enslavement of Africans by Europeans actually began in this
age as a result of attempts by Europeans (initially Portuguese)
to find trade routes to the East -- India, China, Japan, East
Indies, modern Indonesia and Malaysia.
3-2.7 (1)
3-2.7 (1)
• As Portuguese navigated around the West coast of Africa , they
engaged in raiding parties in search of slaves to work the fields of
their island colonies (The Maderia Islands, the Azores, the Canaries)
3-2.7 (1)
• Reports of Portuguese kidnapping of Africans
– King Nomimansa meets Diego Gomez
• Portuguese; however, were not the first to engage in
the kidnapping and enslavement of Africans. The
Islamic Slave trade had long existed in Africa.
Sudanese horsemen had been capturing, mostly
women and children, destined for lives as concubines
and domestic servants in North Africa and southwest
Asia.
3-2.7 (1)
• Portuguese plantations were the first venue for African
enslavement.
• In Africa itself there had been slavery evolving from
interethnic rivalries and warfare. Slaves had been put to
work primarily as domestic servants. Slavery, however,
was not a permanent condition and, in many cases,
resulted in assimilation of the enslaved into the
population of their enslavement.
3-2.7 (1)
• 1492 Columbus paved the way for Portuguese
and Spanish colonization of the Caribbean
(Columbus’ voyage was sponsored by queen
Isabella and king Ferdinand of Spain)
• 1493 Pope Alexander VI granted Ferdinand and
Isabella all the territories of the new world and by
the treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal was granted
possession of the West African coast and Brazil;
and Spain all the major territories of the
Caribbean.
3-2.7 (1)
• 1500 -- Spanish settlers in Hispaniola imported
the first African slaves into the Caribbean to
replace the indigenous population.
• 1526 -- first Africans brought to South Carolina
as part of a large Spanish shipload from the
Caribbean.
3-2.7 (2)
2.
The English begin colonization and enter the Slave
Trade.
•
1554 -- Three English ships attained 10 Africans from
Guinea and Benin.
1562 -- John Hawkins led the first major English slave
trading expedition attacking a Portuguese ship and
seizing 300 Africans whom he sold in the Spanish
colony of Hispaniola.
1588 -- English merchants organized the Guinea Co. to
increase their effectiveness in participation in the slave
trade.
•
•
3-2.7 (2)
• 1609 -- the Virginia Co. established an English colony
in North America.
• 1623 -- The English began a long term process of
Caribbean colonization, beginning in St. Kitts.
• 1627 -- a group of Englishmen settled Barbados; in
1640 they turned their attention to African labor when
Dutch planters from Brazil took sugar cultivation
technology to Barbados.
• 1672 -- The Royal African Company was granted a
charter by King Charles II to transport slaves to the
North American Colonies
3-2.7 (2)
• The English and their colonists in America established a
triangular pattern of slave trading.
English colonies
England
West Africa
Slaves
Caribbean
West Africa
Slaves
Caribbean
• Profits from the West Africa slave trade funded the industrial Revolution in
England
3-2.7 (3)
3. Barbados/South Carolina Connection
•
•
•
•
1663 and 1665 -- Charles II of England granted a charter to eight of his
“loyal” nobleman to settle “Carolina.” The Proprietary colony of Carolina
was settled at Charles Town in 1670.
African slavery was immediately legally recognized by the Carolina
Grand Council.
White settlers escaping overcrowding in Barbados, began pouring into the
area that later became South Carolina. They found the hot, humid, semitropical environment with plenty of fertile land to be ideal for the
extension of indigo and rice plantation.
Slaves from Barbados therefore formed the foundation of the black
population in South Carolina.
3-2.7 (4)
4. African American lives - - economic social and cultural
contributions to South Carolina.
• From the establishment of the colony to around 1700,
slaves, skilled as herders from the Gambia river area
produced beef and lumber (supplying primarily Barbados)
• By 1700, rice cultivation became the focus in S. C.; many
of the enslaved Africans had brought with them, rice
cultivation skills which had been practiced for thousands of
years in West Africa.
