What do we REALLY want from schools? Who should learn what? What is the purpose of schools? • Educational Goals What do we REALLY want from schools? Who should learn what? (Hass) ….. All civilized societies establish schools and programs of education in order to induct the young into the culture and to transmit the society’s culture and values. (Goodlad)….. Schools in our society are called upon to perform two distinctive functions: 1. Enculturate the young into a social and political democracy, and 2. Introduce the young to those canons of reasoning central to intelligent, satisfying participation in the human conversation. Is this true? Are these lists the same? Do they match the previous page? Goodlad…. Parents want school to fulfill all four sets of functions with no more than half the parents willing to agree on any one function as primary. 1. Academic 2. Social/civic 3. Personal 4. Vocational Hass and Parkay… The Goals of Education are: 1. Citizenship 2. Vocation 3. Self-Realization 4. Critical Thinking Nancy Kober… “Why we still need public schools: Public education for the common good” 1. To provide universal access to free education 2. To guarantee equal opportunities for all children 3. To unify a diverse population 4. To prepare people for citizenship in a democratic society 5. To prepare people to become economically self-sufficient 6. To improve social conditions 1993 Appleton Area School District Survey - Seven groups participated in the survey. Expectations for graduates…. Most valued 1. Reading 2. Writing 3. Arithmetic 4. Listening 5. Responsibility 6. Problem Solving 7. Acquiring Information 8. Self esteem 9. Team work 10. Integrity Least valued 35. Foreign language 34. Fine arts 33. Alternative political/ economic systems 32. Scientific method 31. Natural science 30. Global diversity 29. Leadership 28. Geography 27. Quality service 26. Family relations What does this say we want? Partners in Education Council Desired Student Outcome Focus Groups Findings Oshkosh Chamber of Commerce; Summer, 2009; 69 participants HS Grads •Time management •Scholarship applications •Cultural communication 21-23 year olds •Home maintenance •Economics •Technical skills 23-28 year olds •Awareness of competitive world •Politics Business HR people •Financial budgeting •Internet tools •Lifelong learner Educators •Acceptance of different cultures •Verbal thoughts •Digital citizenship •Diversity appreciation •Facebook etiquette Parents of 18-28 year olds •Life skills -- insurance & health •Global awareness Knowledge Areas (post-its & dots) Life skills………………...……727 Next steps……………………...210 Soft skill………………....…….116 Career knowledge………………15 Conclusion -- PIE’s Desired Student Outcome: Graduating students will have an in depth understanding of their career and life path options, together with the knowledge of what they should and should not do to pursue these paths and lead a successful and productive life. Oshkosh PIE (post-its and dots totals combined, Modified Affinity process) Finance 125 Communications/language 124 Job/school application 90 Character development 76 Interpersonal skills 61 Post-secondary options 50 Global awareness 45 Time management 41 Home ownership/maintenance 40 Problem solving 38 Social skills 35 Awareness of real & competitive world 34 Self awareness 33 Technological skills 31 Standardized tests 29 Financial realities of college 26 “good citizen” development 23 Emotional coping Community service Career options Politics/current events Economics Self defense Military Law Health Philosophy 17 17 15 14 7 7 6 6 5 1 Project 2061 (Nelson) -- American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science Utility -- Will the knowledge or skill significantly enhance long-term employment or educational prospects and personal decision making? Social Responsibility -- Will the content help citizens participate intelligently in making social and political decisions? Intrinsic Value of the Knowledge -- Does the content have pervasive cultural or historical significance? Philosophical Value -- Does the content help individuals ponder the enduring questions of what it means to be human. Childhood enrichment -- Will the content enhance the unique experiences and values of childhood? How do these match Goodlad, Hass and Appleton’s lists? Choosing content that’s worth knowing, Educational Leadership, October 2001 National Purposes of Education 1620-1770 Religious training, moral development, 3R’s 1770-1820s Knowledge necessary for either trade/commerce or university, literacy emphasis to continue democratic form of government 1820-1890s Establishment of common schooling, basic tools of literacy for practical education, moral values (McGuffey readers), melting pot theme, cultivation of American identity and loyalty 1880-1940s Child centered, activities and experiences emphasized rather than mastery of facts, cooperative activities, citizenship and selfadjustment, problem solving Who was in school, for how long, for what purpose? 1940-1960s Structure of the discipline, discovery method of teaching, career education, National Defense Education Act (1958) -- to ensure an adequate supply of scientists, engineers and individuals with specialized training in foreign languages; $ for college loans and graduate fellowships (think Sputnik - 1957) Coleman Report (1965) -- parental SES is primary predictor of school success Elementary & Secondary Ed Act (1965) -- expand and improve opportunities for America’s educationally disadvantaged children through compensatory programs for the poor; War on Poverty 1970s Multicultural education, mainstreaming, flexible curriculum, emphasis on equity, Education for All Handicapped Children (PL 94-142) 1980s Back to Basics movement, A Nation at Risk (1983), emphasis on academic excellence, reinvigorate programs for high-achieving students President Reagan 1984 “Strengthening values also demands a national commitment to excellent in education… [America’s schools] need tougher standards, more homework,merit pay for teachers, discipline, and parents back in charge.” 1990s Goals 2000 (President Bush I), Standards, testing, recognition of desperate condition of urban education, growing attention to achievement gaps 2000s NCLB (2001) race and income-based achievement gaps, universal proficiency What are we trying to achieve here? Higher Education Business/Industry Training Liberal Arts Process Professional New product updates Vocational Leadership and growth ???? ???? 21st Century Learning 1. Emphasize core subjects 2. Emphasize learning skills (information and communication, thinking and problem solving, interpersonal and selfdirectional skills) 3. Use 21st Century tools to develop skills 4. Teach and learn in a 21st Century context 5. Teach and learn 21st Century content (global awareness, financial/economic/business literacy, civic literacy) 6. Use 21st Century assessments (balance standardized assessments with classroom assessments) Do these mesh with any of the other goals mentioned? What do we REALLY want from schools? Who should learn what? Which goals valid for today? Tomorrow? What goals do you advocate? (prioritize list) What does your school advocate? What does your community want? Are these goals different than individual classroom goals? Are these higher education’s goals? Are these business and industry training goals? What do we need from education today?