继续教育学院
School of Continuing Education, Jilin University
新发展英语(一)
第三讲
授课教师:曹瑜
Text Study
Para. 3
This spelling is not easy. It is partly
phonetic, but only partly, and it has many
maddening inconsistencies. Even native
speakers find it hard and children who speak their
native English fluently take years to learn how to
spell their own language. Even well-educated
people in Britain and America have to consult the
dictionary more often than they generally admit!
 adj. 语音的;语音学的;表示发音的
e.g.
a. Is the text marked with phonetic symbols?
课文有注音吗?
b. international phonetic alphabet
国际音标
 vt. 使疯狂
e.g.
The colonel's calmness maddened Pluskat.
上校的镇静激怒了普拉斯凯特。
 maddening adj. 令人疯狂的
e.g.
The box has spat forth maddening ninesecond sound bite.
电视机整整吐放了九秒钟令人疯狂的插播。
 n. 不一致,矛盾
e.g.
There is a great inconsistency between what
he says and what he does.
他的言行极不一致。
Para. 3 这种拼写并不容易。它部分是根据发音而
成,但仅仅是部分而已,而且有一些令人发狂的矛
盾之处。甚至说母语的人也觉得它很难,连那些说
一口流利英语的孩子们也要花好几年的时间才能学
会拼写他们的母语。在英国和美国,甚至那些受过
良好教育的人也不得不经常查阅字典,其频率比他
们通常承认的要高得多。
Text Study
Para. 4 There have been many attempts to
“reform” English spelling. The most important
spelling reformer was an American Noah Webster,
who in 1828 produced a frankly nationalistic
American Dictionary of the English Language.
Webster added some thousands of “American”
words that were unknown to Dr. Johnson and he
mounted an all-out assault on the “traditional”
English way of spelling.
 n. 尝试,努力
e.g.
He made an attempt to escape, but he failed.
他企图逃跑,但失败了。
 vt. 企图,试图(做)
e.g.
I will attempt to answer all your questions.
我将试着回答你所有的问题。
Noah Webster (1758 –1843) 美国所有词典编纂家中最著名
的一位,他一直坚定不移地支持美国英语。从1789 年的《论
英语》到1828 年的《美国英语词典》(今简称《韦氏大词
典》),他的作品像塞缪尔・约翰逊的作品一样举世闻名。
nationalistic: 国家主义,该词本意是指国家
主义,在此处指带有国家主义色彩,原因是诺
亚・韦伯斯特在当时坚持不懈地在美国推行美
国英语,并撰写了《美国英语词典》(今简称
《韦氏大词典》)对美国英语进行规范,所以
说带有美国国家主义色彩。
 vt. 发动
e.g.
a. The soldiers have been ready to mount
another attack.
战士们已经做好了发动又一次进攻的准备。
b. The women in this country mounted another
campaign for equal rights with men.
这个国家的妇女又一次发起了要求拥有与男性
同等权利的运动。
 adj. 竭力的; 全部的
e.g.
a. He made an all-out sprint and won the first
prize in the race.
他竭尽全力地冲刺,取得了跑步比赛的第一名。
b. They worked out an all-out conservation program.
他们制定了一个全方位的资源保护计划。
 n. 攻击,袭击
e.g.
They responded with assaults against the
enemy's bases.
他们向敌人阵地发起反攻。
 vt. 攻击,袭击
e.g.
We assaulted the city on all sides.
我们从四面八方向该城发起攻击。
Para. 4 历史上曾出现过许多“改革”英文拼写
的
尝试。 最重要的拼写改革家当数美国的诺亚· 韦伯
斯特, 他在 1828 年编纂出了一本带有不加掩饰的
国家主义色彩的词典——《美国英语词典》。 韦
伯斯特增加了数以千计的“美国词汇”,这些词汇
并
不为约翰逊博士所知。而且,他还竭力攻击“传统
的”英文拼写方式。
Text Study
Why, he asked, should we spell “thumb”
when we do not pronounce the letter “b”? But
even the Americans of his time ignored him and it
remains “thumb" to this day in modern editions of
Webster.
