主讲教师:夏夕美
Import & Export Practices
Picture of the Course
Import & Export Practices
diagram of the Course
1
brief introduction to
international trade
2
Works before signing
contract
3
4
5
contract
Fulfill contract
Other type of trade
Import & Export Practices
主讲教师:夏夕美
Import & Export Practices
what is international
trade?
International trade, also known
as world trade, foreign trade or
overseas trade, is The fair and
deliberate exchange of goods
(trade in goods )and exchange of
services (trade in services )
across national boundaries.
Import & Export Practices
Forms of International Trade
It concerns trade operations of
both import and export and
includes the purchase and sale of
both visible and invisible goods.
Import is purchase of goods or
service
Export is sale of goods or service
Import & Export Practices
Forms of International Trade
1. visible
1)Travel,
trade
Tourism, and
Transportation
involves
the import and export of
(旅游业、交通运输业)
goods
and merchandise.
2) Performance
2. invisible
trade of Activities
Abroad
involves
the exchange of services
(国外商务活动)
between
nations.
3) Use of Assets From Abroad
(国外资产的运用)
Import & Export Practices
Forms of International Trade
3. A third very important category
is investment , is the means by
which nations utilize the capital of
other nations to build factories
and develop mines for their own
industrial base.
In fact, FDI (外商直接投资)is now
more important than trade as a
vehicle for international economic
transactions.
Import & Export Practices
国际贸易分类
3.复出口(re-export trade)是指输入本
国或本地区的商品未经加工就出口的情况。
4.复进口?
5.过境贸易(transit trade)又称间接贸
易,是指外国商品途径本国,最终销售地为
第三国的贸易。
6.转口贸易是指商品的生产国和商品消费
国之间的交易若要通过第三国(或地区)的
交易者来完成。
Import & Export Practices
国际贸易分类
按统计边界可分为总贸易和专门贸易
1.在对外贸易统计时,若以国境为界,凡
进入国境的商品算作进口,离开国境的商品
算作出口,则一定时期内的进出口额之和便
为该国的总贸易(general trade)。
2.若以关境为界,凡运入关境的商品算作
进口,运出关境的商品算作出口,则一定时
期内的进出口额和便为该国的专门贸易
(special trade)。
Import & Export Practices
国际贸易分类
按照贸易关系划分
(1)直接贸易(Direct Trade)是指贸易
商品从生产国直接运销到消费国,没有第三
方参与的贸易活动。
(2)间接贸易(Indirect Trade)是指通过
第三国或其他中间环节,把商品从生产国运
销到消费国的贸易活动。
Import & Export Practices
国际贸易分类
按结算方式划分
(1)现汇贸易(Spot Exchange Trade
)又称自由结汇贸易,是指在国际商品
买卖中,以货币作为偿付工具的贸易方
式。
(2)易货贸易(Barter Trade)又称换
货贸易,是指以货物经过计价作为偿付
工具的贸易方式。
*记账贸易?
Import & Export Practices
国际贸易分类
按贸易方式划分
1.商品贸易
包销、代理、寄售、招标、拍卖、商品
交易所交易等
2.加工贸易
3.补偿贸易
4.租赁贸易
Import & Export Practices
国际贸易分类
按照贸易政策划分
自由贸易政策
保护贸易政策
统制贸易政策
Import & Export Practices
Effectiveness of
International Trade
key indicators: balance of trade (

An
unfavorable
balance
of
贸易差额)
trade (贸易逆差),
trade
 A favorable
balance of or
trade
(贸易
the
顺差), deficit
or trade(贸易赤字):
surplus (贸易盈余):
the value
of of
thethe
country‘s
exports
value
country's
exceeds
that ofexceeds
its imports.
imports
that of
its exports.
Import & Export Practices
Effectiveness of
International Trade
Import & Export Practices
Why do foreign trade?
