www.cites.org
1
Life Sciences
Symposium, WIPO,
26 August 2009
CITES: Wildlife trade regulations
Patent Landscaping and Transfer of
Technology under Multilateral
Environmental Agreements
Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
2
What is CITES?
3
What is CITES?
• CITES is an MEA that combines wildlife and trade
themes with a legally binding instrument for achieving
conservation and sustainable use objectives
4
What is CITES?
• CITES is the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
• It is also known as the Washington Convention, as
it was concluded in Washington D.C.
• Scientifically based and enforcement oriented
• Targeted, focused and with implementation in mind.
CITES has been in operation
for over 33 years
5
What is CITES?
…is relevant to an ever-increasing number of Parties
173
Most recent new Parties:
Cape Verde (2005)
Serbia (2006)
Montenegro (2007)
Solomon Islands (2007)
Kyrgyzstan (2007)
Oman (2008)
6
CITES, trade and property
• CITES regulates commercial and non-commercial
• international trade (export, import, re-export,
introduction from the sea)
• in (wild-taken and produced) specimens (live/dead,
parts/derivatives) of listed animal and plant species
• through a system of permits and certificates which
are issued only when certain conditions are met
(specimen is legally acquired; trade is not detrimental
to survival of species), and which must be presented
when leaving and entering a country
7
CITES
• CITES documents are
standardized for:
• Format
• Language &
terminology
• Information
• Duration of validity
• Issuance procedures
• Clearance procedures
8
CITES
• Species subject to CITES regulation are divided
amongst three Appendices
I
II
III
9
CITES-listed species
Appendix I
– Species threatened with extinction
– Not to be used for primarily
commercial purposes
– Almost 530 animal species
and some 300 plant species
– International trade is
generally prohibited
3%
10
CITES-listed species
Appendix II
92%
– Species not necessarily threatened
with extinction, but for which trade
must be controlled to avoid their
becoming threatened
– International (commercial) trade is permitted
but regulated
– More than 4,400 animal species
and more than 28,000 plant species
11
CITES
Technologies
& WIPO
12
CITES & WIPO
How could WIPO and the patent
system help mega-biodiversity
countries conserve and use, in a
sustainable manner, their wildlife
resources?
13
Wildlife industry and tech-transfer
Commodity
speculation
Services/Drivers
Hunting
Souvenirs
Collections
Pets
Fashion
Healthcare
Housing
Food
Ivory
Safaris, trophies, falconry, etc.
Rain-sticks, shells, corals, etc.
Zoos, museums, botanical gardens, circus, etc.
Live specimens (reptiles, birds, ornamental fish)
Leather industry, cosmetics, wool (vicunas), furs, etc
Natural ingredients, medicinal plants&animals
Timber (mahogany, ramin, cedar, etc)
Fisheries (Arapaima g.), caviar, meat industry and game meat
Products
Parts and derivatives
14
CITES-tech & traditional knowledge
• Scientific research and traditional knowledge (risk
assessments, population surveys, species monitoring
by local communities, etc)
• Production systems (wild, captive-breeding, ranching,
artificial propagation, hybrids, genetics, etc)
• Information systems (e-permitting, communications,
market information)
• Control systems (timber and fish industries tracking
systems, microchips, satellites, DNA profiling,
forensic technologies e.g. species identification)
15
Succes stories
16
1970’s =less than 5,000
vicunas
Today = vicunas no longer at
risk, fiber products patented
17
1970’s = survival of all 23
species at risk
Today = 16 species no
longer at risk
Thank you
• Juan Carlos Vasquez
Legal officer
CITES Secretariat
Geneva, Switzerland
email: [email protected]
www.cites.org
Descargar

CITES: Wildlife trade regulation