Para. 5
 n. 拇指
e.g.
a. This glove has a hole in the thumb.
这只手套的大拇指处有个洞。
b. The man swore when the hammer hit his
thumb.
那个男人咒骂起来,他的拇指让锤子砸了
一下。
Para. 5 他曾说:“thumb(拇指)”中的“b”
不发音,为什么我们却拼成“thumb”? 但是,
甚至他那个时代的美国人也都对他不予理睬,所
以直到现在,韦伯斯特现代版的词典还是将“拇
指”拼成“thumb”。
继续教育学院
School of Continuing Education, Jilin University
新发展英语(一)
第四讲
授课教师:曹瑜
Text Study
Para. 6 However, Webster was triumphant in
other words. His “reformed spelling” of English in
“-our” words has won the day, “favor”, “labor”,
“honor”, replacing the English “favour”, “labour”,
“honour”. Similarly, American English spells words
like “centre”, “theatre”, “calibre” as “center”,
“theater”, and “caliber”.
 adj. 胜利的,成功的;(因成功而)欢欣鼓舞的,
洋洋得意的
e.g.
a. The victorious general made a triumphant
return.
战胜的将军凯旋而归。
b. In the summer of 1958 the pianist had a
sensationally triumphant return.
1958年夏天这位钢琴家非常成功地复出了。
 (在竞赛或争论中)获胜,占上风
e.g.
a. Despite strong opposition, the ruling party
won the day.
尽管对手实力很强,执政党还是获胜了。
b. New products grab headlines, but useful
products that give good value often
win the day.
虽然新产品抢占了媒体的重要新闻,但物有所
值的实用产品通常获胜。
 n. [ 英](枪、炮等的)口径
e.g.
A small bore rifle means that the weapon is
in the 0.22 to 0.38 calibre range.
小口径步枪是指枪的口径为0.22~0.38。
 n. 才干,水准
e.g. There are few workers left of her calibre.
像她那种工作人员剩下的不多了。
Para. 6 然而,韦伯斯特却成功地改革了其他的
一些词汇。 他在“-our”的拼写改革上就取得了成
功。“favor”,“labor”,“honor”替代了(以前)
英式英语中的“favour”,“labour”,“honour”。
同样, 美式英语把诸如“centre”,“theatre”,
“calibre”拼写成“center”,“theater”,
“caliber”。
Text Study
Para. 7 One of the other ways in which American
spelling differs from the British is in the treatment
of the letter “I” in the middle of a word. The
difference is clearly visible in American Express
checks. If they are issued in UK pounds they
bear the title “Traveller’s Cheque”; if in US dollars
“Traveler’s Check”. Fortunately a trader will
accept either! If the money is good why worry
about spelling?
 vi.(from, in)与……不同,相异
e.g.
a. Birds differ from mammals.
鸟类与哺乳动物不同。
b. The testimony of the two witnesses differed
from each other.
两个目击者的证词不一致。
 vi. (with, from) 与······意见不同
For More
 vi. (with, from) 与······意见不同
e.g.
I’m sorry to differ with you on that.
对不起,在那件事上我们看法不同。
End
Para. 7 美式拼写与英式拼写的另一个不同之
处,是在处理一个单词中间的字母“l”的问题上。
这种不同在美国捷运公司的支票上显而易见。 如
果它们是以英国英镑发行,那么它们就叫
“Traveller’s Cheque”, 如果是以美国美元发行,
那就是“Traveler’s Check”。幸运的是,商人会
接
受两者中的任何一种! 如果钱没错,为什么要在乎
它的拼写呢?