Foreign trade takes place for
many reasons:
Resource reason
1
1
2
economic reason
3
political reason
Import & Export Practices
1.Resource reason
climatic conditions and terrain
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
natural resource
technologies and labor
Capital resources
Geographic location &
transport cost
Insufficient production
Import & Export Practices
1.Resource reason
The difference in these
factors conditions
enables some
1) climatic
and terrain
countries
to grow
Climatic
conditions
and terrain
certain
plants and
are very
important
for
leaves other
countries
agricultural
produce.
with the only choice to
import the produce they
consume.
Import & Export Practices
1.Resource reason
2) natural resource
Some countries are the major
suppliers of certain natural
resources because the
distribution of natural resources
around the world is somewhat
haphazard. Raw materials are
scattered around the world.
Import & Export Practices
1.Resource reason
3) technologies and labor
The US, Japan, and many
European countries have strong
research and development
capabilities and advanced
technologies. They also have
skilled workers who are able to
manufacture sophisticated
equipment and machinery
Import & Export Practices
1.Resource reason
Because of the lack of
4) Capital
resources
capital,
many developing
Capital
is in fact
produced
countries
area unable
to
wealth
that has their
been cumulated
modernize
over industries
the years of
economic
and
economies
development.
with advanced
machinery, equipment,
and plant they are not
yet able to manufacture.
Import & Export Practices
1.Resource reason
5) Geographic location &
transport cost
There are many examples of
countries developing close
economic relationships chiefly
because they are geographically
close to each other.
Import & Export Practices
1.Resource reason
6) Insufficient production
a country often does not have
enough
of a particular
item to
foreign
trade takes
meet its
needs.
place because of
innovation or style.
Import & Export Practices
2. economic reason
In addition to getting the
products they need, countries
also want to gain economically
by trading with each other.
one nation can sell some items
at a lower cost than other
countries.
Import & Export Practices
3. political reason
In short, objectives
motivations
for
Political
can
countries
tooutweigh
trade or not
to
sometimes
economic
trade
with eachbetween
other and to
considerations
maintain
or higher
trade
countries.lower
One country
might
barriers
cananother
come not
just from
trade with
country
in
economic
factors or
order to suppose
the latter’s
international
pressures,
but the
also
government which
upholds
from
and domestic
sameinternational
political doctrine.
political needs.
Import & Export Practices
summary
1.
2.
3.
4.
Resource Acquisition (寻求资源)
Benefits Acquisition (追求利润)
Diversification (多种经营)
Expand sales(扩大销售)
Import & Export Practices
Foundation of
International Trade
In today‘s complex economic
world, neither individuals nor
nations are self-sufficient. Nations
have utilized different economic
resources; people have developed
different skills. This is the
foundation of international trade
and economic activities.
Import & Export Practices
Basic Theory of
International Trade
1
2
3
4
Specialization
The labor theory of value
The Theory of Absolute
Advantage
The Theory of Comparative Cost
Import & Export Practices
There1.
were
some
things
he
was
Specialization
more capable of doing than
others and that it would benefit
In his original state man was
him to concentrate his efforts on
self-sufficient, providing food,
the production of those goods in
shelter and clothing for his
which he was particularly
family.
proficient and to leave others to
produce the goods that called for
skills which he did not possess.
This was the beginning of
specialization
Import & Export Practices
2. The labor theory of value
For classical economists , the
value of a good is determined by
the cost of production , with the
relative cost of production of
various goods revealed by the
labor content (how many hours).
This theory is known as the
labor theory of value .
Import & Export Practices
3. The Theory of Absolute
It then follows
that each country
Advantage
will benefit from specialization
in In
those
commodities
in which it
his work
The Wealth
has
“absolute
advantage”,
(i
of an
Nations
(1776),
Adam
.e Smith
, being
able to that
produce
assumed
eachat a
lower
real could
cost than
another
country
produce
country)
,exporting them and
one or more
importing
otherat
commodities
commodities
a lower
which
it produces
a higher
real cost
than itsat
trading
real
cost than another country
partners.
