Language Planning and Policy in Australia and Queensland:
Past, Present and Future
Cristina Poyatos Matas and Shannon Mason
Griffith Institute of Educational Research, Griffith University
Questions for discussion
What is language policy?
What language policies are you aware of?
How do you think language policy impacts your daily work as a teacher?
Language policy literacy self-assessment (pre-test)
How do you rate your
knowledge of language
1 - very
5 - very
1 - very
5 - very
How do you rate your
confidence to discuss
language policy and
how it affects your work?
Policy, policy, policy
BBC Video clip shown from
Yes Minister, BBC
Today’s plenary aims
To create a learning space to raise awareness of
language policy and reflect on our role in
policy development and implementation
Today’s plenary
1. An overview of language planning and policy
What we can learn from over 50 years of
policy history in Australia and Queensland
‘Global Schools’ policy
Languages Other Than English policy
What can we do to move from being policy
consumers to policy influencers
An overview of language planning and policy
“Knowledge is power”
-Francis Bacon, 1561 - 1626
What is language planning?
•Language planning is an activity, most visibly undertaken by government
because it potentially involves massive changes in a society. It is intended to
promote systematic linguistic change in some community of speakers.
•The main reason for such change is to maintain civil order and
communication, and to move society into what is seen by the government as
a "good" or "useful" direction.
•The exercise of language planning leads to the promulgation of a
language policy by government (or some other authoritative body or person).
(Kaplan, 2013, p. 2)
What is language policy?
•“A body of ideas, laws, regulations, rules and practices intended to
achieve the planned language change in the society, group or system”.
(Kaplan, 2013)
•It is both ‘textual” (a document that announces an authoritative position and
allocates resources in a given area) and ‘discourse’ (the debates and
discussion that surround decision making about what is to be done in a
particular area) (Ball,1993; 1994)
How does language policy become visible?
•Very formal language planning documents and pronouncements.
• Informal statements of intent (i.e., the discourse of language, politics and
society) that may not at first glance seem like language policies at all.
What types of policy statements are there?
•Symbolic statements articulate good feelings toward change (or
perhaps ends up being so nebulous that it is difficult to understand what
language-specific concepts may be involved).
•Substantive statements articulate specific steps to be taken.
(Peddie, 1991)
Who is affected by language policy?
Policy exists at three levels: the intended, the enacted and the
‘Performance’ or ‘practice’ is an essential element in how we understand
what policy can be taken to be.
•Policy making has inside and outside actors, and those who are ‘on the
receiving end’ of policy, those who ‘experience’ it, are able to respond to
its intentions, occasionally transforming or even subverting it altogether.
(LoBianco, 2009, p. 17, Second Languages and Australian Schooling)
How is language policy evaluated?
Only when a language policy exists can any sort of serious evaluation of
planning occur (Rubin, 1971); i.e., in the absence of a policy there cannot be a
plan to be adjusted. (Kaplan, 2013: 2)
It should be evaluated as objectively as possible (clear about how success is
going to be determined, essential to relate success measure to desired
outcome. This, often, not done.) (Sir Gus O’Donnell, 2014)
Greater access to quality data is needed in Australia “(subject to appropriate
privacy protections) to identify what policies work well. This could allow for
independent verification of official evaluation findings, enable sensitivity analyses
and experimental use of new methods, and encourage additional research of
direct interest to government at low cost.” (COAG, 2010)
What is quality data?
• Quality Data plays a pivotal role in policy development, implementation
and evaluation.
•A good baseline data needed (the state of play before a policy is introduced)
• Information on how performance evolved subsequently, after policy is
introduced, is also needed.
(Commission Enquiry, ANNUAL REPORT 2009-10, pp. 6-7)
How is language policy implemented?
National Policy
State Policy
School Policy
Who develops language policy in Australia?
Council of Australian Governments (COAG) – 10 members Prime Minister
and State Premiers.