Text Study
Para. 8a In vocabulary there are also numerous
differences. The British take a “lift” to the upper
floors of a building, the Americans an “elevator”;
British motor cars have a “bonnet” and a “boot”
and are protected by “bumpers”, American cars
have a “hood” and a “trunk” and are protected by
“fenders”; British passengers travel in railway
“carriages”, Americans in railway “cars”.
Para. 8a ( 美式英语和英式英语) 在词汇方面也有
很多不同之处。英国人乘“lift(电梯)”到 一栋
建筑的高层,而美国人则乘“elevator(电梯)”;
英国的机动车有一个“bonnet(引擎罩)”及一
个“boot(行李箱)”并且受“bumpers(保险
杠)”的保护;而美国汽车则有一个“hood(引
擎罩)”及一个“trunk(行李箱)”,并受
“fenders(保险杠)”的保护;英国乘客在铁路
上的“carriages(车厢)”中旅行,而美国人则
乘坐在铁路上的“cars(车厢)”里。
Text Study
Dead Britons get buried in a “coffin” by
means of an “undertaker”, dead Americans in a
“casket” by means of a “mortician”; British children
progress in school from “form” to “form”, American
children from “grade” to “grade”; the British walk on
a “pavement”, Americans on a “sidewalk”. There
are hundreds of such variants.
Para. 8b
 n. [ 英] 棺材
a. The coffin was placed in the grave.
那口棺材已安放到坟墓里去了。
b. Every time he drinks wine, he drives a nail in
his coffin. 他每喝一次酒,就等于加速死亡一
步。
c. Coffin Nail, a slang term used to describe a
cigarette. Something that might hasten or
contribute to one's death, as in Every cigarette
you smoke is another nail in your coffin.
Para. 8b 去世了的英国人通过一个
“undertaker(丧葬承办人)”将其埋葬在一个
“coffin(棺材)”里,而在美国则由一个
“mortician(丧葬承办人)”将死者埋葬在一个
“casket(棺材)”里;英国小孩在学校里从一
个“form(年级)”升到高一个年级,而美国小
孩则从学校的一个“grade(年级)”升到高一个
年级;英国人走在“pavement(人行道)”上,
而美国人却步行在“sidewalk(人行道)”上。
诸如此类的差异还有数百种。
继续教育学院
School of Continuing Education, Jilin University
新发展英语(一)
第五讲
授课教师:曹瑜
Text Study
Para. 9 After Webster, the most influential
advocate of the separateness of American
English was H.L. Mencken, whose book The
American Language was first published in 1919.
But the even more influential magazine The New
Yorker, first published in 1925, insisted that
contributors conform to the style of the H. W.
Fowler’s very British Modern English Usage.
 adj. 有影响的,有势力的
e.g.
a. He is a very influential man in the
government.
他在政府中是个很有影响的人物。
b. In his days, he was a very influential
politician.
他在走红时是非常有影响力的政治家。
 n. 拥护者,提倡者
e.g.
He is an advocate of civil rights.
他是公民权利的拥护者。
 vt. 提倡, 鼓吹
e.g.
Scientists advocate a reduction in saturated
fats in the human diet.
科学家们提倡人类饮食应减少对饱和脂肪的
摄取。
 vt. 坚持, 强调 vi. 坚持,坚决认为 (on)
insist 后接以that引导的宾语从句,表示强烈并持续
地主张或要求(某物),常采用虚拟式should加动词
原形表达(should可省略)。
e.g.
a. We insist that you (should) accept
these gifts.
我们坚决要求你收下这些礼物。
insist on: 坚持, 坚决认为,执意(做)
For More
b. He insisted on giving me a second helping.
他坚持再给我一次帮助。
End
 vt. 捐献,投稿,贡献
e.g.
a. He contributed 5$ to the charity every
payday.
他每逢发薪日都捐5美元给慈善事业。
b. He used to contribute to several charities.
他过去常常捐助一些慈善团体。
For More
 vi. 捐献,投稿,导致(to)
e.g.
a. Exercise contributes to better health.