Import & Export Practices
3. The Theory of Absolute
Advantage
According to Adam Smith , trade
between two nations is based on
absolute advantage .
The This
theory
of absolute
theory
is
advantage
holds
commodity
illustrated
in athe
will following
be produced
in the country
table.
where it costs least in terms of
resources (capital, land, and
labor).
Import & Export Practices
Absolute Cost Example
Output per man-year
of labor
Country
Country A Country B
Wheat
30
120
Cotton
100
20
Import & Export Practices
3. The Theory of Absolute
Advantage
Country
is more
FromSo
the
above A
table,
we can
efficient
in in
producing
see that
a man
Country A can
wheat
B , in a
produce
50 than
unitsCounty
of wheat
year and
but we
onlysay
10the
in County B.
former has an
On the other hand, one man in
absolute advantage
Country B can produce 40 units
over the latter.
of cotton in a year but only 20 in
Country A.
Import & Export Practices
3. The Theory of Absolute
Advantage
and Country B would
Similarly,
Country
B is more
specialize
in cotton
efficient
with cotton
andofhas an
and exchange
some
absolute
them advantage
for Countryover
A's Country
A. wheat. Both countries
will
gain Country
benefitsA would
As a
result,
through
specialize
inspecialization
the production of
andand
trade.
wheat
trade some of them
for Country B's cotton,
Import & Export Practices
4. The Theory of
Comparative Cost
David Ricardo, in his work On
the Principle of Political
Economy and Taxation (1817),
showed that absolute cost
advantage are not a necessary
condition for two nations to gain
from trade with each other.
Instead, trade will benefit both
nations provide only that their
relative costs,
Import & Export Practices
4. The Theory of
Comparative Cost
that is, the ratios of
In short,
trade
depend on
their real
costs
differences
in comparative
cost
measured
by laboror opportunity
cost, and one
hour or another
nation
can profitably
commodity,
are trade with
another
even for
though
its real
different
two or
costs
are higher
(or lower) in
more
commodities.
every commodity.
Import & Export Practices
4. The Theory of
Comparative
Cost
The first country should
According
specializeto
inthe
thetheory of
comparative
advantage
production and
export ,ofit holds
that
if a country
is less
the even
commodity
in which
efficient
than another in the
its absolute
production
of both
commodities,
disadvantage
is smaller,
i.e.
hascommodity
absolute disadvantage
i.e.itthe
of its
incomparative
producing both
commodities,
advantage,
there is still a basis for mutually
beneficial trade.
Import & Export Practices
4. The Theory of
Comparative Cost
and import the commodity in
which its absolute disadvantage
is greater, i.e. the commodity of
its comparative disadvantage.
This theory can be illustrated in
the following table.
Import & Export Practices
Comparative Cost Example
Output per man-year of labor
country
A
B
Wheat
50
10
Cotton
40
20
Import & Export Practices
4. The Theory of
Comparative Cost
However, it still has a
comparative
The
differenceadvantage
between this
in cotton
since
it is half
table
and the
previous
one is
as efficient
inhas
cotton
but
that
Country B
absolute
5 times less in
efficient
in
disadvantage
the production
in comparison
ofwheat
both wheat
and cotton.
with Country A.
Import & Export Practices
4. The Theory of
Comparative
Cost
According to the theory,
both
can Country
gain if A
On
thecountries
other hand,
Country
A specializes
has
absolute
advantageinover
wheat and
B
Country
B inCountry
both commodities.
specializes
cotton.
However,
weinsay
it hasWhere
comparativeadvantage
advantagein wheat
comparative
exists,
twogreater
trading absolute
partners
since
it has
are both able
to commodity
share in the
advantage
in the
gains
trade.with respect to
than
infrom
the other
County B.
