Business Correspondences 外贸英文函电 Contents Chapter One Chapter Two Chapter Three Chapter Four Chapter Five 外贸函电 Chapter Six Chapter Seven Chapter Eight Chapter Nine Chapter Ten Introduction to the course • • • • • Course description Course objectives Course contents Learning guide Assessment and Requirements 外贸函电 Introduction 外贸函电 • English business correspondence or business letter is a written communication between two parties. • It is a means through which views are expressed and ideas or information is communicated in writing in the process of business activities. • It is to learn both the language and the professional knowledge (in other words, to learn the language you are going to use when you work). Course description 外贸函电 • Business Correspondence is one of the most important courses (a compulsory course) for International Business Trade Majors. It is designed to help students to accomplish the transition from general English learning to specialized English learning, aiming at preparation for a future business career. Course objectives 外贸函电 After the completion of the whole course, students are supposed to: • comprehend and master the basic writing skills for various types of business correspondence. • be familiar with the general conventions as well as main procedures in international trade practice. • conduct business, make quick and correct reactions to the business information and make business concluded in real life situations. Course contents 外贸函电 • The contents of Business correspondence involve many aspects of international business trade, mainly include : Establishing business relations; Inquiry; Offer; Counter offer; Order; Acceptance; Contract; Packing; Shipment; Payment; Insurance and Claim. Learning guide 外贸函电 • Achieve balance between languagelearning and business-learning. • Achieve balance between input and output of what have been learned. • Achieve balance between course-book learning and simulated practice. • Focus on various writing patterns and writing skills of business correspondences. • Master the commonly-used business vocabularies and make good use of them. Assessment and Evaluation Criteria 外贸函电 • The course will be assessed as follows: • Routine performance: 20%, including: routine attendance ,in-class practice, tests and outside-class assignments • Three monthly tests: 40% • Final exam: 40% Requirements 外贸函电 You are appreciated for not • being late for class or absent from class. • chewing gums or wearing a cap during classes. • picking up the cell phone or letting the phone ring during classes. Chapter One Layout of a Business Letter Contents 外贸函电 Objectives Leading In Sample letter Language Points Summary Assignments Case study Objectives 外贸函电 Upon completion of this chapter, you should: • be familiar with the layout of business letters. • know the formats of business letters. • know how to address the envelope. Leading In 外贸函电 • Name the ways of communication you know • What is the layout of an English letter? Ways of communication • • • • • • Telephone Fax E-mail Letter Telegram Telex 外贸函电 Warming up 外贸函电 1. 日期 2. 封内地址 3. 称呼 4. 正文 5. 结尾敬语 6. 签名 Layout of Business Letter • 1.信头 letter Head Electronics Ltd. 3 Stockbridge Road Liverpool LP5 20M Tel.: 087564789076 Fax:087564747867 Website: www.electronics.com.uk Your Reference: Our Reference: 2569 April 13, 2004 Fuiji Company 153 Ginza-Chome Tokyo, Japan Attention: Sales Manager Dear Sirs, Re: Portable Colour TV Sets We have seen your advertisement in the “Electric Frontier” and are quite interested in your portable colour television set. Enclosed is our Inquiry Note No.2368. Please quote us the lowest price C.I.F. Liverpool, stating the earliest date of shipment. We look forward to your early reply. Very truly yours, ELECTRONICS LTD. H arold Jones Harold Jones Manager Encl. Inquiry Note cc: Mr. J.L.Smith, New York go 外贸函电 • • • • • • • • • • • 2.日期 Date 3.封内地址 Inside Address 4.称呼 Salutation 5. 正文 Body 6. 结 尾 敬 语 Complimentary Close 7.签名 Signature 8.事由 Subject 9.