2014 China’s Geography Powerpoint Size in Comparison to the USA Population Comparing Size & Latitude Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 3 Comparing China & the U. S. China United States Size 3.7 million square miles 3.6 million square miles Main physical barrier Himalayas Rockies Main River Yangtze / East - West Mississippi / North – South Population East Coast East Coast Connectivity problems North - South East - West China versus USA China United States Size 3.7 million square miles 3.6 million square miles Main physical barrier Himalayas Rockies Main River Yangtze / East - West Mississippi / North – South Population East Coast East Coast Connectivity problems North - South East - West Population • China has more than 1.2 to 1.3 billion people, making it the most populous nation • The population density is over 110 people per square kilometer • 90% of China’s population lives on less than 40% of the land Population • China is multi-ethnic: Han, Manchu, Mongol, Turkish, and Tibetan • The majority of ethnic minorities live in the northeast, northwest, and southwest • Mongols are one of the largest minority group in China • Made up of more than 50 ethnic groups • Speak several languages and dialects Effects: China’s Size • Eventually, overcrowding and shortages of food and shelter will be major issues • Population Control Policies – Families can have no more than 1 child – One-couple, one-child policy – couples were given special rewards such as better housing and pay – Couples who didn’t follow faced fines and wage cuts • Results – Rural families rarely followed the policies – More children allowed more workers on the farm – Policies have slowed population growth – Tiananmen Square Massacre in 1989 Effects: Cities of China • China has more than 50 cities with populations of half a million or more • Coastal Shanghai is the largest city in China with a population of around 15 million Effects: China’s Demographic Issues • The problems of controlling it... – The population exploded after 1949. – Population control was secondary. – Mao Zedong saw numbers as a workforce and a way to fight the Soviet Union and the United States. – Calls for women to “breed for the motherland”. • Population distribution – Excessive concentration: • 50% of the population lives on 8.2% of the land. • Bulk of the population along the coast. – East China accounts for 90% of the population. – 56%, about 728 million, are living in mountainous areas. – High density rural areas. Geographic Barriers of China China’s Geographic Barriers For thousands of years, the ancient Chinese thought they were pretty much alone on the planet, except for the barbarians to the north, the Mongols. China’s natural barriers to the west, south, and east helped protect these early people from invasion. Geographic Barriers • Physical barriers in China cover 80% of the country –Gobi Desert –Mongolian and Tibetan Plateaus –Himalayan Mountains 13 Natural Borders and Barriers • The Gobi Desert in northern China separates the country from its neighbors. • Rugged mountains make up Western China. • Qinling Shandi, an important mountain range, separates N. China from S. China China’s Geographic Barriers: Effects • ISOLATION – Natural protective barriers – Distance – Inward looking (central kingdom) with minor incidences of cultural diffusion – Effects of one ocean • A history of emperors who restricted use of the coastline, except in local circumstances • Today the ocean is playing a major role in the economic (and cultural) transformation of coastal China. Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 15 How was China isolated from other civilizations because of it’s geography? • The high Tibet-Qinghai Plateau made contact with lands to the southwest of China difficult • The dry Gobi & Taklimakan Deserts made contact with lands to the northwest of China difficult China was protected & isolated from outsiders by deserts & the Himalayan Mountains and the Pacific Ocean to the east (Three natural barriers) The Chinese referred to themselves as the “Middle Kingdom” & rarely traded with outsiders. Why? Ethnocentrism? Middle Kingdom and Geographic Barriers • What is the “Middle Kingdom?” –Geographic barriers like mountains and seas cut China off from other lands –They had no knowledge of other cultures like Greece, Rome, India, or Egypt –They thought that they were at the center of the world and called themselves the “Middle Kingdom” Rivers of China China’s Rivers The development of civilization in early China was aided by features like long rivers, fertile soils, temperate climates, and isolated valleys. Rivers, Soils, Climates Loess • China’s first civilizations developed in river valleys • Annual floods deposited rich soil, loess, on flood plains • Two major rivers supplied water for the earliest civilizations • Valley of Huang He particularly fertile due to loess – Chang Jiang, also called Yangzi – Huang He, or Yellow River – Both flow east from Plateau of Tibet to Yellow Sea – Fine dusty soil – Carried into China by desert winds Impact of Rivers Crops