Import & Export Practices
Benefits of international
trade
Cheaper goods
Greater variety with goods
coming from more countries
Wider market with increasing
number of trading partners
Growth of economy
Import & Export Practices
problems of
international trade
Problems
Trade
barriers
Culture
Problems
Monetary
conversion
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
(1)reasons for trade
restrictions
(2)methods of
restrictions
A -----Tariffs
B-----Non-tariffs barriers
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
(1)reasons for trade restrictions
1)diversified economy to be less
independent on foreign
countries both economically and
politically
2)a new industry needs to be
protected
(an infant industry argument)
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
*reasons for trade restrictions
3)the unfair competition
argument
4)domestic job need to be
protected
5)in order to maintain a balance
of trade and balance of payment
6)pure political reasons
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 (1) Trade Barriers/methods of
restriction
 1)Tariffs
 A. Concept :
 A tariff is a duty or fee levied on
goods being imported into the
country.
Import & Export Practices
 B. Two types with different
1.Trade barriers
purposes:
 B.
Protective
tariffs
taxes

Two types
with(import
different
,保护性关税): are designed to
purposes:
revenue
tariff
(财
raise the retail price of
政关税):
imported products so that
is designed
to raise
domestic
goods will
be more
money for
the
competitive
and
foreign
government.
business
will be discouraged
from shipping certain goods
into the country. to save jobs
for domestic workers .to keep
industries (especially infant
industries) from bankruptcy
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 C. Tariff (customs) duties are of
two types according to the time
of collection:
 Export duty

regular duty
 Import duty

surtax
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade
barriers
Specific Duties (从量税): are

the have
rate of
so forms
much
 levied
regularatduty
four
per
unit, pound,
or gallon.
according
to the kilo
methods
of
 duty-collection:
Ad valorem Duties (从价税):
are levied on the basis of the
product's value.
 Compound Duties (复合税): are
a combination of specific and ad
valorem duties.
 alternative Duties (选择税): is
collected a higher tax between
specific and ad valorem duties.
Import & Export Practices
按征税标准(方法)分类
1.从量税specific duty:以商品的重量、数
量、容量,长度和面积等计量单位为标准计
征的关税。
从量税额=货物数量×单位从量税
2.从价税ad valorem duty:以商品的价格为
标准计征的关税。
从价税额=货物价值×从价税率
从价税的优点:征收简单;税收负担较为公
平;在税率不变时,税额随商品价格上涨而
增加,既可以增加财政收入,又可起到保护
关税的作用
Import & Export Practices
按征税标准(方法)分类
3.混合税又称复合税(mixed or Compound
duty):同时订立和征收从量税与从价税
。在具体征收时还有两种情况:一种是以
从量税为主,另外加征从价税;另一种是
以从价税为主,另外加征从量税。
复合税额=从量税额+从价税额
4.选择税(Alternative Tariffs) :同时
订有从量税及从价税,选择其中一种较高
的征收。
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 Surtax have three foms:

Countervailing duty(反补贴税)

Anti-dumping duty(反倾销税)

Variable duty(差别关税)
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers



Countervailing duty: is collected
Ant-dumping
duty:
is collected
against
bounty
or
grant
during
Variable
levy:
is
collected
at
the
when
importing
country
production,
transport,
and
difference
between
world
believes
that
there
is
a
dumping
export,
ect.
market
prices
and defined
the support
(a not universally
prices
for
domestic
producers
to
concept that can mean the
make
imported
commodities
sellingthe
price
in a foreign
no
moreis
competitive
in price
country
below domestic
than
the
domestic
commodities.
selling price, world market
price, or production cost ).