In 2007, they had “Over 40 Commonwealth-State Ministerial Councils and other
inter-governmental decision making for a facilitate consultation and
cooperation between the Commonwealth Government and state and
territory and local governments in specific policy areas. The councils
initiate, develop and monitor policy reform jointly in these areas, and take joint
action in the resolution of issues that arise between governments. In particular,
Ministerial Councils develop policy reforms for consideration by the Council of
Australian Governments (COAG), and oversee the implementation of policy
reforms agreed by COAG. Ministerial Council agreements are commonly
translated into law and regulation, and it is important that all councils follow
consistent principles in developing all proposals which have a regulatory impact.”
(COAG, 2007, p. 1)
Now they have eight COAG Councils (they are Commonwealth and State
and Territory ministers). One of them is the Education Council.
COAG principles for best practice
regulation making and review
1. establishing a case for action before addressing a problem;
2. a range of feasible policy options must be considered, including self-regulatory,
co-regulatory and non-regulatory approaches, and their benefits and costs assessed;
3. adopting the option that generates the greatest net benefit for the community;
4. in accordance with the Competition Principles Agreement, legislation should not restrict
competition unless it can be demonstrated that:1. the benefits of the restrictions to the community as a whole outweigh the costs,
2. the objectives of the regulation can only be achieved by restricting competition;
5. providing effective guidance to relevant regulators and regulated parties in order
to ensure that the policy intent and expected compliance requirements of the
regulation are clear;
6. ensuring that regulation remains relevant and effective over time;
7. consulting effectively with affected key stakeholders at all stages of the
regulatory cycle; and
8. government action should be effective and proportional to the issue being addressed.
(COAG, 2007, p. 4)
Policy on the run is policy underdone
ABC Video clip shown from Hollowmen, Series 1, episode 1
Hollowmen, ABC
6 Key features of quality policy to accelerate progress
and reduce costs due to errors (Australian Productivity Commission)
1.Clearly defining the problem to be addressed and establishing a conceptual
framework to guide evidence gathering and interpretation
2.Acquiring better data on ‘baseline’ situations and measuring the changed
outcomes as new policies are implemented
3.Consulting widely to ensure that all available evidence is incorporated, and
providing early ‘airing’ of proposed policy options to test their viability
4.Building quality evaluation into the implementation of policies and using
evaluation to shape improvements
5.Evaluating different policy approaches across states and territories
6.Making effective use of scarce evaluation skills by drawing on academic
expertise and sharing experience across jurisdictions.
(Commission Enquiry, ANNUAL REPORT 2009-10, pp. 5-6)
What type of language policy do we need?
Policy history in Australia and Queensland:
From 1960s to 2010s
“Those who cannot learn from history are
doomed to repeat it”
- George Santayana, 1863 - 1952
Language policy quiz
This quote appears in a language policy document. From what year is it?
a. 2014
b. 2008
c. 1994
“An international approach to education recognises that for students
to have the global skills they need, they must have access to quality
languages education and exposure to intercultural experiences
throughout their schooling”
Global Schools. Creating successful global citizens. Consultation Draft
(Department of Education, Training and Employment, 2014)
Language policy quiz
This quote appears in a language policy document. From what year is it?
a. 1980
b. 1992
c. 2005
“Our learners are the future of our nation.
Developing in them language skills and inter-cultural
understanding is an investment in our national
capability and a valuable resource.”
National statement for languages education in Australian schools.