附件 Enclosure a 参考号 Ref.No. b 经办人 Attention Line c 抄送 Carbon Copy Letterhead 外贸函电 • Generally, a letterhead will include the company logo, company's name, address, telephone number, fax number and email address, and the web address if available. Inside Address Always include the recipient's name, address and postal code. Add job title if appropriate. Date 02/01/03 2002年1月3日 2003年2月1日 2003年1月2日 外贸函电 Chinese way American way British way To avoid confusion, it is a common practice to write months in words. Return salutation 外贸函电 1. If unsure to whom you should address a letter, you should use the following salutations: Dear Sir or Madam, 2. If you know the name but are not familiar with the other person, you should use the following salutation: Dear Mr./Mrs. XXX, 外贸函电 3. If you are quite familiar with the other person, you may use the following salutation: Hi XXX, Hello XXX, Informal XXX, Body of a letter 外贸函电 The body of a business letter typically contains three paragraphs: · 1.introductory paragraph · 2.one or more body paragraphs 3.concluding paragraph Complimentary Close • • • • 外贸函电 Formal Truly/sincerely/Faithfully yours, Informal Best regards, Capitalize only the first word in the complimentary close, and follow all phrases with a comma. Signature ELECTRONICS LTD. Harold Jones Harold Jones Manager 外贸函电 Company’s name Your signature typed signature (job title) Return Block Format 外贸函电 --Heading- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Date Inside Address Dear Sirs, ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Yours Faithfully, Signature The block format is the simplest format; all of the writing is flush against the left margin. Format 外贸函电 The indented format --Heading-------------- ---------- ----------------------------------------------- Date Inside Address Also the first line of each paragraph is indented. --Heading-------------- ---------- ----------------------------------------------- Dear Sirs, □□□---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------□□□------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------□□□---------------------------------------------- Yours Faithfully, Signature Date Inside Address Dear Sirs, ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------- The semi-block format your address, date, the closing, signature, are all indented to the right half of the page ----------------------------------------------------Yours Faithfully, Signature Addressing the envelop 外贸函电 Summary 外贸函电 In this chapter, we have learnt the layout (seven principle parts and six optional parts) in a business letter. We should at least remember the seven principle parts and some useful and common optional parts. We should also recite the format of business letters. These rules and principles are crucial in the business letters, because it shows your attitude and ability to do business carefully and successfully. Assignments • • • • • • • • • 外贸函电 Arrange the following in proper form as they should be set out in a letter. Use the Block Style, and then address the envelope accordingly. Seller: Royal Grosvenor Porcelain Company Ltd. Address: Grosvenor House, Renfrew Road, Oakley Staffordshire OA7 9AH Tel: (743069)60591/2/3 Buyer: Colourfloor Co.Ltd. Address: 238 Wilton Road, Axminster AXz AS Date : March 5, 2007 Subject : porcelain The message : -----The letter is written by the seller Case study 外贸函电 Task: • Look at the following page. This is the top part of a business letter from a French company. Decide when you would use these salutations, instead of “Dear Mr. Brown”. Dear James, Dear Sirs, Dear Madams, Dear Sir or Madams. Case study 外贸函电 Sunshine Flavours LTD. Sunrise Technology Park, East Harbor Drive Lyon AS12 6KM, France Telephone 03793 832223 Fax 33 3703 835550 Nov 14, 2007 Mr. James Brown Marketing Director Brown Industries Inc. 546 Park Avenue IL 43301 Washington, USA Dear Mr. Brown, Thank you for your letter of 11 November, suggesting a meeting in December. The most convenient dates from our point of view are December 6th or December 7th. Chapter Two Establishing Business Relations Contents 外贸函电 Revision Objectives Leading In Sample letter Language Points Summary Assignments Case study Revision 外贸函电 1._________ 2._______ a)_________________ 3._______ b） ________________ • • • • • • 4._______ 8.