Why did they leave their native
countries?
Why did they move to the U.S.?
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Most immigrants came from West European
countries, such as England, Ireland & Germany
By 1900, 50% of immigrants were coming from
Eastern & Southern Europe
After 1892-most were screened & processed at
Ellis Island New York
Nearly all Chinese immigrants landed on the
West Coast & were processed at Angel Island

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Usually endured
crowded, unsanitary
conditions
Were screened for
illnesses that would
prevent them admitted
to the U.S.
Could only bring
limited luggage

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To escape religious & political
persecution
To get jobs
To avoid upheaval of war
To escape starvation
To escape diseases
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Political and religious freedom
Better economic opportunities
Gold Rush
Encouraging letters from relatives
U.S. Government advertisements
U.S. Business recruitment

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Majority headed to
industrialized citiessuch as New York,
Chicago, & Boston
Most settled in
clusters by language,
culture, & religion
Learning English freed
them to move where
they wanted

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California Gold Rush
attracted numerous
Chinese immigrants
Many were escaping
poverty, & famine
Chinese were key workers
on railroads
1910 Angel Island opens in
CA--processing center akin
to Ellis Island
1882 Chinese Exclusion
Act bans Chinese
immigrants until 1943!
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Powerful, exotic religious
beliefs and ceremonies
Foreign languages, dress
and customs
Competition for housing &
goods
Political upset if immigrants
become voting citizens
Crime and debauchery in
immigrant population
Plentiful supply of cheap
labor competing for jobs
“Cellar Tenement,” Women’s Municipal League Photo, 1914, No. 24-J58
Conwell, Col. Russell H. “Why the Chinese Emigrate, and the Means They Adopt for the Purpose
of Getting to America.” Lee and Shepard, n. d
.
Frenzeny & Tavernia. “Emigrant Wagon—on the Way to the Railway Station” Harper’s Weekly,
Oct. 25, 187?, p. 940.
H. Harrah, S.C. “On Board an Emigrant Ship,” The Graphic. Dec 2, 1871.
http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/charts/immigration18202007mils.jpg
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/pnp/ppmsca/05600/05660r.jpg
http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3b
http://www.angelfire.com/ns/immigration/
http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/charts/immigration18202007mils.jpg
“The Result of the Immigration from China,” New York, T. W. Strong, n. d.
Riis, Jacob A. How the Other Half Lives; Studies Among the Tenements of New York; With
Illustrations Chiefly From Photographs Taken by the Author.
Sandler, Martin J. Immigrants: A Library of Congress Book. New York, HarperCollins Publisher,
1995.Yankee Notions, Vol. VIII, #3, p. 65
“Cellar Tenement,” Women’s Municipal League Photo, 1914, No. 24-J58
Conwell, Col. Russell H. “Why the Chinese Emigrate, and the Means They Adopt for the Purpose of
Getting to America.” Lee and Shepard, n. d
.
Frenzeny & Tavernia. “Emigrant Wagon—on the Way to the Railway Station” Harper’s Weekly, Oct.
25, 187?, p. 940.
H. Harrah, S.C. “On Board an Emigrant Ship,” The Graphic. Dec 2, 1871.
http://blsciblogs.baruch.cuny.edu/his1005fall2010/tag/immigrants/
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/pnp/ppmsca/05600/05660r.jpg
http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3b
http://martialhistory.com/wpcontent/uploads/2007/06/1869_anti_chinese.jpg&imgrefurl=http://martialhi
story.com/2007/06/chinese-american-boxers-before-1900
http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/charts/immigration18202007mils.jpg
http://www.oregonlive.com/O/index.ssf/2009/02/oregons_immigration_debate_mor.html
http://sites.google.com/site/immigration327/working-conditions-for-immigrants
http://sites.google.com/site/immigration327/triangle-shirtwaist-fire
http://www.angelfire.com/ns/immigration/
http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/charts/immigration18202007mils.jpg
http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/images/1900salt_mine.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.p
bs.org/kpbs/theborder/history/interactive-timeline.html&usg
The Result of the Immigration from China,” New York, T. W. Strong, n. d.
Riis, Jacob A. How the Other Half Lives; Studies Among the Tenements of New York;
With Illustrations Chiefly From Photographs Taken by the Author.
Sandler, Martin J. Immigrants: A Library of Congress Book. New York, HarperCollins
Publisher, 1995.Yankee Notions, Vol. VIII, #3, p. 65
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Immigration 1880-1900