Most of eastern China covered with fertile soils; some regions better suited than others for growing certain crops Southern China—warm, receives plenty of rainfall, excellent region for growing rice Further north—climate cooler, drier; suitable for grains, wheat, millet Isolation Combination of rivers for irrigation, fertile soil for planting allowed Chinese to thrive, as did China’s relative isolation Mountains, hills, desert protected China from invasion Himalaya Mountains separate southern China from India, rest of southern Asia; vast Gobi Desert prevented reaching China from west The Rivers of China • China has three major rivers that begin in the Himalayas and flow into the East China Sea or Yellow Sea. River Yellow River Yangtze River West River Chinese Name Huang He Chang Jiang Xi Jiang Impact of the Rivers on China’s History and Development • Early civilizations developed near rivers • China had a few rivers that provided resources to be successful – Chang Jiang River (longest river) – Huang He River – Yangzi River • China’s rivers overflowed just like others we have studied – Provides fertile soil for farming • The Huang He River is also known as the Yellow River because of the Loess – Loess is yellow-brown soil that the Yellow River carries along China’s Rivers 4 1 2 3 ■ 1- Huang He (Yellow River). • Can carry up to 40% sediment weight (highest in the world). • Subject to flooding, especially in its delta. • Changed course many times. ■ 2- Chang Jiang (Yangtze). • Longest river, China’s main street (6,300 km). • Flood of 1998 left 14 million homeless. ■ 3- Pearl River delta system • Most productive and sustainable ecosystem in the world. • Rice paddies and fish ponds. ■ 4- Heilong Jiang (Amur). • China's border with Russia. • River systems – Huang He (Yellow) -Named due to yellow – silt the river carries – Chang Jiang (Yangtze) • Longest river in Asia - Major trade route since ancient times – Xi Jiang (West River) • Runs in South China China began along the Yellow (Huang He) & Yangtze Rivers in the North China Plain; Only 10% of China is suitable for farming The Yellow River flooding was unpredictable & was called “China’s Sorrow” because its floods often destroyed entire villages Yellow or Huang He River (HWAHNG*HUH) Yellow River • • • • Second longest river in China Runs 3395 miles long Often called the cradle of Chinese civilization Much of the lower reaches of the Yellow River are not navigable • The huge amount of silt the river carries is deposited in these lower regions raising its bed above ground level in the flat North China Plain. Yellow River • Devastating floods • To reduce effects of flooding, have built earthen dikes or walls long the river to protect crops • Dikes slowed river’s flow and causes silt to deposit on bottom of river • Silt levels grew higher, so Chinese build higher walls • Chang Jung---an engineer in the 1st century BC proposed a solution to the flooding but everyone ignored him Yellow River • Chinese kept building higher dikes to prevent flooding • Huang or Yellow River now flows 12 feet above the surrounding lands due to the dikes • Flooding still continues every few years when dikes break and crops are destroyed and many people die • Rainfall in the area is unpredictable and contributes to flooding Yellow River • What is “China’s Sorrow?” – The river was unpredictable and dangerous and often kills thousands with floods – The river also brought life through fertile soil – Destructive floods would come without warning – To control the flooding the people built dikes or walls that hold back water Huang He River (Yellow River)- China’s Sorrow Some 10 million people drowned or died of famine & disease as the result of the catastrophic floods (1887-1943). Yellow River and Flooding Issues – Erosion on the Loess Plateau • Huang He’s sediment burden from the Loess Plateau –Loess – a fine, wind-blown deposited material »Light tan color accounts for the old name, Yellow river and Yellow Sea –Loess is fertile, but vulnerable to erosion when plowed • Loess Plateau - one of the poorest parts of China Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 33 Yangtze or Chang Jiang or Yangzi River (CHAHNG*JYAHNG) Yangtze River Yangzi (Yangtze) River in Central China • • • • • • • China’s largest waterway, 3rd longest in the world Flows for 3,434 miles (6,300 km) The Chinese say, “if you haven’t traveled up the great Yangtze River, you haven’t been anywhere.” Considered the lifeline of China Cuts a deep channel in the valley Large ships can navigate 600 miles up stream Small ships can navigate 1,700 miles up stream 35 Yangtze River stretches through nine provinces. The city of Shanghai is known as the gateway to the Yangtze. Yangtze River • Changjiang in Chinese • Means “long river” • Creates a basin of more than 2,000 miles from west to east and a basin of more than 600 miles from north to south • Drains into the South China Sea • Carries more water than any other river in China • The land area of Yangtze River valley is 19% of the total land in China. • The total population of Yangtze River