Import & Export Practices
反倾销壁垒
一、反倾销壁垒的目的:初衷抵消不公平竞争
1.倾销的定义
倾销,是指在正常贸易过程中进口产品以低于其正
常价值的出口价格进入市场。 对倾销的调查和确定
,由商务部负责。
关贸总协定规定,如果在正常的贸易过程中,一项
产品从一国出口到另一国,该产品的出口价格低于
在其本国内消费的相同产品的可比价格,也即以低
于其正常的价值进入另一国的商业渠道,则该产品
将被认为是倾销。
Import & Export Practices
2.倾销通常具有以下若干特征:
第一,倾销是一种人为的低价销售措施。它是由
出口商根据不同的市场,以低于有关商品在出口
国的市场价格对同一商品进行差价销售。
第二,倾销的动机和目的是多种多样的,有的是
为了销售过剩产品,有的是为了争夺国外市场,
扩大出口,但只要对进口国某一工业的建立和发
展造成实质性损害或实质性威胁或实质性阻碍,
就会招致反倾销措施的惩罚。
Import & Export Practices
第三,倾销是一种不公平竞争行为。在政府奖励
出口的政策下,生产者为获得政府出口补贴,往
往以低廉价格销售产品;同时,生产者将产品以
倾销的价格在国外市场销售,从而获得在另一国
市场的竞争优势并进而消灭竞争对手,再提高价
格以获取垄断高额利润。
第四,倾销的结果往往给进口方的经济或生产者
的利益造成损害,特别是掠夺性倾销扰乱了进口
方的市场经济秩序,给进口方经济带来毁灭性打
击。
Import & Export Practices
3.倾销的构成要件=反倾销的条件
1)产品以低于正常价值或公平价值销售;
出口价格<出口国内销售价格
出口价格<同类产品出口第三国的价格
出口价格<推定价值(生产成本+一般费用+合理
利润)
2)该低价销售行为给进口国产业造成损害,包
括实质性损害、实质性威胁和实质性阻碍;
3)损害是由低价销售造成的,二者之间存在因
果关系。
Import & Export Practices
4.反倾销的原因:
倾销导致进口国经济的不稳定,而且可能称为
垄断工具;
进口国政府一般更关心生产者利益而非消费者
利益;
倾销导致不公平交易;
Import & Export Practices
反倾销的程序
提起与受理
1
初步裁决
6
2
行政复审和
司法审查
价格保证
3
5
征收反倾销税
不超过5年
4
临时措施
调查起60天
4月(延2月)
Import & Export Practices
补充:税的种类
按待遇等级分类(征税)
1.普通税common duty:适用于没有贸易协
定的国家的进口商品,一般是较高税率的
关税。
2.最惠国税most favorable duty:适用于
签订有最惠国待遇条约的贸易协定的国家
之间的商品交流,其税率一般比普通税低
得多。
Import & Export Practices
按待遇等级分类(征税)
3.普惠税generalized preference duty:
1968年联合国贸易与发展会议通过了建立
普遍优惠制的决议,发达国家承诺对从发
展中国家或地区输入的商品,特别是制成
品和半制成品,给予普遍的、非歧视的和
非互惠的优惠关税待遇。
4.特惠税special favorable duty:这是对
某些国家与地区进口商品给予的特别优惠
的关税。
Import & Export Practices
补充:关税税则
1.关税税则(Customs Tariff)
又叫海关税则。是一国对进出口商品计征
关税的规章和对进出口的应税商品和免税
商品加以系统分类的一览表。它是海关征
税的依据,是一国关税政策的具体体现。
2.税则构成
海关税则一般包括两部分:其一为海关征
收关税的规章、条例和说明;另一为关税
税率表。关税税率表又主要有税则号、商
品名称、关税税率等栏目组成。
Import & Export Practices
3.税则分类
1)根据关税税率栏目的多少,海关税则
可分为单式税则和复式税则两种。
单式税则又称一栏税则。每个税目下只
有一个税率,对来自任何国家的商品采
取无差别待遇。
复式税则又称多栏税则。每个税目下订
有两个或两个以上的税率,对来自不同
国家的商品采用不同税率。
Import & Export Practices
2)根据海关税则中税率制定中的国家权
限不同,海关税则可分为自主税则和协
定税则两种。
自主税则是由本国政府自主制定,并有
权加以变更的海关税则。它又被称为固
定税则。
协定税则是通过本国与其他国家谈判而
定,受条约或协定约束的海关税则。
自主税则和协定税则中形成的关税税率
分别称为自主税率和协定税率。
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 2)Non-tariffs barriers
 (1) Quota (配额):
 A quota is a quantitative
restriction that is expressed in
terms of either physical
quantity or value.