National plan for languages education in Australian schools. 2005
Language policy quiz
This quote appears in a language policy document. From what year is it?
a. 2012
b. 1992
c. 1976
“All children should be given the opportunity to acquire an
understanding of other languages and cultures from the earliest
years of primary school”
Report of the Committee on the Teaching of
Migrant Languages in Schools, 1976
1966 - Migration Act, 1966
Watershed moment in immigration reform
Dismantled many aspects of the White Australia Policy
Increased migration of non-Europeans
44% of Australian Year 12
students studied a language
(LoBianco, 2009)
French, German and Latin most common
Elite pursuit, access to literary texts, high culture
Grammar translation methodology
No assumption of real language use
1968 - Removal of language university entrance requirements
Immediate impact with 10% fall in language enrolments
1973 - Australian Citizenship Act, 1973
1975 - Racial Discrimination Act, 1975
Time of social and political change
“For the first time in Australian history languages other than English became the object of
positive and direct attention” (LoBianco, 2009, p. 16).
Numerous reports into language education
1970 - The Teaching of Asian Languages and Cultures in Australia
1976 - Report of the Committee on the Teaching of Migrant Languages in Schools
1978 - Report of the Review of Post Arrival Programs and Services for Migrants
Language study shifted from elite languages to community languages
1984 - Review of the Commonwealth Multicultural Education Program
1984 - The senate report: A National Language Policy on Languages
1987 - National Policy on Languages, December 1987-March 1990.
Report to the Minister for Employment, Education and Training
Landmark policy with public endorsement from all political parties
Lead to the first programmes in “deafness and sign language, indigenous languages,
community and Asian languages, cross-cultural and intercultural training in professions,
extensions to translating and interpreting services, multilingual resources in public
libraries, media, support for adult literacy and ESL …
Identified 9 languages of wider teaching: Arabic, Chinese, French, German,
Modern Greek, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese and Spanish (LoBianco, 1987)
Led to the widespread introduction of primary languages (LoBianco, 2009)
In 1989, 12.14% of Australian Year 12 students studied a language
(National Report on schooling, 1994)
1991 - Australian Language and Literacy Policy (ALLC, 1991)
“The Learning of LOTE must be substantially expanded and improved”
Target 25% of year 12 students by 2000
$66m over 4 years (1990-1994)
1993 - Languages at the Crossroads. The Guide to the Report of the National Enquiry
Into the Employment and Supply of Teachers of Languages Other Than English
(Nicholas , Moore, Clyne & Pauwels, 1994)
116 recommendations
1994 - Asian Languages and Australia’s Economic Future (COAG, 1994) 
National Asian Languages and Studies in Australian Schools (NALSAS)
$208m in first phase (1995-1998), $120m in second phase (1999-2002)
Targets for 2006 25% of year 12 students studying a LOTE (15% an Asian language)
60% of year 10 students studying a LOTE
Prioritised 4 languages: Indonesian, Japanese, Korean and Mandarin
Year 6 and 7 language study
increased from 10% to over 95%
Growth in all of the priority languages
Student participation in Asian
languages grew 50% (1994-1997)
(Erebus, 2002)
1996 - Language Teachers: The Pivot of Policy. The Supply and Quality of Teachers of
Languages Other than English (ALLC)
Critical of policy, blaming governments of setting ‘extravagant and unachievable targets …
while failing to put into place strategies to ensure that there are sufficient qualified and
proficient teachers’
Letter to Minister Vanstone
Year 12 enrolments in languages, 1992 - 1999
(National report on schooling in Australia, 1992 - 1999)
1991 - Ministerial Statement, ‘Languages Other Than English’ (Braddy, 1991)
‘LOTE Initiative’, first policy on language education in Queensland
Target of 20% of year 12 students studying a language by 2000
LOTE as a Key Learning Area, with all students studying in years 6-8
Year 6 and 7 – expected 3 x 30 minute lessons/week on different days
Year 8 – minimum 90 minutes/week, recommended 120 minutes/week for full year
Expected that this would extend from 4-10 when staff became available (this didn’t happen).