锻炼有助于健康。
b. He often contributes to the school
newspaper to express his own opinions.
他经常投稿给校报以发表自己的观点。
contributor: n. 投稿者;捐助者;贡献者
End
 符合, 遵照
e.g.
a. Freshmen were required to conform to the
school rules although they had more
freedom than when they were in the high
school.
大一新生虽然有比他们在中学时更多的自
由,但是也得遵守校规。
For More
b. The kinds of books in her library
conform to her level of education.
她的藏书种类和她的教育程度相符。
c. The building does
not conform to safety regulations. 这座
建筑物不符合安全条例。
d. Many of us conform to the outdated
customs laid down by our forebears. 我
们许多人都遵循祖先立下的过时习俗。
是一份美国美知识、文艺类的综合杂志,内
容覆盖新闻报道、文艺评论、散文、漫画、诗
歌、小说,以及纽约文化生活动向等。
www.thecartoonbank.com
www.newyorker.com
Para. 9 在韦伯斯特之后, 路易斯· 门肯则是提倡
美式英语独立性的最有影响的人物, 他所著的《美
国语言》于1919 年首次出版。但是更有影响力的
杂志《纽约客》——1925 年首次出版——却坚持
让投稿者遵循 H. W. 福勒的《现代英语用法词典》
中那种带有明显英式英语特点的风格。
继续教育学院
School of Continuing Education, Jilin University
新发展英语(一)
第六讲
授课教师:曹瑜
Text Study
Para. 10a
The truth is that there are numerous
small differences between British and American
usages. All major languages show the same
kind of regional variation. It is inevitable. The
question is: Are they important? With the spread
of English as an international medium the answer
seems to be “not very”.
 adj. 地域性的;整个地区的
e.g.
a. Regional joint operation of schools was
pushed forward actively.
区域性联合办学积极推进。
b. Four-hundred-and-fourteen US companies
have regional headquarters or offices there.
有414个美国公司在这儿设立分区总部或
办事处。
 adj. 不可避免的,必然的
e.g.
a. We explained to everyone that the delay is
inevitable.
我们向大家解释延迟是免不了的。
b. Most lawyers felt such an outcome was
nevertheless inevitable.
多数律师认为这是必然的。
 prep. 以······的身份,作为
e.g.
a. She often acts as a mediator between this hottempered couple.
她经常充当这对脾气暴躁的夫妇之间的调解人。
b. As your best friend, I want to warn you that
your boyfriend does not deserve you.
作为你最好的朋友,我想提醒你:你的男朋友配
不上你。
 n. 媒体, 媒介;方法
e.g.
a. Communication Medium — this field
specifies the communication medium type.
通讯媒介--该字段指定通信介质类型。
b. This is an effective medium.
这是一种有效手段。
Para. 10a 事实上, 英式英语和美式英语之间在用
法上有许多细微的差异。所有的主要语言都有着同
样的地域性差异,这不可避免。但问题是: 它们很
重要吗? 随着英语作为一个国际媒介被广泛传播,
答案似乎是“不是很重要”
Text Study
Para. 10b
The variations between American
English and British English are slight when set
beside what the two have in common. Readers
of English anywhere can move from the Financial
Times or The Economist (published in England)
to Time or the Reader’s Digest (published in
America), well aware that they are reading the
same language.
 相当于 when (the variations are) set
beside or compared with...
当(它们的差异)与······相比之时。
set beside: 与······相比; 与······对比
e.g.
a. She looks so small when she is set beside
her husband.
比起她的丈夫来,她看上去是那么娇小。
For More
b. Your difficulty is not a big deal when set beside
his trouble.
你的困难和他的相比就不是什么大不了的事了。
c. There is no one to set beside him as a leader.
作为一位领袖, 他是无与伦比的。
End
 在······方面有相同之处
e.g.
a. They are deeply in love with each other
although they have nothing in common.