valley is 358 million, nearly 35% of the national population (1983). Yangtze River • Open to navigation all year round • Three Gorges is dangerous to navigate due to the currents and shallows…why they built the dam there • Feeds into Lake Dongting, the second largest lake in China • Eventually flows into the sea near China’s largest city of Shanghai Many earn a living from fishing on the river. How will the dam affect them? About 350 million people live near the Yangtze River and its 700 tributaries. The lives of the people living near the Yangtze are affected in some way everyday by the river. Dangerous floods kill people and livestock living near the river. This is what the Yangtze valley looks like at the moment River boat cruises, like this one, is way of life for many and is how they earn a living. What will happen to these people when the project is finished? Almost all of the boating traffic in China is on the Yangtze River. Plains of China North China Plain North China Plain • • • • • Is in eastern China Many people live there It is the center of agriculture and industry Much of China’s food is produced there Lands on the plain have LOESS or yellowbrown soil that blows from the desert • Crops like soybeans, wheat, and cotton are grown on terraces or platforms of earth like stairs • Beijing, the capital of China, is on the plain North China Plain • Flat region of grassland in Inner China • Climate is fairly mild • Warmer than the areas to the north and cooler than areas to the south • Sometimes called the “Land of Yellow Earth” due to the yellow limestone silt known as LOESS • Plains cover 12% of China, River basins cover 19% Why did most early people settle on the North China Plain? 1. The Tibet-Qinghai Plateau and Northeastern Plain are too cold and dry for agriculture 2. The Northwestern Deserts are too dry for agriculture 3. The heavy rains of the Chang Jiang Basins may have made farming difficult 4. The North China Plain was ideal because it has water, fertile soil, and a moderate climate What did the North China Plain offer to the early people that settled there? • Huang He (Yellow River) was a source of water for farming • Silt from the flooding of the river helped to fertilize the land North China Plain – Flooding in Northern China • Northern China Plain has long been plagued with floods and droughts –Worst floods caused by Huang He (Yellow River) –Huang He carries a huge sediment load (suspended clay, silt, sand); is the world’s muddiest river –Many dikes, but it’s still “the river of China’s sorrow” Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 48 North China Plain Effects of Plains: Agriculture in China “Brown” China vs. “Green” China Pasture and Oasis Double-crop rice SOURCE: Topic 5: “The Awakening Giant” by Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. Below – Southern China rice farming. Above – North China Plain (Temperate Climate) farming. China ► Pasture and oasis Wheat Dominant Rice Dominant Double-crop rice Agricultural diversity North: continental climate growing wheat, sorghum and corn. South: subtropical climate growing rice. A China of the West with pastoralism and oasis agriculture. China feeds approximately 25% of the world’s population with approximately 7% of the world’s arable land. Agriculture and Industry Agriculture • More Chinese work in agriculture than in any other industry. • China is a leading producer of several crops. • China’s main farmlands are in the eastern plains and river valleys. • Only about 10 percent of China’s land is good for farming, but a large labor force enables China to produce a lot of food. Industry • Industry in China is growing rapidly. • China produces everything from satellites and chemicals to clothing and toys. • Industry and manufacturing are the most profitable part of China’s economy. South China China’s Agricultural Issues ■ Recent problems • Increasing the agricultural output: • Agricultural output increased significantly in the 1990s due to reforms. • About 10 million new mouths to feed each year with declining agricultural surfaces. • Production of grain is diverted to livestock (meat) and other produces (e.g. beer). • Traditional land structures have reach optimal capacity: • Output cannot be increased without the usage of modern techniques such as machinery and fertilizers. • Farm size is too small (less than 1 hectare per household in coastal areas). • Limited investments in agriculture by the peasant. China’s Agricultural Issues • Land ownership: • Peasants do not own the land they use (collectivization). • With reforms, most of the land has been rented. • Peasants victims of high taxes and arbitrary expropriation. • Urbanization, industrialization and transport: • Decreased agricultural land in the most productive areas. • Speculation around cities towards golf courses and leisure centers at the expanse of agriculture. • The state is investing less in agriculture. • Local authorities are more interested by business (more taxes). • Dependency: • China is now a net importer of grain. • By 2030, China would need to import