Dmitry Yudovsky
Project Portfolio,
Fall 2002 through Fall 2006
Dmitry Yudovsky, Project Portfolio, 2006
Project Portfolio

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Summer 2006


UCSD, MAE156B, Winter 2006



Metrology Unit Validation
Improvement to Factory Automation Software Development Process
San Diego Supercomputer Center, Spatial Information Systems Laboratory


Bubble removal from Liquid Delivery System
Applied Materials, Inc; Chemical Mechanical Planarization Group, Summer 2003


Numerical Optimization of High Pressure Containers
Applied Materials, Inc; Electro Copper Plating Group, Summer 2004


Z-Microsystems Server Cooling. Corporate Sponsored Project
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Summer 2005


KDP Crystal Mitigation Machine for the National Ignition Facility
GIS HTML Viewer
UCSD Structural Engineering, Powell Lab, Professor Elgamal, Structural Health
Monitoring Laboratory, Ongoing Projects


Satellite Based Structural Healthmonitoring of the Vincent Thomas Bridge
Remote Structural Healthmonitoring of Voigt Bridge
2
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories.
Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Division
KDP Crystal Mitigation Machine for the
National Ignition Facility (NIF)
Architecture and HMI Development
Summer, 2006
Dmitry Yudovsky, Project Portfolio, 2006
Lawrence Livermore, 2005. Page 1
Problem Statement
Background
NIF (the National Ignition Facility) optics are made up of optically interesting KDP crystals. Unfortunately, after
every shot, these crystals develop surface damage. This damage propagates and ruins the optic during
subsequent laser shorts.
Purpose
Crack mitigation on KDP crystals.
Extend life of $30k crystal 10-fold by removing surface cracks caused by laser damage
Damage site
Mitigated site
Images taken from “OSL damage test of simulated mechanical mitigation Sites on KDP” by Wren Carr, Vaughn Draggoo, Paul Geraghty, and Frank Ravizza with
permission of Paul Geraghty
4
Lawrence Livermore, 2005. Page 2
Methods - Hardware
Method:
Build a high precision diamond ball end-mill to remove the specified volume.
camera
flexure
KDP
End-mill
5
Lawrence Livermore, 2005. Page 3
Methods – Software architecture
sensors
interface
data
amplifier
HMI
Pressure
switches
actuator
MDI
G Code
2: Stepper motor
Servo motor
2 linear drives
6
USER
Lawrence Livermore, 2005. Page 4
Methods – Software architecture
World
Event
Status
Variable
Key stroke
Motor velocity
Interlock breach
System event
…
Fault
Check
Faulted?
Change
Event
Event driven architecture, object based.
7
Fault
Event
GUI
Lawrence Livermore, 2005. Page 4
Results
8
UCSD, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Course
156B
Z-Microsystems Server Cooling Improvement
Corporate Sponsored Project
Winter 2006
Dmitry Yudovsky, Project Portfolio, 2006
UCSD MAE 156B Project. Page 1
SPONSOR:
Z Microsystems
•
Leading The Evolution In “Field-Ready” Computing.
•
Design & Manufacturing of Rugged Computer Hardware.
PURPOSE:
Sealed Computer Module (SCM) is overheating. Develop a cooling system that is passive and rugged. It must keep the
internal temperature at 25ºC above ambient
10
UCSD MAE 156B Project. Page 2
HARDWARE CONFIGURATION
Thermal Pad
Aluminum Block
Heat Sink
Top
Cover
Old Design
Thin Grease
Layer
Proposed Design
IMPROVEMENTS
•
Eliminates About 50% of The Thermal Resistance Interfaces.
•
Doubles The Effective Surface Area Of The Top Panel And Localizes It Above The CPU.
•
Modifies Top Panel To Increase Airflow
ADVANTAGES
•
Passive Cooling
•
Does Not Require Refrigerants or Liquids.
•
Has Zero Degrees Of Freedom
11
Air Dam
SIMULATION RESULTS
Heat Sink Optimization for fin spacing (A) and thickness (T) . Coded in Matlab.
Resistance vs. fin spacing for servarl fin widths
0.24
Resistance Decreasing
Spacing Increasing
0.22
Resistance C/W
0.2
0.18
0.16
Sweet Spot
0.14
0.1mm
0.12
0.6mm 1.1mm 1.6mm
0.1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
a - spacing (mm)
12
UCSD MAE 156B Project. Page 3
UCSD MAE 156B Project. Page 4
TEST RESULTS
Temperatue vs. Time
60
55
At 100% system load and 23ºC ambient temperature:
• CPU core temperature rises 34ºC
Spec requirement met
Temperature (Celcius)
50
• SCM internal temperature rises by 23ºC from
ambient
45
40
35
30
25
PROTOTYPE
20
-500
0
500
1000
Time (seconds)
13
1500
2000
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories.
New Technologies Division
Numerical Optimization of High Pressure Containers
Summer, 2005
Dmitry Yudovsky, Project Portfolio, 2006
Lawrence Livermore, 2005. Page 1
Problem Statement
Purpose
Optimize cylindrical, multilayered high pressure vessels for ultra-high speed wind
tunnel
Background
Various techniques exist for raising the overall strength of vessels (such as cannons,
or canisters). This includes increasing the strength (and cost) of materials, shrink
fitting concentric shells, and over straining (autofrettaging) shells. An optimal
assembly with shrink fitting and autofrettaging can be found.
Challenges
Multivariable optimization problem with many non-linear constraints. Numerically,
negative radii might be great, but the solution must be kept realistic.
Method Choose
Gradient projection method. Find steepest descent and project it on the set of active
constraints.
Geometry
Materials
Thermal loading
Pressure loading
Autofrettage
treatment
Gradient Projection
Stress Analysis
15
Optimal
geometry
Lawrence Livermore, 2005. Page 2
Geometrical configuration of problem
unit length
Po
r2
Pi
axisymmetric
r1
r2
symmetry
r1
P1
rn
1
rn+1
2
d1
r = radius
…
n
dn-1
rN
dn
N-1
dN
rN+1
N
dN-1
d = interference or radius mismatch
16
… more shells
PN+1
Lawrence Livermore, 2005. Page 3
Numerical Optimization Using Gradient Projection Method