虽然他们彼此之间没有任何共同点,但是他
们彼此深深相爱。
b. They became great friends after they found
they have a lot in common.
当他们发现相互之间有很多共同点之后便成
了非常要好的朋友。
《金融时报》是培生集团旗下一份国际性报纸,一般大
众对其评价颇高,公信力享誉全球。总部设于伦敦。
The Financial Times (FT) is a British Englishlanguage international daily newspaper with a
special emphasis on business and economic news
internationally. The paper, was founded in 1888.
www.ft.com/home/uk
www.ftchinese.com
1843 年创刊于英国的周刊。该刊的创办目的是“参与一场
推动前进的智慧与阻碍我们进步的胆怯无知之间的较量”(to
take part in a severe contest between intelligence, which
presses forward, and an unworthy, timid ignorance
obstructing our progress),这句话被印在每一期《经济学人》
的目录页上。《经济学人》主要关注政治和商业方面的新闻,
但是每期也有一两篇针对科技和艺艺术的报导,以及书评。
Time is an American weekly news
magazine published in New York City.
It was founded in 1923.
现今的《时代》共有四种版本,包括了美国版、
欧洲版、亚洲版、南太平洋版。欧洲版(Time
Europe,旧称Time Atlantic)出版于伦敦,亦涵
盖了中东、非洲和拉丁美洲的事件。亚洲版
( T i m e
A s i a ) 出 版 于 香 港 。
德威特・华莱士 DeWitt Wallace 与妻
子莉拉 Lila Bell Wallace 创立于
1922 年初。如今《读者文摘》是全球
最大的文摘杂志,同时也是世界上最成
功的杂志之一:月发行量2,000 多万册,
用19 种文字发行48 个版本,读者多达
1 亿,年收入超过25 亿美元。
www.rd.com
12. Readers of English anywhere can move from
the Financial Times or The Economist
(published in England) to Time or the Reader’s
Digest (published in America), well aware that
they are reading the same language. (Para. 10)
任何地方的英文读者都既能读《金融时报》和《经
济学人》(英国出版),也能读《时代周刊》和
《读者文摘 》( 美国出版), 同时也很清楚地知道,
他们读到的是相同的语言。
For More
1) move from…to...: 此处指能轻松地阅读美国或
英国出版的各种刊物
2) aware: adj. 知道的, 明白的, 意识到的
be (well) aware that … /of something
e.g.
a. She is well aware that she has lost him forever.
她很清楚地意识到她已经永远地失去了他。
For More
b. I am aware that the Congress has passed the
legislation.
我知道议会已经通过了立法。
c. Are you aware of the danger of being expelled
from school?
你意识到了你有被学校开除的危险么?
End
Para. 10b 与它们的共同之处相比, 美式和英式英
语之间的差异只是微乎其微的。任何地方的英文读
者都既能读《金融时报》和《经济学人》(英国出
版),也能读《时代周刊》和《读者文摘 》( 美国
出版), 并很清楚地知道,他们读到的是相同的语言。
Text Study
Para. 11 Which then to choose? Use the variant
used in your community. Then stick to it. Do not
mix the two.
(699 words)
Para. 11 那么该选择哪一个呢? 答案是使用你所
在区域使用的语言,然后坚持使用下去,不要混用。
继续教育学院
School of Continuing Education, Jilin University
新发展英语(一)
第七讲
授课教师:曹瑜
Complete the following outline for a better
understanding of the text organization.(P10)
British or American English?
Main idea: (Para.1) Although British English and
American English do exhibit many differences, they are
basically the same.
Supporting points:
1. (Paras.2—7) Although American English shows
some
differences from British English after it has been
reformed, the differences are not so significant.
For More
2. (Para.8) There are also many differences in the
vocabulary between British English and American
English.
3. (Paras.9—10) Differences in British and American
usage of English are numerous; however, they are
only the regional variation and are not important.
Conclusion:
(Para.11) We should choose either British or
American English and stick to it.