the current global grain production. Mountain Ranges of China China’s Mountain Ranges • Mountain Ranges – Many in the area – Himalayas • Separate China from India – Kunlun Mountains • West China – Source of China’s two great rivers » Huang He (Yellow) and Chang Jiang (Yangtze) Kunlun Mountains China’s Mountain Ranges • Mountains cover 33% of China • There are five main mountain ranges • We are going to focus on four. Himalayan Mountains Himalayan Mountains • The most important mountain range in Asia is the Himalaya Mountains. • The Himalayas separate India from China. • The Himalayas block clouds that are formed by monsoons from entering Western China. • The Himalayas isolate Tibet and make transportation difficult. Himalayan Mountains • • • China’s natural barriers include huge mountains. The Himalayas are very rugged, with ten of the tallest peaks in the world. Extends more than 2, 400km in an arc shape along the Chinese-Indian and Chinese-Nepalese borders Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Kunlan Mountains Kunlan Mountains • One of the longest mountain chains in Asia • Extends across western China and the Tibetan Plateau • The highest mountain is the Kunlun Goddess at 23, 514 feet. Tien or Tian Shan Mountains Tien or Tian Shan Mountains • A large mountain range located in central Asia • It is positioned to the north and west of the Taklamakan Desert near the border of Kyrgystan and western China • The highest peak is Victory Peak at 24,406 feet Altay or Atlai Mountains Altay or Atlai Mountains • A mountain range in east-central Asia where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhistan come together • The highest mountain is Belukha at 14,784 feet Plateaus of China Inner Mongolian Plateau Inner Mongolian Plateau • Is a combination of prairie, mountain, and desert • Suitable for raising sheep • Extremely dry weather good for growing melons and grapes Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau • In the southwest • Sharp elevation • Used terraced farming due to steep landgrade Tibetan Plateau Tibetan Plateau • In southwest China • Made up of high and super-high mountains and massive highlands • Averaging height of 13,000 to 15,000 feet above sea level • Highest point of plateau is Mount Everest • People on the Tibetan Plateau live mostly in the river valleys • In the summer, herders move their tents to new pastures Tibetan Plateau • • • • • • • • • Rocky area of China with mountain ranges People who live here are called the Zhuang Zhuang are nomads The climate and food here are very different The Tibetan Plateau is sometimes called the Roof of the World due to the Himalayas World’s largest plateau Region is bitterly cold place to live There are only about 50 days a year without frost Snowstorms are common, even in July Tibetan Plateau Tibetan Plateau • • • • • In the southwestern part of Outer China Also known as the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau Covers about ¼ of China Rocky land surrounded by towering mountains Since it’s so high, the climate is very cold and the air is thin and dry • Natural vegetation consists of sparse scrubs and grasses • Antelopes and yaks roam the area Tibetan Plateau • Dry, desolate region punctuated by mountains and isolated lakes • Embraces the Himalayan Mountains, the Kunlan Mountains, and the Tahseh Shan Mountains Loess Plateau Loess Plateau • One of the least inviting landscapes in China • Was once covered by forest but is now largely bare except in areas of agriculture • Everything is gritty yellow: the mountains, the cliffs, the houses • Sometimes the conditions are like the Dust Bowl in Oklahoma • On some barren slopes, without trees or a bush in sight, are the slogans “Make the Green Mountain Even Greener” • There have been problems of sinkholes in the area • May 2005: a huge sinkhole swallowed 11 houses in Jixian County • 16 people escaped the 80 meter wide, 1250 meter long hole • Many farmers live in caves carved out of the Loess cliff sides • Some farmers even dig down into their fields and make homes underground Great Wall of China as Geographic Barrier The Great Wall 4,000 miles long 30 feet wide 86 The Great Wall •Several walls were built over a long period •Protection from Mongol horsemen from the north – communication system •Monumental engineering feat – they claim it can be seen from orbit in space Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 87 Great Wall of China • Ancient Chinese started building the fortifications as early as the 8th century BC to help in their military efforts against nomads in the north • The first emperor of the Qin Dynasty from 221-206 BC connected the existing walls into a single system known as the Great Wall • The Great Wall was periodically rebuilt, with the most current wall dating to the Ming Dynasty from 1368-1644 AD. Deserts of China Deserts • Asia is home to 3 of the world’s largest cold deserts – Chang Tang, on the Plateau of Tibet in China – Taklimakan Desert – Gobi (Mongolian for "waterless place") 90 • The Gobi Desert is one of the driest deserts in the world. • In