Import & Export Practices
进口配额
1.进口配额的含义及其作用
进口配额(Import Quotas)又称进口限额
,是指一国政府在一定时期(如一季度、半
年或一年)内,对于某些商品的进口数量或
金额加以直接限制。
在规定的期限内,配额以内的货物准予进口
,超过配额的货物则不准进口,或加征较高
的关税甚至罚款以后才准许进口。
Import & Export Practices
2.进口配额的分类
(1)绝对配额(Absolute Quotas)又
称绝对的数量或金额限制
1)全球配额(Global Quotas)
2)国别配额(Country Quotas)
3)进口商配额(Importer Quotas)
(2)关税配额(Tariff Quotas)又称
相对数量限制或金额限制
Import & Export Practices
1)配额内税率近似等于0时,配额对进
口有绝对的限制性
2)当关税配额数量较大时,真正起保护
作用的是配额内税率,配额外税率不起
作用。
3)当关税配额的配额外税率很高时,有
接近绝对配额的趋势。
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 2)Non-tariffs barriers
 (2) Licensing System (许可证制
度)in Importing Countries
=import license:
 License is an official permission
of an import that is forbidden
without a license.
Import & Export Practices
1.定义
进口许可证制(Import License
System)是指商品的进口,事先要由进
口商向国家有关机构提出申请,经过审
查批准并发给进口许可证后,方可进口
,否则一律不许进口。
Import & Export Practices
2.分类
1)按是否有配额分:有定额的许可证和无
定额的进口许可证。
2)按照进口许可的程度来分
公开一般进口许可证(Open General
Licence, OGL),又称公开进口许可证、一
般进口许可证或自动进口许可证,是指对国
别或地区没有限制的许可证。
特种许可证(Special Licence, SL)又称
非自动进口许可证,即进口商必须向有关当
局提出申请,获准后才能进口。
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 (3) voluntary export restraint:
 It enable one country to force
onto another country through
 bilateral
In many agreement
cases, it is a
not
really
low
rate a
“voluntary”
measure
taken on
of
increase in
export volume.
the part of the exporting
country but rather a measure to
avoid harsher punitive actions
taken by the importing country.
Import & Export Practices
自动出口限制的实质
自动出口限额(“Voluntary” Export
Quotas)是指出口国家或地区在进口国的
要求或压力下,“自动”规定某一时期内
(一般为五年),某些商品对该国出口的
数量或金额的限制,在限定的配额内自行
控制出口,超过配额即禁止出口。
通常是两个政府之间谈判的结果,进口国
强加给出口国一个征税上限、确定商品来
源、确定供给来源、确定数量、确定时期
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 (4)foreign exchange control
 This currency restriction
intends to control import by
preventing domestic residents
from acquiring sufficient foreign
currency to pay for imports.
Import & Export Practices
外汇管制(Foreign Exchange control)
是各国政府通过政府法令对国际结算和外
国买卖加以管制以平衡国际收支,控制外
汇的供给与需求,防止套汇、逃汇,维持
本国货币本币币值稳定的一种管理措施。
一些国家往往与许可证制度结合使用来控
制进口商品品种、数量和进口国以及用汇
数额,从而达到平衡国际收支、保护国内
市场的目的。这种方式一般被称为数量性
外汇管制。
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 (5)state monopoly of import
and export
 With this form of barrier, import
and export are restricted by
giving exclusive authorities of
import and export to only a
limited number of (state)
companies that are well under
the control of the government.