3-2.7 (4)
• The enslaved suffered from high mortality rates from disease,
and poor treatment. Physical force was unleashed against them.
There was therefore need for continued replacements of African
slaves.
• As a result of “miscegenation” (largely as a result of rape)
distinct social classes began to develop in the black population
based on shadings of skin color.
• The dominance in the number of Africans in South Carolina
allowed for the preservation of much of their African heritage.
As more African women were imported during the 1750’s,
African Americans were able to preserve many aspects of West
African extended family life and naming practices.
3-2.7 (4)
• Many West African words such as; yam and banjo flowed into
the dialects constructed by Africans as they attempted to adapt
to English language patterns.
• West Africans musical characteristics such as “call-and
response” and antiphonal styles, polyrhythmic and
improvisational techniques, were reborn on the plantations and
eventually found themselves into American music.
• African trickster tales, proverbs and riddles were transformed
on plantations with the use of animals more peculiar to the
American environment.
3-2.7 (5)
5. African American Acts of Resistance
• Acts of Resistance included:
• Shirking assigned work, sabotage (breaking tools), mistreatment of
domestic animals, destroying crops, poisoning of owners, stealing, escape
to inaccessible regions forming “maroon” communities, or joining Native
American Communities.
• A major rebellion took place in S.C. in 1739 at the Stone Bridge, within
twenty miles of Charleston.
4-2.5
Standard:
Summarize the introduction and establishment of slavery in the American
colonies, including the role of the slave trade; the nature of the middle
passage; and the types of goods -- rice, indigo, sugar, tobacco, and rum, for
example that were exchanged among the West Indies, Europe and the
Americas.
Topics:
1. Introduction and establishment of slavery in the American colonies -- role of
the slave trade. (types of goods)
2. The middle passage (capture and process)
4-2.5 (1)
1.
Introduction and establishment of slavery in the
American colonies-- role of the slave trade.
•
1526 -- African slaves landed from Spanish vessels in San Miguel de
Gual dope (now Georgia)—some escaped and integrated in Native of
American populations.
1565 -- Spain established a settlement at St Augustine, Florida. The
settlement included slaves.
1609 -- the Virginia Co. established an English colony -- the Virginia
colony in North America.
Their main source of labor was initially “poor” whites contracted from
England as Indentured laborers.
•
•
•
4-2.5 (1)
• In 1619, 20 Africans were captured by a Dutch man-ofwar ship from a Spanish trader. The Dutch traded the
Africans in Virginia for supplies. The African Americans
apparently fed into the system of indentured labor with the
right to freedom after a period of service.
• A series of laws (slave codes) passed by the Virginia
House of Burgesses between 1639 and 1662 gradually
separated white from black indentured laborers, shifting
Blacks from indentured servitude of slavery.
4-2.5 (1)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The legal status of slaves was declared in :
1641 by the English Massachusetts Bay Colony
1650 by Connecticut
1663 by Maryland
1665 by New York
1682 by South Carolina
1714 by New Hampshire
1721 by Delaware
1750 by Georgia which had previously banned slavery in
1735, legalized it.
4-2.5 (1)
• The English and their colonists in America established a
triangular pattern of slave trading.
English colonies
England
West Africa
Slaves
Caribbean
West Africa
Slaves
Caribbean
4-2.5 (1)
• The slave trade must be understood in the context of
Mercantilism—the basic principles regulating the economic
relations of European States in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
• Its main objective was to increase the wealth and power of the
State. State action in the form of government orders and
regulations was taken to encourage and promote trade and
industry, in order to build wealth from outside sources.
4-2.5 (1)
• Wars of aggression were carried out between and among European nations in
the quest to gain wealth, first in the form of precious metals especially gold,
then in slaves and raw materials. Europeans perceived that whatever was
gained by one was lost by the other.
• Upon the discovery of the American lands, trading companies holding royal
charters and patronage sought to create monopolies in the trading of raw
materials—tobacco, sugar, cotton and dye-woods, produced by slave labor.
The chief means of achieving their objectives was through Navigational Acts
passed by governments.
• During the 17th and 18th centuries, England gained ascendancy in the Atlantic
trade over its European rivals.