the Gobi, there is at least the hope of water, although an oasis is rare. • The Taklamakan Desert, China's other desert, is nicknamed the Sea of Death. • It offers poisonous snakes, frequent sand storms, boiling days, freezing nights, and intense water shortages. • The Sea of Death is not a small desert. In fact, it is the second largest desert in the world. Gobi Desert Gobi Desert Gobi Desert • • • • • Stretches over 500,000 square miles Covers part of China and Mongolia Has very few sand dunes Most of the desert is stony Surface is made up of small pebbles and tiny bits of sand • Vegetation is sparse • Plants tend to be small and widely spread The Gobi Desert • The largest desert in this area is the Gobi Desert. • The Gobi Desert is formed by orographic precipitation. • South Asia gets rain from the monsoons but the Himalaya Mountains block the rain from entering Western China. • Most of Western China and Mongolia are in a rain shadow. Gobi Desert • The Gobi Desert is the largest desert in Asia and the fourth largest one in the world. • It covers parts of northern and northwestern China and of southern Mongolia. • It is about 1,610 kilometers at its widest point, and it is about 36 times larger than Taiwan. • One of largest in the world • In China and Mongolia • Covers more land than Texas and California combined! Gobi Desert • The temperature in the Gobi Desert changes quickly, and at night it can be up to 38ºC colder than it was in the daytime. • In winter the temperature can go down to -45ºC , and in summer the temperature can be as hot as 50ºC. • There are also very big snowstorms and sandstorms that make living in the Gobi Desert difficult. • Although it is a desert, the Gobi Desert is home to many types of desert animals, including brown bears and wolves. • Some people also live there, but life is difficult and more and more inhabitants are moving away. Gobi Desert of Mongolia Gobi Desert • Unlike many other deserts, much of Gobi Desert is not covered with sand, but with rock. • The Gobi Desert was the home to the Mongols, who built the huge Mongol Empire across China about eight hundred years ago. • The famous Silk Road linking China with the West also runs through this desert. • In 1271 AD, Marco Polo traveled the Silk Road to China through the Gobi Desert. • Taklamakan Desert Taklamakan Desert • Covers about 105, 000 square miles • Considered one of the most dangerous deserts in the world • Huge sand dunes shift and change as the wind blows • Sandstorms arise with stunning speed • Legend says that two armies and 300 cities are buried 600 feet beneath the sand dunes • Desert is too dry for much vegetation Taklamakan Desert Taklamakan Desert Location Taklamakan lies in the center of the Tarim Basin, and the Basin is at the south of Xinjiang which is in north－western China. Taklamakan Desert Area • It has 337.6 thousand square kilometers and it is almost ten times bigger than Taiwan. • It is 1000km long and 400km wide. • It is the second largest moving-sand desert on the earth just next in area to the Sahara Desert in Africa. Sea Of Death • In the Uygur language，Taklamakan means “never get back if you go in”. • Hence it is known as “Sea of Death ”. • Because of the size of the desert ,shortage of the water resource and easily changeable weather condition, exploring the desert has been a game of death. Taklimakan Desert of China Rich Oil Resource Found • In recent years, the finding of the oil fields is the main reason for the government to construct the highway. • For instance, they mine oil out from the oil field of 塔中, which is a new prospect in the center of desert. • Natural Resources of China Natural Resources • China’s Natural Resources: – Many mineral resources • Coal, copper, tin, iron, and oil • One of the largest coal suppliers in the world. – Hydroelectric power (water) • The Three Gorges Dam: – Located on the Chang River – Built to produce more hydroelectric power – Control flooding – Aquaculture: • farming of fish, shellfish, and seaweed. China’s Natural Resources • China has a large and varied stock of natural resources. • The variety of different landforms, soil conditions, and climate patterns offers many different kinds of opportunities for agricultural production. • A tremendous range of food and industrial crops can be grown, and this makes it possible for China to keep imports to a minimum. • Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest) • From:http://www.student.britannica.com/comptons/ar ticle-195616/China • From:http://www.indexmundi.com/china/natural_reso urces.html Natural Resources • Using the Land – Little Farmland: – Many mountains and plateaus – East Asian’s farm every bit of land to feed its population. • Farmers: – cut terraces: a flat area in a hillside that allows more space to grow crops. – use double cropping: growing two or more crops on the same land, in the same season, and at the same time. Natural Resources Water resources Rivers and seas Large energy resources Petroleum, coal, natural gas Human resources More MANPOWER than anywhere else in the world!!