Import & Export Practices
对外贸易国家垄断制(Foreign Trade
Under State Monopoly)又称进出口的国家
垄断,是指国家对某些商品的进出口规定由
国家直接经营,或者是把某些商品的进口或
出口的垄断权给予某个垄断组织。
发达国家对商品贸易的国家垄断:
第一类是对烟和酒的垄断,并从中获得巨大
的财政收入;第二类是农产品贸易,国家往
往把对农产品的对外垄断销售作为国内农业
政策措施的一部分;第三类是武器贸易。
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 (6)Government procurement
policy
For instance, Buy American
Act(1933)stipulates
 This
policy stipulates that
that the US
government must
buy American
governmental
organizations
products
unless
the domestic
must
use local
products
unless
price conditions
is on average
some
are25%(from
met.
6% to50%)higher than foreign
prices.
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 (7)Advanced deposit
 This barrier increases the cost
of imports by forcing importers
to deposit a percentage of the
total value of the imports for a
period of time without interest
or with a very low interest.
Higher cost normally
discourages import.
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 (8)Technical standard
 By imposing technical standards
that foreign exporters are not
familiar
with
or
have
difficulties
 For example, auto safety and
to
meet, the
volume of
of import is
emission
standards
controlled.
That is a method
of a
developed countries
represent
import
control
that is heatedly
challenge
for Chinese
auto
makersabout
though
it nonetheless
is arguable if
argued
but
the standards
widely
used. have been used
as barriers.
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 (9)Health & sanitary
regulations
 These regulations can also
discourage imports, especially
 when
Technologically,
to meet
the
the regulations
imposed
requirements
of the
regulations
by
the importing
country
are
might notfrom
be easy
and
different
that at
of all
that
domestic market
exporting
country.is therefore
protected.
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 (10) Packaging and labeling
regulations
 Importing countries can have
sophisticated regulations
regarding packaging and
labeling in terms of the
information contained, sizes of
letters, language used, and
even orders in which different
languages are used.
Import & Export Practices
1.Trade barriers
 (11) Minimum price
 Minimum price is the lowest
price set by an importing
country for imported goods.
There could be a ban on imports
below the minimum price
Import & Export Practices
非关税壁垒的特点
(相对于关税壁垒而言)
有效性
隐蔽性
特点
歧视性
灵活性
Import & Export Practices
2. Culture Problems





Language
Religion
Customs and Manners
To Think Globally, but to Act
Locally
Import & Export Practices
3. Monetary conversion
 1) Exchange Rate (汇率): often
fluctuate from time to time
 2) Extra Costs
 Ocean Freight :takes up a large
proportion of the total quoted
price
 Packing Cost :
 Marine Insurance :
 Cost of Document :
Import & Export Practices
Import & Export Practices
1 、 国 际 贸 易 额 ( International Trade
Value)是指一定时期内(通常为一年)用
某种货币统计的世界贸易总额,也称国际贸
易值。
即把世界上所有国家的进口总额或出口总额
用同一种货币换算后加在一起的贸易值。
通常用本国货币或国际货币美元来计量
Import & Export Practices
2 、 对 外 贸 易 额 (value of foreign
trade) =对外贸易值
是以货币表示的对外贸易总额。一定时期
内一国从国外进口的商品的全部价值,称
为进口贸易总额或进口总额;一定时期内
一国向国外出口的商品的全部价值,称为
出口贸易总额或出口总额。两者相加为进
出口贸易总额或进出口总额,是反映一个
国家对外贸易规模的重要指标。
Import & Export Practices
3、贸易差额
一个国家(地区)在一定时期(通常为一
年)内,出口额与进口额的相差数,称为
贸易差额(Balance of Trade)。
1)贸易顺差(出超、黑字):进口额<出口额
2)贸易逆差(入超、赤字):进口额>出口额
3)贸易平衡:进口额=出口额
Import & Export Practices
问题:国际贸易值是否等于各国对外贸易值
的总和?