1991 - 44% of state primary schools offering a language, 1992 – 68%, 1995 – 100%
(Crawford, 1999)
1996 – Review of the delivery of curriculum in primary schools (Education Qld, 1996)
Lack of community ownership of the ‘LOTE Initiative’
‘given the choice, half the schools surveyed would not pursue LOTE in its present form’
(Crawford, 1999, p. 27)
1999 – Review of LOTE implementation , March 1999 (Rix1999)
Possibly the last thorough state government review into languages policy implementation
Tight timeline of 8 weeks
28 recommendations
Queensland year 12 students studying a language in year 12
9% (state schools), 11% (Catholic school), and 20% (independent schools)
(National Report on Schooling in Australia, 1997)
2002 - Cuts to NALSAS funding
2005 - National Statement for Language Education in Australian Schools
National Plan for Languages in Australian Schools , 2005-2008
“no priorities and no funding commitments … highlights the discontinuity between political
vision and political will” (ACSSO, 2007)
2005 - Professional standards for accomplished language teaching of languages and
cultures (AFMLTA, 2005)
2008 - National Asian Languages and Studies in Schools Program (NALSSP)
$62.4m over 4 years (2008-2012) for school students to become familiar with the languages
and cultures of Australia’s key regional neighbours: China, Indonesia, Japan, and Korea
Asian language target 12% by 2020
2009 - Second Languages and Australian Schooling report
“energetic policy development, media commentary, political promise and public agitation
have only partially redressed the language learning problem” (Lo Bianco, 2009)
Year 12 enrolments in languages, 2000 - 2008
(National report on schooling in Australia, 2000-2008)
2000 - Years 4-7 Languages Other Than English syllabus
Prioritised 7 languages: Chinese, French, German, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese & Korean
Creation of unit plans and digital materials to support implementation
Professional development and regional support
2006 - Regional LOTE Plan
Moreton region first to trial
More flexible models of language delivery
A lapse in the mandatory status of languages in 2009 saw a quarter of schools dropping
languages from their programs (Chilcott, 2010).
The mandatory status was reinstated in 2010 but concerns persisted over non-compliance ,
with 76 found not to be meeting mandatory requirements (Day, 2011 – QTU Journal)
In 2008 5% of Qld Year 12
students studied a language
(National report on schooling, 2008)
2011+ Australian Curriculum - Languages
“designed to enable all students to engage in learning a language in addition to English”
language-specific curricula, recognises learner types, entry points
2012 - Australia in the Asian Century White Paper
“All Australian students will have the opportunity, and be encouraged, to undertake a
continuous course of study in an Asian language throughout their
years of schooling. All students will have access to at least one priority Asian
language; these will be Chinese (Mandarin), Hindi, Indonesian and Japanese”
2013 - The Coalition’s Policy for Schools: Students First
Improve the take up of foreign languages
“The Coalition will revive the teaching of foreign languages in Australian schools to
ensure that at least 40 per cent of Year 12 students are once more studying a
language other than English within a decade.
2013 - New Colombo Plan
“lift knowledge of the Indo-Pacific in Australia by supporting Australian
undergraduates to study and undertake internships in the region”
Trial year - 40 scholarship holders, 1300 mobility program students Indonesia,
Japan, Singapore and Hong Kong
extended in 2015 to more than 30 locations, $80million
2015 - Languages for pre-schoolers
40 pre-schools, 1 year trial, $10million
French, Japanese, Mandarin, Arabic and Indonesian
Children learn foreign language skills through educational games on tablets
In 2010, 11% of year 12
students study a language
(National report on schooling, 2010)
Increasing community interest in bilingual education
2014 - Global Schools: Creating successful global citizens
Under consultation
2014 - Languages in Queensland state schools policy
All Qld state schools are required to provide a language in
Years 5-8 from 2015
Currently 6.84% of Qld year 12
students study a language
(DETE, 2014)
History in numbers
National year 12 enrolments in languages, 1960 - 2014
(Various sources)
History in numbers
National Year 12 enrolments and targets in languages, 1960 - 2014
History in numbers
National Year 12 enrolments and targets in languages, 1960 - 2014,
Queensland Year 12 enrolments
What can history tell us?
