Import / Export
Aim of learning:
In this unit, learners are expected to :
--learn the business terms and expressions concerning
international trade ;
--the business concepts concerning import and export
business ;
-- understand how to make and fill out documents and
forms concerning international trade.
Time required:
6 hours
Key Vocabulary
International trade is the exchange of goods and services
between different countries.Depending on what a country
produces and needs, it can export (send goods to another
country) and import (bring in goods from another country).
Governments can control international trade. The most
common measures are tariffs (关税)(or duties) and
quotas(配额). A tariff is a tax on imported goods, and a
quota is the maximum quantity of a product allowed into a
country during a certain period of time. These measures are
protectionist (贸易保护主义者)as they raise the price
of imported goods to 'protect' domestically produced goods.
International organisations such as the WTO (World Trade
Organisation) and EFTA (European Free Trade Association
欧洲自由贸易联盟 ) regulate tariffs and reduce trade
restrictions between member countries.
Concept: trade protectionism
Ways of Dealing in Export Import Trade
In our country import and export transactions may be carried on in
various ways and forms according to the international trade
1. Trade may be carried on according to Trade Agreement, Trade
and Payment Agreement, Exchange of Goods and Payment
Agreement etc. signed between the governments concerned. This is
chiefly the case with countries such as DPRK(朝鲜), USSR(前苏
联), Romania(罗马尼亚) and other East European countries.
2. The export and import of goods may be made according to the
terms of the contract of sale made between the parties concerned (直
3. Barter Trade. (以货易货贸易)
All imports are to be made against a corresponding(--equal) value of
exports. This mode of export trade was widely used during the early
days after liberation to break the blockade (封锁)imposed against
our country.
4. Compensation trade. (补偿贸易)
Payments of imports (chiefly machinery and equipment for a factory)
are to be made by products of the particular factory during certain
years of its production according to agreement.
5. Processing trade. (来料加工贸易)
Imports of raw materials, packing materials are to be re-exported after
processing or manufacturing.
6. Consignment trade 寄售
Goods are exported by an exporter (the consignor 发货人) to an
importer abroad (the consignee 收货人 and, payment is made by the
importer only after the goods have been sold . A certain percentage of
commission for the importer and other agreed expenses are deducted
(扣除)from the sale proceeds(销售收入) according to the
agreement. ) This kind of trade is chiefly used to start exports of
goods of new designs, new production or invention, new brands etc.
7. Exclusive sales agreement. (包销)
The exporter may conclude an exclusive sales agreement with an
importer abroad. He may also establish his own branch office and
employ his own sales organization abroad. He may act through a
subsidiary company there which is created under the laws of the
foreign country in question. Or, he may combine with other traders in
a joint selling organization (or joint venture), a consortium (联盟)
or an export group.
8 Agency arrangements. (代理)
The peculiar feature of this L/C form of exporting is that (the
exporter enters into direct relations with the customers abroad, by
means of a contract procured (got/获得)and concluded(签订)
on behalf of the exporter by a representative who resides (--live)
abroad and is not his employee.)
The remuneration(薪酬) of the representative or independent
agent is usually based upon a commission on the purchase price of the
9. Export and/or import trade may be possible through tender (投
标)(or bid), auction (拍卖)land (达成)commodity exchange
transactions or at international fairs.
Lead in
1 Listen to an economist from the Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD-经
合组织) explaining why countries trade, and answer the
1 What does the speaker compare countries to?
2 What activity does he give as an example?
3 Why does it make sense for countries to trade?
2 Look at this history of the European Union on page
Have any other countries joined?
3. In pairs, do the quiz on page 87.
1 France (549,000 square km)
2 Germany (81.14 million inhabitants)
3 Ireland (15. Ph p.a.)
4 Netherlands (forecasts are W inhabitants per square km tor 2020)
5 Germany (approximately 1 7,5% of France's total exports goes to
6 Germany (approximately 10.2% of Sweden's exports goes to
7 a) United Kingdom
b) France
c) Germany
d) Spain
8 a) Most: France (more than 1,5 million tonnes) Least; Luxembourg
b) Most: United Kingdom (approx. 40 kg per head p.a.) Least: Spain
c) Most: Italy (approx. 58.5 litres per head p.a.) Least: Ireland
d) Most: Greece (7.70 smoked per head per day) Least: Netherlands
9 France
10 Finland (76% of land is covered in forest)
11 Germany (approx. 7,000 magazines) Stem, Der Spiegei
12 Finland
13 Netherlands (36 1/2, days per year, compared to 22 in Portugal and
14 Netherlands: Royal Dutch Petroleum
Companies can choose from various methods to establish their
products in a foreign market. One option(选择) is to start by
working with local experts such as sole agents (独家代理)or
multi-distributors(多家经销商), who have a specialist
knowledge(专业知识) of the market and sell on behalf of the
company. This often leads to the company opening a local branch
(本地分公司) or sales office(销售办事处). Another option is
to sell, or give permission to use patents(专利) and licences(许
可证) for their products. They may wish to start by manufacturing in
the export market in which case they can either set up a local
subsidiary (本地子公司)or a joint venture(合资企业) with a
local partner.