___________ 5._________ 6._________ 7._________ 9.__________ c）_________________ • • • • • • 1.信头 letter Head 2.日期 Date 3.封内地址 Inside Address 4.称呼 Salutation 5. 正文 Body 6. 结 尾 敬 语 Complimentary Close 7.签名 Signature 8.事由 Subject 9.附件 Enclosure a 参考号 Ref.No. b 经办人 Attention Line c 抄送 Carton Copy Teaching objectives 外贸函电 Upon completion of the chapter, you should: • know the ways that an exporter can use to seek new customers. • know how to write this kind of letter. • grasp the important words and phrases learned. Leading In produce production 生产商 producer 产品 product 买方 buyer 卖方 seller 顾客 customer 客户 client 生产 v/n 外贸函电 用户 消费者 制造商 购买 销售 中间商 零售商 批发商 经销商 user consumer manufacturer buy/purchase sell/sale middleman retailer wholesaler dealer 外贸函电 贸易 进口 出口 进口商 出口商 海关 关税 配额,限额 commerce, trade import export importer exporter Customs Customs duty quota Warming Up 外贸函电 • Suppose you are the salesperson of ABC company. You want to sell the following products to a children’s store. Now you are calling the store and the manager answers the phone. Then what would you say in order to sell the products. Sample letter 外贸函电 Dear Sirs or Madams, We have obtained your name and address from the website: www.alibaba.com. We were informed that you are one of the biggest importers of tea in UK and you are now in the market for tea. We take this opportunity to approach you in the hope of establishing business relations with you. 外贸函电 • To give you a general idea of our products, we enclose herewith a copy of our brochure covering the main items available at present. • If you are interested in any of our products or have other products you would like to import, please contact us with your requirements. We look forward to providing you with high quality products, superior customer service. Language points be in the market for 外贸函电 want to buy 1.我们生产各式各样的皮鞋，因此我们想要购买牛 皮。 We produce all kinds of leather shoes, so we are in the market for cow hide. 2.我们的一个顾客想购买你方的新产品。 One of our customers is in the market for your new products. Language points 外贸函电 take this opportunity 我想借此机会对你为我公司所做的一切表 示感谢。 I would like to take the opportunity to thank you for all that you have done for our company. 我们借此机会介绍我们的新产品。 We take this opportunity to introduce our new products. Language points 外贸函电 approach • We approached the Ministry of Commerce and they told us that you are able to supply 1000 metric tons of apples at a time. 我们与商务部联系，他们告述我们你们能一次性提 供1000公吨苹果。 • 我们定期与客户联系，看他们是否有新的要求 . • We approach our clients regularly to see if they have any new request. Language points 外贸函电 • be in the hope of • 为了能找到客户，我给这页上所有的公司 都打了电话。 • I called all the companies on this page in the hope of finding a customer. • 我给您发电子邮件是希望能与您建立业务 关系。 • I am e-mailing you in the hope of establishing business relations with you. Language points 外贸函电 • give sb. a general idea of • 这个样品是为了让你大概了解我们产品的 质量。 • This sample is meant to give you a general idea of the quality of our products. • 这个产品说明书将使你大概了解我们最新 的产品。 • This product description will give you a general idea about our latest product. Language points enclose put sth. in an envelope 外贸函电 随函附寄 We are enclosing a sample for your reference. 我们现随函附寄一个样品供你方参考。 herewith adv. enclosed in this 随函附上 Language points 外贸函电 • enclose • They can be used in the following ways: • enclose sth. • Enclosed is/are sth. • Enclosed please find 随函附寄产品说明书。(description) 1.We are enclosing a product description. 2. Enclosed is our product description. 3. Enclosed please find a product description. Language points 外贸函电 covering about 关于 Translate the following sentence: 请寄给我们关于你方新产品的小册子。 Please send us a your new products. brochure covering Language points 外贸函电 Item refer to a particular product 单个商品，标 号商品 We have seen your goods and are quite interested in your item No. TK-103. 我们看了贵方的商品，对标号为TK-103的商品 特别感兴趣。 