Vision has been the same for over 50 years
While participation in languages education in primary schools has increased, these
increases “have not been reflected by significant changes in participation in the later years
of schooling” (Liddicoat & Scarino, 2010, p. 11)
Policy continues to be aligned heavily with an economic rationale, particularly Asia
Policy is highly symbolic - great vision, ambitious targets
Data which is incomplete, inaccurate, or unavailable is a continuing concern (ALLC, 2006;
Liddicoat, et al., 2007; LoBianco, 2009). “It is difficult to evaluate the impact of a policy
without information about the state of play before it was introduced. But even good baseline
data are of limited value if there is little information on how performance evolved
subsequently” (Commission Enquiry, Annual Report, 2009-2010, pp. 6-7).
Underlying issues are not being systematically addressed - adequate pre-service teacher
education, teacher supply, program conditions, etc. (de Kretser & Spence-Brown , 2010;
Liddicoat, 2010; Liddicoat, et al., 2007; LoBianco, 2009)
Queensland ‘Global Schools’ policy (draft)
Languages in Queensland state schools
“The present is the food of the future”
Edward Counsel, 1849 - 1939
Questions for discussion
Are you aware of the language policy ‘Global Schools: Creating
successful global citizens’ currently under consultation?
What do you know about it?
Have you read it?
The federal and state context:
Language policies travel in families…
Federal level:
The Coalition’ s Policy for Schools: Students First (August, 2013)
“The Coalition will reverse this trend (i.e. the decline in study of language) and
revive the teaching of languages in Australia. If Australians are to make their
way in the world, we cannot rely on other people speaking our language”.
State level:
The Queensland Plan (July2 014) (The Overall Vision)
The Global Schools : Creating Successful Global Citizens (Draft)
Languages in Queensland State Schools
Global Schools: Creating successful
global citizens (Consultation draft)
Projected Outcomes
Some positive points are…
•Acknowledges the importance of local diversity and languages,
•including aboriginal and Torres Islanders cultures and languages (p. 9)
•for relationships as an asset of the state schooling
•Aims to increase number of children accessing second language learning from Prep to
year 12.
•The provision of Languages is required in Years 5 to 8 from 2015. (Language in
Queensland State Schools, Summary Info Sheet, 2014 p. 1)
•Aims supporting teachers professional development to maintain their language
proficiency and continuously improve their teaching.
•It creates opportunities for exploring and promoting good language teaching pedagogy
and collaborate with different language communities in Queensland and overseas.
•Acknowledges that there are challenges (access to qualify teacher, high quality
curriculum. Increasing demand for language education from students, selling the “global
citizen” concept to schools).
•It promotes that Principals take a major role in the promotion of Languages.
Some areas of concern are…
•How is the concept of “global” being constructed? What Conceptual Framework is going to
be used to guide evidence gathering and Interpretation? This is unclear.
•Data on baseline not mentioned in the draft, nor how progress towards projected outcomes
is going to be measured. The language competence level to be acquired by students is not
•It does not mention the dollar investment in the policy, while the Coalitions’ policy
mentions $120 million. The language policy evaluation strategy is unclear. A quality
evaluation strategy is needed with information on how the evaluation will be used to shape
improvements in the delivery of the language policy.
•It does not give a sense of how a coordinated effort to learn from expertise available in
Queensland, other states, or share experience and expertise available in Queensland. How
could this be articulated into the policy to enrich its outcomes? It also needs to address how
they propose to test the viability of the proposed policy options?
•The consultation process is unclear in the policy, as well as the deadline for feedback
provision and expected format of feedback provision. It needs to be made more transparent
(i.e. explain who has been consulted, when, on what and how, as part of the Queensland
“The importance of languages is also recognised by
Queenslanders, with the connection to the world and the
importance of languages education highlighted during
consultation on the Queensland Plan. Queenslanders
identified the need for a better connection
with Asia through languages, the development of new
ways of delivering learning and a curriculum that prepares
students for a globally focused workforce.” (p. 4)
Consultation Process Unclear in the Online Info:
What is the deadline for feedback provision?