4-2.5 (2)
2. The Middle Passage (capture and process)
• Initially, Africans who cooperated with Europeans during the
trading process turned over to Europeans, Africans whom they
had enslaved as war criminals. Later they engaged in capturing
and kidnapping of individuals and families.
• The captured were marched for hundreds of miles to the
Atlantic coast; slaves were traded and then, sometimes housed
for periods as long as a year before ships arrived, facilitating
another level of trading for passage to the Americas. The
voyage sometimes took as long as six months.
4-2.5(2)
•
Elmina Slave factory, GHANA
4-2.5 (2)
• Several sources provide vivid descriptions of conditions
on slave ships during the Middle passage. Conditions
include:
– Cramped and insanitary living quarters leading to the spread of
disease and suffering; undernourishment as a result of poor
nutrition; and death.
– Separation of family members and members from the same
ethnic group in order to avoid insurgencies.
– Rape of African Women
– Application of torture to force Africans to eat. (applying hot coals)
– Many of the enslaved Africans committed suicide; others
attempted insurrections.
4-2.5 (2)
•
Upon disembarkation from the slave ships another trading process occurred for
transfer to the workplace.
4-2.6
Standard:
Explain the impact of Indentured Servitude and slavery on life in the new
world and the contributions of African slaves to the development of the
American colonies, including farming techniques, cooking styles and
languages.
Topics:
1.The impact of indentured servitude and slavery on life in the new world.
• white indentured servitude
• from African indentured servitude to African slavery
2. The contributions of African slaves to the development of the American
colonies -- farming techniques, cooking styles, and languages.
4-2.6(1)
1.
The impact of Indentured servitude and slavery on life in
the new world.
•
A) White Indentured Servitude: Initially the Chesapeake
colonies (Virginia and Maryland) found it cheaper to
contract white indentured laborers to plant, weed, harvest,
cure and pack their high-income generating tobacco crops,
than to purchase Africans.
•
They contracted many English and Irish “poor” whites and
prisoners, eager to exchange their labor for passage to
America.
4-2.6(1)
• As late as 1680, indentured white laborers greatly out numbered African
slaves in the Chesapeake.
• Rhode Island, like Virginia employed mainly white indentured servants.
• Bacon’s Rebellion in 1675 led by poor white settlers served as an
incentive for Chesapeake planters to switch from their focus on white
laborers to African slavery.
• The Seven year’s war (1756-1763) was largely responsible for cutting off
the supply of white indentured laborers from Ireland and Germany.
4-2.6 (1)
• B) From African Indentured Servitude to African Slavery
• The English and their colonists in America established a triangular
pattern of slave trading.
• In 1619, 20 Africans were captured by a Dutch man-of-war ship from a
Spanish trader. The Dutch traded the Africans in Virginia for supplies.
The African Americans apparently fed into the system of indentured
labor with the right to freedom after a period of service.
• A series of laws (slave codes) passed by the Virginia House of
Burgesses between 1639 and 1662 gradually separated white from
black indentured laborers, shifting Blacks from indentured servitude of
slavery.
4-2.6(2)
• The contributions of African slaves to the development of the American
colonies.
• A. Economic contributions: African existed as:
– basic commodities
– workers, and producers including those in urban areas who hired out
their time as teamsters, household servants, barbers, tailors, hotel and
tavern keepers.
• They helped to create mercantile fortunes e.g. John Brown of Rhode Island.
• They made possible the industrial revolutions of both America and
England, which began with manufacture of textiles in mills that spun raw
fiber into yarn and wove yarn into fabric.
4-2.6(2)
B.
Cultural Contributions:
•
•
•
•
Farming techniques: They applied the African focus on
group organization that led to the “gang system”.
Cooking styles: Barbecued pork, fried chicken, black
eyed peas, collard and mustard greens.
Language: Impact on Southern diction and phraseology,
speech patterns and intonations
Music: Africans transferred traditional patterns to English
ballads.