Language points Item No. TK-101 Item No. TK-102 Item No. TK-103 Item No. TK-104 外贸函电 • Item refers to an individual unit in a group of products. • Goods refer to a group of products. 外贸函电 Contents of company introduction Paragraph 1 - The introduction Paragraph 2 - What we do Paragraph 3 - QA/QC Paragraph 4 - The closing The introduction 外贸函电 The year your company was established • Your company’s location • If you are a member of a group company • What products/services you offer • Any Foreign investment that you may have What we do • • • • • • 外贸函电 Product range/services offered Machinery and technology used Production experience Number of staff How orders are handled Share significant achievements that would be meaningful to buyers QA/QC 外贸函电 • Quality certifications (such as ISO) allow for an increased level of trust and mentioning them in your company introduction can only benefit you. Additionally, adding your monthly output volume, countries/regions serviced and any major clients that you have will also build credibility with buyers. The closing 外贸函电 • Many companies use the final paragraph of their company introductions to state their corporate values and invite buyers to contact them. • Detailed please see the sample introduction in the textbook. Summary • Contents of a letter of • establishing relations • • Important parts in a letter • of establishing business • relations • source of information • and the intention of • writing the letter • • Introduction of the company and products • • Closing part 外贸函电 Language points: be in the market for take the opportunity approach enclose item covering In the hope of Assignments 外贸函电 1. Write a letter of establishing business relations with the following information: • 从中国日报的广告上了解到对方是一家从事中国 手工艺品的进口商。(handcrafts) • 我们是手工艺品的出口商，想与对方建立业务关 系。 • 随函寄上关于公司产品的目录。 • 希望对方和我们取得联系。 2. Do the exercises of this Chapter in the textbook. Case study 外贸函电 • Background 辽宁玩具电子有限公司创建于1990年，是一家集产品开发 设计、制造、销售于一体，拥有自营进出口权的玩具民营企业。 公司拥有厂区3个，厂房25000平方米、工人1000余名。 自建厂以来，公司致力于产品技术创新和质量控制，严格 按照ISO9001：2000质量体系执行质量管理和推行6S管理体 系，玩具产品通过中国玩具产品认证委员会认证(CCTP认证) 及欧盟EN71取得CE认证。现公司拥有技术开发人员50余人， 先后有31件产品获国家专利，其中3件获国家实用新型专利。 多年来，公司致力于研发具有创造力的高品质产品，培养 不同发展阶段的孩子个人想象能力，为孩子提供许多有趣的学 习方式，在学习玩乐的过程中开启孩子的心去接受新的思维、 新的想法、拓展新的视野。展望未来，公司诚挚邀请海内外嘉 宾携手合作，共创辉煌。 Case study 外贸函电 • Now plug your MP3 player into I-DOG and hear your tunes through I-DOG's speaker! Toggle I-DOG's tail to turn off the speaker and listen to music via headphones. • I-DOG “feeds” on YOUR music. Your music helps form its personality by the type of music it hears, and its mood changes depending on how much music you share with I-DOG. • I-DOG is compatible with most portable music devices like CD players and MP3 players. To use. . . Case study 外贸函电 • 1. Plug I-DOG into the headphone jack of any handheld or non-portable music system (i.e. MP3 player, CD player, stereo, etc.). I-DOG’s ears will perk up to show you that its listening and its head will move and groove to the music • 2. I-DOG can listen to music through its built-in microphone. Sit I-DOG near a speaker and watch it react! • Requires 2 “AA” batteries (not included). Includes dual-plug cable. • Note: Does not download, record or store music. Chapter Three Inquiry Contents 外贸函电 Revision Objectives Leading In Sample letter Language Points Summary Assignments Case study Teaching objectives 外贸函电 Upon completion of this chapter, you should: • be aware of the information to be covered in general inquiry and specific inquiry. • be able to make inquiries on the detailed information about different products. • be able to use related words and phrases to make inquiries. Leading In 外贸函电 • Inquiry Inquiry is the first step in business negotiations and is the beginning of negotiating the import trade. The inquiry letter is written by the importer to the exporter for grasping the information on commodities. It may fall into two categories: • general inquiries • specific inquiries • General inquiry 外贸函电 • If the importer wants to have a general idea of the commodity, he may make a