1.
2.
3.
4.
Definitions
Active set: the set of currently enforced constraints
Inactive set: set of constraints that, when violated, become active
Process
Find cost function gradient
Select active constraints
Project gradient onto active set
Go down projection
gn(x)<0
Breach step
gn(x)=0
Projected gradient
gn(x)>0
Iterative downhill search
17
Lawrence Livermore, 2005. Page 4
proprietary
Graphical User Interface
18
Lawrence Livermore, 2005. Page 5
Calculation Results
Relative log of cost vs. factor of safety
3
2.5
2
1.5
log(cost)
1.5
Log Outer radius
doubling FS about
increase cost by ~10
1
1
0.5 400
0.5
600
500
300
400
200
300
0
200
100
100
0
-0.5
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
T outer
2.8
T inner
factor of safety
Multilayered pressure vessel. Optimal cost varies
with given require factor of safety. Obviously the
cost increases, but here we see that in increases
exponentially. The y axis is normalized cost on a
log scale.
Adding a temperature gradient during operation
imposes an added stress to the assembly. We see
that by greatly heating the inside of the assembly, a
total diameter must be made in order to sustain the
thermal stress gradient.
19
Applied Materials, Electro Copper
Plating Group
Bubble removal from Liquid Delivery System
Summer 2004
Dmitry Yudovsky, Project Portfolio, 2006
Applied Materials, 2004. Page 1
Problem Statement

Purpose: Bubbles form in a high pressure chem-delivery line. These are
detrimental to the subsequent process.

Background: Degassers are commercially available however these bubbles are
caused by a chemical reaction, not dissolved gas. So a bubble trap is required.

Challenges: Waste, startup time, and installation and maintenance costs must
be minimized. This would be an upgrade to existing systems.

Method: Utilize the disparity between liquid to surface interaction.
21
Applied Materials, 2004. Page 2
Bubble Trap Concept
Ideal bleed hole case
delivery
bubbles
float up
surface tension
pressure force
clean liquid
F pressure  p  r
F surface   2  r
σ ≈ 0 for gas
22
2
Find r to
balance the
two
Applied Materials, 2004. Page 3
Bubble Trap Implementation
Exit to atmospheric pressure
Ended up using long, very
thin inner diameter tube.
Friction (and some surface
tension) effects counteracted
the pressure force and
allowed liquid to bleed at a
prescribed rate, but gas to
escape very quickly.
Fshear   z 2 rL
Hagen-Poiseuille:
R p
4
Q waste 
F pressure  p  r
23
2
8
L
μ very small for gasses
Applied Materials, Chemical
Mechanical Planarization Group
Metrology Unit Validation
Summer 2003
Dmitry Yudovsky, Project Portfolio, 2006
Applied Materials, CMP, 2004. Page 1
Problem Statement


Purpose: Applied Materials CMP leads the world in wafer planarization.
However, it only makes a crude, in process metrology unit to test the quality of
the polishing. External metrology must be performed; this is done by third part
units. CMP System Integration was validating two competitors. My function was
to test to stability, functionality, and compatibility of the this unit with our CMP
hardware and software.
Challenges:




Two teams from different corporate cultures
Third party unit still in beta phase
Time constraints
Accomplishments:


Prepared and implemented test scenarios
Found and helped fix many bugs
25
Applied Materials, 2004. Page 2
CMP Process
front end
failed
crude in-process
metrology occurs during
polishing
back-end
processes
cleaning process
passed
wafers
container
back end
metrology
validation
Unit of interest
26
polishing
process 1
polishing
process 1
polishing
process 1
polishing
process 1
Applied Materials, CMP Group
Improvement to Factory Automation Software
Development Process
Summer 2003
Dmitry Yudovsky, Project Portfolio, 2006
Applied Materials, CMP, 2004. Page 1
Problem Statement

Purpose: Optimize the software development (SW) process dealing with factory
automation (FA).