End
Turn the following nouns into adjectives that
end with “-al”, and then give their Chinese
meaning. (P13)
Noun
influence
Adjective
influential
Chinese
有影响的, 有势力的
professio
n
origin
professional
专业的, 职业的
virgin
original
virginal
最初的, 原始的; 独创的, 新
颖的
处女的; 无瑕的
For More
Noun
incident
Adjective
incidental
vocation
vocational
Chinese
附带的, 伴随的; 非主要的,
偶然的,容易发生的
职业的
End
A. Choose the best answer to complete each of
the following sentences. (P13)
1. B
2. A
3. B
4. A
5. D
B. Replace each of the underlined parts with
the best choice given. (P14)
1. B
2. B
3. C
4. A
5. D
6. A
C. Complete the following sentences with the
expressions given in the box. (P14)
1. If you have much spare time when you are on
business in Japan, you can pick up some
Japanese.
2. Although you are the leader here, you cannot
lay down the rules totally according to your
own will.
For More
3. They succeeded by means of patience and
carefulness.
4. New citizens are required to conform to the
local customs.
End
继续教育学院
School of Continuing Education, Jilin University
新发展英语(一)
第八讲
授课教师:曹瑜
Rewrite the following sentences after their
model. (P15)
1. The truth is that she is too young to shoulder
such important responsibilities.
2. The truth is that he never truly loved her.
3. He made a huge mistake in the English
Speaking Contest, well aware that he lost the
first prize.
4. She walked onto the stage confidently, well
aware that she would be the final winner.
For More
6. Those people who have worked in this
company for more than five years can have the
chance to go abroad.
7. Her father insists that she (should) come back
to China after she finishes her study abroad.
8. The teacher insists that the students (should)
come to class on time.
End
A. Put the following into Chinese or vice
Versa. (P11)
1. 新闻的“ 观点”
2. 受过良好教育的人
3. 获胜,占上风
4. Traveler’s Check
5. take a lift/an elevator
6. regional variation
Translation
B. Put the following sentences into English
using the expressions given in the brackets.
(P16)
1. She went over to the crying baby and picked
her up.
2. To this day, I still don’t understand why he did it
then.
3. Different people may have different “slants” on
the same incident.
For More
Translation
4. After marriage, he had continually made
attempts to change her way of life, but failed.
5. Betty Friedan is a very influential advocate of
the equality of men and women in the United
States.
6. The Suzhou dialect has a lot in common with
the Shanghai dialect.
For More
Translation
7. He was triumphant in defeating his opponent.
8. If you want to be successful, you must stick to
your own principles.
End
继续教育学院
School of Continuing Education, Jilin University
新发展英语(一)
第九讲
授课教师:曹瑜
Writing
A. Please write down the structures of the
following sentences. (P17)
1. S V O
2. S V P
3. S V
4. S V O C
5. S V o O
Writing
B. Please make simple sentences using the
structures given. (P18)
1. The phone is ringing. (The phone rings.)
2. He looked frightened.
3. They smiled at the baby.
4. The monitor handed us our books.
5. These pictures made the book more interesting.
Writing
C. Turn the following pairs of sentences into
compound sentences using proper
connecting words. (P19)
1. It was windy, so I stayed indoors.
or: I stayed indoors, for it was windy.
2. He was short-sighted, so he was not able to
join the army.
or: He was not able to join the army, for he
was short-sighted.
For More
Writing
3. John wanted to ski and Mary wanted to fly
kites.
or: John wanted to ski,but Mary wanted to
fly kites.
4. She can’t sing, nor/neither can she dance.
End
Writing
D. Please judge whether the connecting words
in the following compound sentences are
used correctly or not. If a connecting word is
not correctly used, correct it. (P19)
1. 不当, but → and
2. 不当, so → but
3. 不当, and → but或while
4. 使用得当
Reading Comprehension(P21)
1. D
2. B
3. A
4. C
5. C
6. D
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