request for a pricelist, a catalogue, samples and other terms. This is a general inquiry. (Generally, it is also a first inquiry. That is an inquiry writing without first writing a letter to establish business relations). General inquiry 外贸函电 • Structure • The source of information and a brief selfintroduction • The intention of writing the letter. (Ask for a catalogue, samples or a pricelist) • Stating the possibility of placing an order Specific inquiry 外贸函电 • If the importer intends to purchase goods of a certain specification, he may ask the exporter to make an offer or a quotation for the goods. That is a specific inquiry. Specific inquiry 外贸函电 • Structure • Mentioning the previous letter you’ve received from the exporter. • Enquiring about the details of the goods such as names, descriptions, specifications, quantity, etc. • Asking whether there is a possibility of giving a special discount and what terms of payment and time of delivery you would expect. • Stating the possibility of placing an order. Words and phrases • • • • • • • • • 价格 合理的价格 具有竞争力的价格 优惠的价格 单价 总值 金额 佣金 净价 外贸函电 price reasonable price competitive price favorable price unit price total value amount commission net price 外贸函电 discount • 折扣 wholesale price • 批发价 retail price • 零售价 • 现行价格（时价） current / prevailing price • 国际市场价格 world (International) market price 离岸价（船上交货价） Free on Board FOB 成本加运费价（离岸加运费价） Cost and Freight CFR 到岸价（成本加运费、保险费价） CIF cost, insurance and freight Warming-Up 外贸函电 If you are interested in the following products and want to know something about them, what would you write in your letter of inquiry? Sample letter 外贸函电 Dear Sirs, We thank you for your letter of May 3 and shall be glad to enter into business relations with you. We have seen your brochure and are interested in Green Tea Extract and Porcelain Tea Set No.TSM001. We shall be pleased if you will kindly send us samples and all the necessary information regarding these two products. 外贸函电 Meanwhile, please quote us the lowest price, CIF Liverpool, stating the earliest date of shipment and the minimum quantity. Should your price be competitive and date of shipment acceptable, we intend to place a large order with you. Your early reply will be highly appreciated. Truly yours, Language points enclose 外贸函电 随函附寄 现随函附寄商品目录供你方参考。 We are enclosing herewith a catalogue for your reference. send…under separate cover 另寄 现另寄商品目录供你方参考。 We are now sending you under separate cover a catalogue for your reference. Language points 外贸函电 send…under separate cover We have the pleasure of sending you under separate cover our latest catalogue. 我们很荣幸给你方另寄我方最新的商品 目录。 请另寄一个样品。 Please send a sample under separate cover. Language points 外贸函电 • regarding covering 关于 • 1.请寄给我们一个关于你方新产品的商品目 录. Please send us a catalogue regarding your new products. • 2.我们将寄关于这些产品的价格单供你方参 考。 We shall send the pricelist regarding these products for your reference. Language points 外贸函电 Please quote us the lowest price, C.I.F. Lagos, inclusive of our 5% commission, stating the earliest date of shipment. (1) 请报最低价。 Please quote the lowest price. (2) 请报上海船上交货最低价。 Please quote the lowest price, F.O.B Shanghai. Language points 外贸函电 Please quote us the lowest price, C.I.F. Lagos, inclusive of our 5% commission, stating the earliest date of shipment. (3)请报最低价，包括3%的佣金。 Please quote the lowest price, including 3% commission. (4)请报最低价，说明最早的装运期。 Please quote the lowest price, stating the earliest date of shipment. Language points 外贸函电 competitive 具有竞争力的 1.他们的价格更具有竞争性。 Their prices are more competitive. 2.我们的商品卖的很快因为它们的价格具有 竞争力。 Our products are selling very fast because of their competitive prices. Language points 外贸函电 reasonable/ favorable 合理的/优惠的 1.我们的价格很合理。我们不能降价。 Our price is very reasonable. It’s impossible for us to reduce the price. 2.我们的价格非常优惠，所以我们建议你方 立即购买。 Our price is very favorable, so we recommend you to purchase immediately. Language points 外贸函电 acceptable can be accepted 可接受的 1.如果你方的价格可接受，我们将大量购买。 If your price is acceptable to us, we will buy in large quantities. 2.我们不能接受你方价格。