Languages in Queensland schools
Some positive aspects are…
The Languages in Queensland State Schools policy announces that from 2015
the provision of languages from Years 5 to 8 is required.
•Encourages schools to offer a Languages program from Prep to Year 12.
•Principals will make decisions, in consultations with their communities, about
choice of language and the year levels of provision.
•Students willing to study a language not offered in their School will be able to
negotiate to explore access to that study.
•From 2016 the implementation of the Australian Curriculum will start.
•Acknowledges the importance of the availability of quality Languages teachers
for successful program delivery.
•Acknowledges the importance of maximising continuity of language study
between primary and secondary schools.
•Promotes effective and good language learning pedagogy to make language
learning student-centred, meaningful , with authentic, assessment and project
based learning to connect students with peers, communities, and the rest of the
Some areas of concern are…
•Supports state and national focus on increasing the number of students learning
an Asian language (Chinese, Japanese, Indonesian, Korean).
•Time allocations are not specified and schools will make their own decisions
informed by Queensland Curriculum and Assessment Authority’s Time Allocations
and Entitlement.
•It lacks a clear action strategy to implement the goals mentioned in the policy.
•It does not provide evidence based aims for language learning and lacks an
evaluation plan stating clearly who will be responsible for what.
•It does not make clear what support , funding or resources, be provided to
schools and teachers to make this policy happen.
•The consultation process used to develop this policy is not stated.
The lack of transparency of the consultation process
in the development of language policy and language
Teaching policy is concerning in Queensland
The COAG 7th Principle of Best Practice Regulation states
“Consulting effectively with affected key stakeholders
at all stages of the regulatory cycle is very important.”.
“There should be effective consultation with affected key
stakeholders at all stages of the regulatory cycle. Public
consultation is an important part of any regulatory
development process…..Consultation on regulatory options
can improve the quality of the solution adopted…” (2010, p.
NSW Learning Through Languages
Proposals  Consultation report  Consultation  Reference Paper
What can we do?
“Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed
citizens can change the world;
indeed, it's the only thing that ever has."
- Margaret Mead, 1901 -1978
What can we do?
Continue advocacy at school level
but move beyond this to create something more sustainable
Get engaged in the political process
Be empowered
Policy is everyone’s responsibility
Top-down approach  grassroots approach
Be proactive not reactive
Make the type of policy that will help us to help the government reach its aims
From policy consumers to policy influencers
As individuals
What can we do as individuals to positively influence policy?
Become policy literate
Be involved in the consultation process
Talk to local members
Raise awareness of policy with parents
As a collective
What can we do as a collective to positively influence policy?
Create a policy hub for members to access policy documents and information
Request data from, and share data with, educational authorities
Continue with media presence
Engage famous people
Language policy literacy self-assessment (post-test)
How do you rate your
knowledge of language
1 - very
5 - very
1 - very
5 - very
How do you rate your
confidence to discuss
language policy and
how it affects your work?
Have we achieved our aims as presenters?
Do you think your
knowledge of language
policy has improved?
1 - not
at all
Do you think your
confidence to discuss
language policy and
how it affects your work
has improved?
1 - not
at all
5 - very
5 - very
1. Language policy and planning is more effective when it is realistic (clear
implementation and assessment plan), responsive (transparent, consultative,
clear action plan) and responsible (community-based, clear evaluative plan).
2. The language policy discourse remains the same, and due to the lack of a clear
plan of implementation that deals with underlying issues, the challenges (number
of students, number of teachers, level of societal value) surrounding language
education in Queensland and Australia, are compounding the problem.
3. Unless we take an evidence-based approach to the development of language
policy in Queensland, current policy initiatives will have similar disappointing
outcomes to previous policy.