1. Read the text on page 89 about BARCO, a Belgian electronics firm.
Which of the methods mentioned above did BARCO use to establish
itself on the Indian market?
Vocabulary ( Text)
 long-term market opportunities-长期市场机会
 digital projector -数码投影机
 assemble on the spot -现场组装
 shift in strategic focus -战略目标的转移
 emergence-The act or process of emerging.浮现,出现:
 high value niche market-高利润空间的细分市场
 specialist display system-专业展示系统
 kits for video monitors-视频监视器成套设备
 television station-电视台
 local agent-本地代理
 sales and services office -销售与服务办事处
 assembly plant-组装工厂
 component factory-零部件(生产)工厂
exploit potential-开发潜能、潜在的市场
 obstacles—difficulty 障碍
 bureaucracy --官僚
 import duty-进口关税
 tax barrier-税收壁垒
 normal working tool-常用的办公工具
 paperwork--Work involving the handling of reports, letters, and forms.涉及处
 cultural hurdle-文化障碍
 deceptive-Deceptive or tending to deceive.骗人的
 complexity-The quality or condition of being complex.复杂
 sensitivity-The quality or condition of being sensitive.敏感
 strata of society-社会阶层 (stratum的复数)
 subcontinent-A large landmass, such as India, that is part of a continent but is
considered either geographically or politically as an independent entity.次大陆
 outweigh-To be more significant than; exceed in value or importance:胜过,超
The benefits outweigh the risks.
2 Read the text again and list the advantages and
disadvantages of exporting to India.
 vast –big
dominance –big advantage 优势
economy car sector-经济型轿车市场
 upper-range car-较高档的汽车
 opt for --choose
 argue –claim 宣称
 ban --forbid 禁止
 grant license --授予许可证
1 Find words in the text which have a similar meaning to the words and expressions
listed below.
2 assembled 3 a shift
4 niche market
5 exploit 6 obstacles 7 . Bureaucracy 8 delays
2 Complete the following passage, which describes the experience of
the French car manufacturer Peugeot in the Indian market, with
words from key vocabulary, Reading and Vocabulary 1, in the
correct form on page 90.
2 assemble 3 niche market 4 delays
6 obstacles 7 licences
5 tariffs
Vocabulary development:
compound adjectives 1
Complete the phrases on page 90 , using words from A and B.
There is sometimes more than one correct answer, and some
words may be used more than once.
b old-fashioned typewriter
c short-term opportunities
d low-budget advertising e well-known personality
f high-level decision-making g user-friendly software
h well-trained staff
Listening : The Invoice
The Invoice
invoice -发票
 metropolitan -大城市的
 boulevard --大道
 lane -小巷
 tennis racket --网球拍
 Ex-works price--工程交货价
 freight charges --运费
 warehouse --货舱
 insurance from warehouse to warehouse 仓至仓保险
 C.I. F -cost, insurance and freight 成本、保险加运费价
 cardboard -纸板
 carton-硬纸箱、盒
 import/export license --进出口许可证
 (shipping ) marks—嘜头
 per pro-由代表,经代理人(per procurationem)
 total amount payable-应付总金额
2. 699
3. 160
4. 120
5. 40
6 14,ooo pounds
7. 500 pounds
8 90pounds
9. 14,590 pounds
10 .16
11. 10
12.BRX 43 1999
By looking at the invoice number 699, you will notice
that on the 7th May 1999, the Metropolitan Tennis
Equipment Company of Los Angeles shipped a total of
160 tennis rackets to Champion Sport Ltd. in London. The
shipment included 120 of the GX12 model priced at £78
and 40 of the 'Tennis Pro' model at £116, for a total of
£14,000. The cost of freight was £500 and the insurance
from warehouse to warehouse was £90. Hence, the total
amount to be paid by the UK importer was £14,590. The
rackets were packed in 16 cardboard cartons, 10 per carton,
on which the words MET CS LTD. LONDON 1-16 were
written. The import licence number was BRX 43 1999.