Background: FA for a complex machine requires keeping track of 1000’s of
events, status variables, errors, logging variables, and controllable variables in
the operating system of the machine. Naming and numbering of these data
variables requires careful planning; no two events can have the same logical
address. At Applied Materials CMP SW, a software package simplifies the actual
C++ coding by generating most of the header files and event handling functions.
The input to this preprocessor is a syntax based language, GCD, where each
datum is defined. The file was, in turn, generated from other files written by
different members of the SW team in Excel, Perl, VB, or just text. This
decentralized process was very cumbersome and slow.

Solution: Create a one-source database (DB) that the entire SW team could
share. The DB would be locked to one user at a time to prevent collisions,
control number ranges, and allow for easy import from and export to any
standard or user defined format.
28
Applied Materials, CMP, 2004. Page 2
Software development process
data
converter
Old Process
Events
Status
Variables
GCD file
Error
variables
GCD
Preprocessor
update C++ code
C++ Code
…
Data (Variables, events, status reports, etc.) stored in different media (Excel, text, etc.). These require data
specific converter to create a GCD file. GCD file in then compiled to C++ code.
data, converter, importer
New Process
MS Access
Database on
network
Events, Status
variables, etc.
GCD file
GCD
Preprocessor
C++ Code
Import
capability
Data is stored in a database that sits on a network drive. Variables can be imported from GCD file. GCD
file is generated with one click.
29
San Diego Supercomputer Center,
Spatial Information Systems
Laboratory
GIS HTML Viewer Development
Spring 2002
Dmitry Yudovsky, Project Portfolio, 2006
SDSC, 2002, Page 1
Problem Statement

Purpose: Develop a web-based graphical user interface for a Geographical
Information System (GIS) database.

Background: GIS is a useful tool for decision making. It facilitates the graphical
representation, superposition, and spatial querying of data.

Method: Use XML, JavaScript, and DHTML to accomplish the said goal.
31
SDSC, 2002, Page 2
GIS Overview
GIS = Geographic Information System
XML
SQL
Map
generator
GIS
database
Vector data
Images, data
Browser,
JavaScrpit,
DHTML
User interacts with GIS database through an HTML viewer. This viewer must
be portable over many platforms. And it must be pretty.
32
SDSC, 2002, Page 3
Old Style Viewer
layer list is unstructured
static toolbar with
limited featurs
query results in
pop-up window
33
SDSC, 2002, Page 4
New Style Viewer
dynamics and
hierarchal layer list
minimize/move
features added
to windows
dynamic
legend
34
UCSD Structural Engineering
Department, Professor Ahmed
Elgamal
Satellite Based Structural Healthmonitoring of the
Vincent Thomas Bridge
Ongoing
Dmitry Yudovsky, Project Portfolio, 2006
UCSD Structural Engineering, Page 1
Project Overview – Vincent Thomas Bridge

Purpose: Build a a remote structural health monitoring system. Prove that offthe-shelf components can be used to do remote data gathering.

Schematic:
On bridge
In lab
sensors
DAQ
Data
processing
Remote
PC
FTP
satellite
dish
internet
Local
PC
Data
processing
Data
processing
Data flow schematic
36
UCSD Structural Engineering, Page 2
Project Overview

Sensors:
 Temperature, surface, and air
 Camera
 Accelerometer
(red dot indicates approximate location)


Extensive Collaboration
 UCSD Structural Engineering
 CalTrans
 Hughes Network Systems
 San Diego Super Computer Center
http://healthmonitoring.ucsd.edu/
Potential


New, more complex testbeds
Temperature to frequency response correlation
37
UCSD Structural Engineering, Page 3
Results – Thermal Data

Data for May 2005 through February 2006
38
UCSD Structural Engineering, Page 5
Results – Camera Data
Sunrise
Single Frame
http://healthmonitoring.ucsd.edu/vtb/remote/vtb_remote_imaging.jsp
39
UCSD Structural Engineering
Department, Professor Ahmed
Elgamal
Remote Structural Healthmonitoring of Voigt Bridge
Ongoing
Dmitry Yudovsky, Project Portfolio, 2006
UCSD Structural Engineering, Page 1
UCSD Structural Engineering – Voigt Bridge

Purpose: Monitor Voigt Bridge with accelerometers and a camera

Methods: A camera is used to determine the location of a vehicle on a bridge. A
network of accelerometers monitors the excitation cause by this vehicle along
the bridge. Thus we know the location of the load and the excitation.
http://healthmonitoring.ucsd.edu/voigt.jsp
41
UCSD Structural Engineering, Page 2
Vehicle Tracking over Voigt Bridge
Location vs. frame
location on bridge (feet)
200
150
28.0629MPH
100
50
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
frame number (seconds*.35)
42
106
107
108
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Project Portfolio - Dmitry Yudovsky's Website