答案:不等于。就国际贸易来看,一国的出
口就是另一国的进口,如把各国进出口值相
加作为国际贸易总值就会发生重复计算。所
以,一般是把各国出口值相加,作为国际贸
易值。由于各国一般都是按“离岸价”(FOB
即启运港船上交货价,只计成本,不包括运
费和保险费)计算出口额,按“到岸价
格”(CIF即成本、保险费加运费)计算进口
额。因此世界出口总额略小于世界进口总额。
Import & Export Practices
国际贸易量
国际贸易量(Quantum of Foreign Trade)
是按一定期的不变价格为标准来计算各个
时期的贸易值。即用以固定年份为基期计
算的当期进口或出口价格指数去除当期的
进口额或出口额的方法,剔除了价格变动
因素,得到相当于按不变价格计算的进口
额或出口额,二者之和即为对外贸易量。
计算公式:
贸易量=进或出口额/进、出口价格指数
价格指数=报告期价格/基期价格
Import & Export Practices
贸易条件
贸易条件(Terms of Trade)又称交换比价
或贸易比价,即出口价格与进口价格之间的
比率,就是说一个单位的出口商品可以换回
多少进口商品。它是用出口价格指数与进口
价格指数来计算的。计算的公式为:出口价
格指数/进口价格指数X100。以一定时期为
基期,先计算出基期的进出口价格比率并作
为100,再计算出比较期的进出口价格比,
然后以之与基期相比,如大于100,表明贸
易条件比基期有利;如小于100,则表明贸
易条件比基期不利,交换效益劣于基期。
Import & Export Practices
对外贸易依存度
对外贸易依存度是指一国进出口总值在其国
内生产总值中的比重。
一国的外贸依存度越高,表明该国经济对国
际贸易的依赖程度越大。
一般来说,实行开放政策的国家相对于闭关
锁国的国家,其外贸依存度会比较高;小国
家的外贸依存度会比大国家高一些。
问题:外贸依存度越大越好么?
Import & Export Practices
对外贸易商品结构/国际贸易商品结构
1、在国际贸易中,根据商品的加工程度,可
以分为初级产品和工业制成品两大类。
对外贸易商品结构是指一定时期内一国进出口
贸易中各种商品的构成,即某大类或某种商品
进出口贸易与整个进出口贸易额之比,以份额
表示。
发达国家对外贸易商品结构是以进口初级产品
为主,出口工业制成品为主;而发展中国家的
对外贸商品结构的特征则是以出口初级品为主,
进口工业成品为主。
Import & Export Practices
国际贸易商品结构
国际贸易商品结构(Composition of
International Trade)是指一定时期内各
大类商品或某种商品在整个国际贸易中的
构成,即各大类商品或某种商品贸易额与
整个世界出口贸易额相比,以比重表示。
Import & Export Practices
对外贸易地理方向/国际贸易地理方向
1、对外贸易地理方向又称对外贸易地区分
布或国别结构,是指一定时期内各个国家
或区域集团在一国对外贸易中所占有的地
位,通常以它们在该国进出口总额或进口
总额、出口总额中的比重来表示。
对外贸易地理方向指明一国出口商品的去
向和进口商品的来源,从而反映一国与其
他国家或区域集团之间经济贸易联系的程
度。
Import & Export Practices
国际贸易地理方向亦称“国际贸易地区
分布”(International-Trade-byRegion),用以表明世界各洲、各国或各
个区域集团在国际贸易中所占的地位。
计算各国在国际贸易中的比重,既可以
计算各国的进、出口额在世界进、出口
总额中的比重,也可以计算各国的进出
口总额在国际贸易总额(世界进出口总
额)中的比重。
Import & Export Practices
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