8-1.4
Standard:
Explain the growth of the African American population during the colonial
period and the significance of African Americans in the developing culture
(e.g. Gullah) and economy of South Carolina including the origins of African
American slaves, the growth of the slave trade, the impact of population
imbalance between African and European Americans, and the Stone rebellion
and subsequent laws to control the slave population.
Topics:
1. The origins of African American slaves
2. Growth of the slave trade and the African American population during the Colonial
period; and the impact of the population imbalance between African and European
Americans.
3. The Stono rebellion and subsequent laws to control the slave population
4. The significance of African Americans in the developing culture (e.g. Gullah)
8-1.4 (1)
1.
•
•
The origin of African American Slaves:
For the first 25 years after it’s founding, Africans from Barbados formed the foundation of the slave
population of South Carolina.
By the time of the separation of North and South Carolina (a separate royal crown was established in
1729) Africans imported into South Carolina came primarily from: the gold coast (Lower Guinea
including the Ivory Coast; the Angola region; and the area between Senegal and Gambia.
8-1.4 (2)
2. Growth of the slave trade and the African American population during the
colonial periods; and the impact of the population imbalance between
Africans and Europeans Americans.
• The royal Africa Company (established in 1673) had held a monopoly on
the Slave Trade to the American colonies. However in 1698 Parliament
permitted private merchants to share in the trade.
• The Asciento contract between Spain and the British South Sea Company
in 1713 gave the company permission to transport 4,800 slaves a year for
30 years.
• These two events facilitated a massive growth in the Slave Trade: for South
Carolina:
1706 -1724 -1726 --1750 -1765 --
24 Africans imported
734 Africans imported
1000 Africans imported annually
8000 Africans imported
8-1.4(2)
• At the Beginning of the 18th century, the percentages of the
population of whites and blacks in South Carolina were 55 to
45.
• By 1720, blacks outnumbered whites roughly 2 to 1
• 1726 -- total population of blacks was 40,000.
• Alarmed at the growing number of blacks, in 1737 Lieutenant-Governor
Broughton warned:
“Our Negros are very numerous and more dreadful to our safety than any
Spanish invaders. I am also sending for some Cherokee Indians to come
down to the settlements to be an awe to the Negros.”
By the 1760’s blacks were estimated at 57,253 with 15,000 being adult
males, while whites were only about 6,000 of the S.C. population.
8-1.4(3)
3. The 1739 Stono rebellion and subsequent laws to control the
slave population.
• The largest revolt to occur anywhere on the mainland during the
colonial period.
• Led by 20 blacks probably Angolans, who attacked a store near the
Stono bridge, about 15 miles. southwest of Charles Town.
• They killed the store keepers left their severed heads on the
building’s steps; seized, gun powder and arms, and beat drums to
attract other blacks to join.
• Subsequently overcome: some killed, some captured and
executed, others pursued along the road to St. Augustine and
killed. More than 20 whites and countless blacks killed during the
whole encounter.
8-1.4(3)
• Results of the Rebellion:
• A prohibitive duty on the importation of new slaves.
• The 1740 Slave Code which sought to regulate:
• Punishments and levels of cruelty exercised
against slaves, adequate food and clothing, field
work and hours of work, teaching slaves to read
and write, the movement of slaves, the ability of
slaves to keep weapons, and improvements in the
slave patrol system.
8-1.4(4)
•
•
•
•
•
•
The significance of African Americans in the developing
culture (e.g. Gullah)
Cultural Contributions
Farming techniques: They applied the African focus on
group organization that led to the “gang system”.
Cooking styles: Barbecued pork, fried chicken, black eyed
peas, collard and mustard greens.
Language: Impact on Southern diction and phraseology,
speech patterns and intonations
Music: Africans transferred traditional patterns to English
ballads.
8-1.4(4)
•
Gullah is the culture and language of the first black inhabitants of the Low country
of S.C. including the coastal plain and the Sea Islands.
•
They are known for preserving their African linguistic and cultural heritage. Their
English-based Creole is significantly influenced by African languages in grammar
and sentence structure.
•
Their influence persisted in story telling, food, music, folk beliefs crafts, farming
and fishing traditions.
Descargar

Slide 1