4. Language policy development and implementation is everyone’s business.
Our identity as language teachers involves knowing the language we teach,
knowing how to teach it, but also in developing our policy literacy, and knowing
about how to influence policy to defend the rights of our students to access quality
language education, which is supported by the wider community and government.
Thus we are responsible for shifting from being policy consumers to policy
Australian Council of State School Organisations. (2007). Attitudes Towards the Study of Languages in Australian Schools: June 2007. The National
Statement and Plan - making a difference or another decade of indifference?
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2011c). Shape of the Australian Curriculum: Languages. Sydney: Author.
Australian Government.(2012). Australia in the Asian century. White paper. Canberra.
Australian Government.(2013). The Coalition’s Policy for Schools: Students first. Canberra.
Australian Government. (2014). Colombo plan Fact Sheet. Retrieved from
Australian Language and Literacy Council. (1996). Language teachers: The pivot of policy. The supply and quality of teachers of Languages Other Than
Braddy, P. (1991). A statement from the minister: Languages Other Than English: Department of Education, Queensland.
Chilcott, T. (2010, January 16). Queensland government backflips on foreign language studies. The Courier Mail. Retrieved from
Commission Enquiry, Annual Report, 2009-2010.
Committee on the Teaching of Migrant Languages in Australian Schools. (1976). Report. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.
Commonwealth of Australia. (1991). The Australian Language and literacy policy. Companion volume to the Policy information paper. Canberra: Author.
Crawford, J. (1999). Teacher Response to Policy and Practice in the Teaching of LOTE.PhD Thesis, Griffith University.
Day, C. (2011). Union takes action over LOTE appointment concerns. Queensland Teachers’ Journal.34(8), 19.
deKretser, A. & Spence-Brown, R. (2010).The Current State of Japanese Language Education in Australian Schools.
Department of Education, Training and Employment. (2014). Global Schools. Creating successful global citizens. Consultation Draft. Brisbane: Author.
Erebus Consulting Partners. (2002a). Evaluation of the National Asian Languages and Studies in Australian Schools Strategy.A report to the Department of
Education, Science and Training
Fullerton, S. & Ainley, J. (2000). Subject choice by students in year 12 in Australian secondary schools. Canberra. Australian Council for Educational
Hannigan, E. (2014, September 16). Pre-schoolers encouraged to learn a second language. SBS News (online). Retrieved from
Language skills help students. (2001, December 13). Courier Mail, p. 18.
Lo Bianco, J. (2009). Second Languages and Australian Schooling. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.
LoBianco, J. (1987). National Policy on Languages, December 1987-March 1990: Report to the Minister for Employment, Education and Training by the
Australian Advisory Council on Languages and Multicultural Education.
Liddicoat, A. J. & Scarino, A.(2010).Languages in Australian Education: An Introduction. In A. J.
Liddicoat and A. Scarino (Eds.), Languages in Australian Education: Problems, Prospects and Future Directions. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars.
Liddicoat, A.J., Scarino, A., Curnow, T.J., Kohler, M., Scrimgeour, A., & Morgan, A.-M. (2007). An Investigation of the State and Nature of Languages in
Australian Schools. Report to Department of Education, Science and Training: Canberra.
Standing Council on School Education and Early Childhood. (1989-2010). National report on schooling in Australia.
Nicholas, H., Moore, H., Clyne, M., & Pauwels, A. (1994). Languages at the Crossroads. The Guide to the Report of the National Enquiry Into the
Employment and Supply of Teachers of Languages Other Than English. National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia.
Rix, A. (1999). Review of the Languages Other Than English (LOTE) Implementation. Report to the Director-General of Education.
Australian Schools Strategy. A report to the Department of Education, Science and Training
Let’s continue the conversation …
Language Planning and Policy in Australia and Queensland:
Past, Present and Future
Cristina Poyatos Matas and Shannon Mason
Griffith Institute of Educational Research, Griffith University

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