What do we REALLY want from schools?
Who should learn what?
What is the purpose of schools?
• Educational Goals
What do we REALLY want from schools?
Who should learn what?
(Hass) ….. All civilized societies establish schools and programs of
education in order to induct the young into the culture and to
transmit the society’s culture and values.
(Goodlad)….. Schools in our society are called upon to perform two
distinctive functions:
1. Enculturate the young into a social and political democracy,
2. Introduce the young to those canons of reasoning central to
intelligent, satisfying participation in the human conversation.
Is this true?
Are these lists the same?
Do they match the previous page?
Goodlad…. Parents want school to
fulfill all four sets of functions with no
more than half the parents willing to
agree on any one function as primary.
1. Academic
2. Social/civic
3. Personal
4. Vocational
Hass and Parkay… The Goals of
Education are:
1. Citizenship
2. Vocation
3. Self-Realization
4. Critical Thinking
Nancy Kober… “Why we still need
public schools: Public education
for the common good”
1. To provide universal access to
free education
2. To guarantee equal opportunities
for all children
3. To unify a diverse population
4. To prepare people for citizenship
in a democratic society
5. To prepare people to become
economically self-sufficient
6. To improve social conditions
1993 Appleton Area School District Survey - Seven groups
participated in the survey. Expectations for graduates….
Most valued
1. Reading
2. Writing
3. Arithmetic
4. Listening
5. Responsibility
6. Problem Solving
7. Acquiring Information
8. Self esteem
9. Team work
10. Integrity
Least valued
35. Foreign language
34. Fine arts
33. Alternative political/
economic systems
32. Scientific method
31. Natural science
30. Global diversity
29. Leadership
28. Geography
27. Quality service
26. Family relations
What does this say we want?
Partners in Education Council
Desired Student Outcome Focus Groups Findings
Oshkosh Chamber of Commerce; Summer, 2009; 69 participants
HS Grads
•Time management
•Scholarship applications
•Cultural communication
21-23 year olds
•Home maintenance
•Technical skills
23-28 year olds
•Awareness of competitive world
Business HR people
•Financial budgeting
•Internet tools
•Lifelong learner
•Acceptance of different cultures
•Verbal thoughts
•Digital citizenship
•Diversity appreciation
•Facebook etiquette
Parents of 18-28 year olds
•Life skills -- insurance & health
•Global awareness
Knowledge Areas (post-its & dots)
Life skills………………...……727
Next steps……………………...210
Soft skill………………....…….116
Career knowledge………………15
Conclusion -- PIE’s Desired Student Outcome: Graduating students will have an in
depth understanding of their career and life path options, together with the
knowledge of what they should and should not do to pursue these paths and lead a
successful and productive life.
Oshkosh PIE (post-its and dots totals combined, Modified Affinity process)
Job/school application
Character development
Interpersonal skills
Post-secondary options
Global awareness
Time management
Home ownership/maintenance
Problem solving
Social skills
Awareness of real & competitive world 34
Self awareness
Technological skills
Standardized tests
Financial realities of college
“good citizen” development
Emotional coping
Community service
Career options
Politics/current events
Self defense
Project 2061 (Nelson) -- American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science
Utility -- Will the knowledge or skill significantly enhance long-term
employment or educational prospects and personal decision making?
Social Responsibility -- Will the content help citizens participate
intelligently in making social and political decisions?
Intrinsic Value of the Knowledge -- Does the content have pervasive
cultural or historical significance?
Philosophical Value -- Does the content help individuals ponder the
enduring questions of what it means to be human.
Childhood enrichment -- Will the content enhance the unique
experiences and values of childhood?
How do these match Goodlad, Hass and Appleton’s lists?
Choosing content that’s worth knowing, Educational Leadership, October 2001
National Purposes of Education
Religious training, moral development, 3R’s
1770-1820s Knowledge necessary for either trade/commerce
or university, literacy emphasis to continue
democratic form of government
1820-1890s Establishment of common schooling, basic tools
of literacy for practical education, moral values
(McGuffey readers), melting pot theme,
cultivation of American identity and loyalty
1880-1940s Child centered, activities and experiences
emphasized rather than mastery of facts,
cooperative activities, citizenship and selfadjustment, problem solving
Who was in school, for how long, for what purpose?
1940-1960s Structure of the discipline, discovery method of
teaching, career education,
National Defense Education Act (1958) -- to
ensure an adequate supply of scientists, engineers
and individuals with specialized training in
foreign languages; $ for college loans and
graduate fellowships (think Sputnik - 1957)
Coleman Report (1965) -- parental SES is primary
predictor of school success
Elementary & Secondary Ed Act (1965) -- expand
and improve opportunities for America’s
educationally disadvantaged children through
compensatory programs for the poor; War on
1970s Multicultural education, mainstreaming, flexible curriculum,
emphasis on equity, Education for All Handicapped Children
(PL 94-142)
1980s Back to Basics movement, A Nation at Risk (1983),
emphasis on academic excellence, reinvigorate programs for
high-achieving students
President Reagan 1984 “Strengthening values also demands
a national commitment to excellent in education…
[America’s schools] need tougher standards, more
homework,merit pay for teachers, discipline, and parents
back in charge.”
1990s Goals 2000 (President Bush I), Standards, testing,
recognition of desperate condition of urban education,
growing attention to achievement gaps
2000s NCLB (2001) race and income-based achievement gaps,
universal proficiency
What are we trying to achieve here?
Higher Education
Business/Industry Training
Liberal Arts
New product updates
Leadership and growth
21st Century Learning
1. Emphasize core subjects
2. Emphasize learning skills (information and communication,
thinking and problem solving, interpersonal and selfdirectional skills)
3. Use 21st Century tools to develop skills
4. Teach and learn in a 21st Century context
5. Teach and learn 21st Century content (global awareness,
financial/economic/business literacy, civic literacy)
6. Use 21st Century assessments (balance standardized
assessments with classroom assessments)
Do these mesh with any of the other goals mentioned?
What do we REALLY want from schools?
Who should learn what?
Which goals valid for today?
What goals do you advocate? (prioritize list)
What does your school advocate?
What does your community want?
Are these goals different than individual classroom goals?
Are these higher education’s goals?
Are these business and industry training goals?
What do we need from education today?

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