The invoice was signed by an official of the exporting
company, Mr Robert Morales.
Reading: The bill of Lading
bill of lading -提单
consignee --收货人、收件人
 notify address--通知地址
 charter parties-租船合同、契约
 telefax -电传
 vessel -ship 船舶
 port of discharge/unloading -卸货港
 shipper --托运人、发货人 (carrier 承运人)
 porcelain items-瓷器产品
 Christmas decorations-圣诞节装饰品
 rice cooker-饭煲
 as per-according to 按照
 freight --1)运费 2)-goods 货物 3)货运
 freight advance -预付运费
on account of –从…帐户收取
time used for loading -装货时间
 in apparent good order and condition(货物)表明状况良好
 load …on board --装(货)上船
 thereto(=to there) -其中, 那中间/ hereto(= to here)附次、此
( thereof = of there , hereof = of here )
 get the goods specified above-获得以上指定、规定的货物
 measure -尺寸、体积
 contents-包装物内的货物
 IN WITNESS whereof -特此证明
 the Master -船长
 the Agent of the said vessel -以上所提到船舶的代理人
 tenor and date -进程与日期
 be accomplished – be used to take goods 被用以提货
 void -invalid 无效
 overleaf -on the back of 在背面、见次页
 conditions of carriage--货运条件
 place and date of issue -签发地点与时间
Reading : keys
2-5 G B F C
6—7 H E A D
Language focus: The Future
The future
Language focus: Practice ----- Keys:
1. will get going to leave
3. will have
4. are going to need
5.are going to visit
6.will be
Describing trends
considerable change—big change
striking change —obvious/significant change
Keys :
a. slightly
b. gradually
c. steadily
d. sharply
e. dramatically
f. suddenly
Describing Treads: Practice 1 ( p.94)
1. steadily
2. sharply/ suddenly/ dramatically
3. Slightly
4. Gradual
5. Sudden/sharp/dramatic
6. slight
Describing Treads: Practice 2—keys (p.95)
b. to level off: in April and September
c. to remain stable: throughout September and October
d. to reach peak: at the end of January
e. to stand at: at the end of the year
Describing Treads: Practice 3—keys (p.95)
c: Sales fluctuate from May to September.
b. Sales remained stable from September to November.
a. Sales stood at 10,00 in December.
d. Sales leveled off at about 8,000 in April.
Skill Focus
There was a rise or an increase of 3% in the unemployment rate
between 1998 and 2000.
 The number of shares traded on the stock market rose / increased
by 15 million between November and December 2001.
 The number of people employed in the UK shipbuilding industry
decreased / fell from 25,000 to 8,000 1982 and 1987.
1. stood at
2. a sharp increase
4. a sharp decrease
5. dropped
6. a slight rise
7. fell
8. a dramatic rise
9. reached a peak
10. falling
Listening 1—tapescript ( p96)
In 1 987 the export figures stood at 400 million
Finnish markkaa. There was a sharp increase betweeni
987 and 1989 when figures reached over 800 million.
This was followed by a sharp decrease between 1989
and 1990 when Finnish paper exports to japan
dropped to 400 million. There was a slight rise between
1990 and 1991 when exports hit the 450 million
mark but they fell again to 400 million in 1992.
Between 1992 and 1995 there was a dramatic rise and
exports of paper to japan reached a peak of 1,300
million in 1995, before falling again to under 1,000
million in 1997.
Graph 1—Wood We can see on this graph that wood exports
remained stable between 1990 and 1992 at around 50 million
Finnish markkaa. Between 1992 and 1994 there was a sharp
increase to 500 million where exports levelled off until 1996, then
they increased dramatically again and reached a peak of 850 million
by 1997.
Graph 2—Machinery
On this second graph we see that machinery exports declined
gradually between 1990 and 1992. Between 1992 and 1995.
however, exports of machinery rose continually. In 1993 they were
at 400 million and in 1994 they had risen to 550 million. They
reached a peak of 700 million in 1995. After that, figures fell
slightly to around 650 million in 1996 and levelled off at that
number until
Graph 3—Chemicals
On this third graph we notice that exports of
chemicals remained stable from 1990 to 1992 at 100
million Finnish markkaa. From 1992 to 1993 there
was a slight increase to 150 million. After that,
exports of chemicals continued to rise steadily from
1993 to 1997. In 1995 they had reached 210 million,
and in 1996, they reached a peak of 250 million and
stood at this level in 1997.