我们只好在别处购 买 Your price is unacceptable to us. We have no choice but to purchase elsewhere. Language points 外贸函电 place an order with sb. for sth. 向某人定购某商品 1.我们将向你方订购100公吨的苹果。 We will place an order with you for 100 metric tons of apples. 2.如果你能降价，我们将大量订购。 We can place a large order if you can reduce the price. Language points 外贸函电 appreciate 感激，感谢 1.We shall be appreciated if you could send us a brochure. 如果你方能寄给我们一个商品小册子，我 们将不胜感激。 2. We shall appreciate it if you can ship the goods before August. 如果你方能在八月前装运货物我们将不胜感激。 Supplementary practice 外贸函电 • I saw your advertisement of commercial carpets in Business Times dated March 3. • Please send us a catalogue, a price list, and a description on carpets of different grades. • We are looking for suppliers and intend to purchase a carpet that is about 5,600 square feet in size in the near future. 外贸函电 • In your price list, be sure to include the cost of removing the existing carpet. • If there are other costs (besides the carpet itself and an installation fee), please list them along with all the others. Summary • Inquiry • General inquiry • Structure of general inquiry • Specific inquiry • Structure of specific inquiry 外贸函电 • • • • • Language points quote inclusive of Competitive/favorable place an order with sb. for sth. • appreciate Assignments 外贸函电 • Exercises from I on p33 to V on p36. • Translate the sentences into English on p36. Case study 外贸函电 • Task: Work in pairs. Read the following letters and • discuss with your partner what you should do before sending the electronic files. • discuss how to reply in case someone enquires for Bottle Pod. • discuss with your partner how to reply to the third letter if you do not produce Multi-Function Tripods? • Writing • You are requested to write three letters on the basis of the results of your discussion above. Letter 1 外贸函电 • Dear Sir or Madam: • We have seen the brief introduction about your Gorilla Pod and are quite interested. • Would you please send us more information as to the price term, minimum quantity, etc. Meanwhile, as we would also like to know about some other lines you handle, your illustrated catalog by e-mail will be appreciated. • Yours sincerely Letter 2 外贸函电 • Dear Mr. Johnson, • Last year we bought from you a consignment of Bottle Camera Pods, and they sold well here. Do you still make camera pods of this type? If so, please let us know the prices for quantities of not less than one great gross. Delivery within six weeks of order would be highly appreciated. • Best regards, Letter 3 外贸函电 • Dear Sir or Madam: • As one of the leading importers and wholesalers of photographic equipment in Australia, we are very impressed by the newest tripods you displayed at the recent exhibition in New York. • There is a steady demand here for different types of tripods, especially the fashionable ranges with high quality. We have been receiving a number of enquiries from our trade connections in this area for the following tripod: • Product Name: Multi-Function Tripods • Features: • Three way ultra-smooth photo/video fluid-effect pan head with quick-release plate and bubble level • Panhandle tension lock for secure positioning and easy adjustment • 2 bubble levels for fine adjustments 外贸函电 • • • • • • • • Four–section legs with rubber feet and retractable spikes Quick-lever leg locks for fast and easy set up Diameter of 1st leg:20mm Extended height: 144cm Folded length: 45.0cm Gross weight: 1kg. Max. load:2.0 kg. Will you please, therefore, quote us your lowest price C.I.F. Sydney? This would enable us to maintain low selling prices that have been an important reason for the growth of our business. We may be able to place regular orders with you if your prices are competitive. • We are looking forward to receiving your early reply. • Yours very truly, Chapter Four Offer Contents 外贸函电 Revision Objectives Leading In Sample letter Language Points Summary Assignments Case study Revision 外贸函电 • 我们的报盘为实盘，以7月4日前回复为有 效。 • Our offer is firm, subject to your reply reaching us before July 4. • 现报盘如下，以你方于4月6日前接受为有 效。 • We are making you the following offer, subject to your acceptance reaching here before April 6. 外贸函电 • 以上所报的价格为FOB价，没有约束力。 • The above prices are quoted on FOB basis and are without engagement. • 对这个产品的需求很活跃，这将会导致价 格上升。因此，我们不可能让此报盘长期 有效。 • There has been an active demand for this new product and it will certainly result in increased price. Therefore, it is impossible for us to keep this offer open too long. 外贸函电 • 现以我们最优惠的价格报以下商品的盘，以货物未被 售出为有效。 • We are offering the following products at our most favorable price, subject to prior sale. • 我们现在为我们所有的老客户报此特惠盘，以货物未 被售出为准。所以我们建议你立即接受。 • We are now making this special offer to all our old clients, subject to the goods being unsold. So we suggest you accept it immediately. 外贸函电 • 按你方要求报20公吨花生盘如下。有效期为 10天。 • As per your request, we are making an offer for 20 metric tons of groundnuts as follows. The offer is valid for 10 days. • 这个特惠报盘在2月23日以前有效。我们建 议抓住这个机会尽快订购。 • This special offer is valid till February 23, so we suggest you avail yourselves of this opportunity and place an order immediately. Teaching objectives 外贸函电 Upon completion of this chapter, the students will: • understand the difference between firm offer and non-firm offer and grasp their relative expressions. • be familiar with the terms & conditions involved in an offer and be able to write them independently. Leading In 外贸函电 Offer • An offer is the expression of the wishes of the seller to sell particular goods under stated terms (including quality, prices, time of shipment, terms of payment etc.). The person making the offer is called “offeror”报 盘人, while the person receiving the offer is called “offeree受盘人” In international business, offers can be divided into two kinds: firm offer and non-firm offer. Firm offer 外贸函电 • A firm offer is made when a seller promises to sell goods at a stated price within a stated period of time. Once it has been accepted it cannot be changed or withdrawn and the transaction will be concluded. When the validity is overdue, this offer will cease to be effective and the offeror will no longer take the responsibility of carrying out the commitments stipulated in the offer. Non-firm offer 外贸函电 • Non-firm offer is an informal offer made by the offeror, which has got no validity terms but with clear indication of its confirmation conditions, such as “subject to our final confirmation. It can be considered as an offer which are not upon binding the sellers and the details of the offers may change in certain situations. Structure of an offer 外贸函电 • An expression of thanks for the inquiry you have received • Informing them of the detailed terms and conditions about the supplied commodities, such as names, quality, quantity, specifications, price terms, discounts, terms of payment, packing and delivery date etc. • Informing them of the validity of the offer (for firm offer) • Expressing your sincere expectation of receiving their orders 外贸函电 • Expressions used to indicate a Nonfirm Offer • subject to our final confirmation • 以我方最后确认为准 • We are now making you an offer subject to our final confirmation. • 现报盘，以我方最后确认为有效。 外贸函电 • without engagement • 此报盘无约束力 • We are now making you the following offer without engagement. • 现报盘如下，此报盘无约束力。 外贸函电 • subject to the goods being unsold • 以货物未被售出为准 • We are now making you a special offer subject to the goods being unsold. • 我方向你方报特惠盘，以货物未被售出为 准。 外贸函电 • subject to prior sale • 以先售为准 • We are now making an offer for airconditioners as follows, subject to prior sale. • 我方现报空调盘如下，以先售为准。 Firm offer 外贸函电 • 现为你方报10公吨大米实盘。 • We are now making you a firm offer for 10 metric tons of rice. • 现为你方报实盘如下。 • We are now offering you firm as follows, Firm offer’s validity 外贸函电 1.We make you the following offer subject to your reply within 10 days. 2. We make you an offer, subject to your reply reaching us not later than noon time October 21 Beijing time. 3. The offer is valid for 3 days. 4. The offer is valid till March 15. Warm-up expressions • • • • • • • • counter-offer • offerer • offeree • offer list/book • offering period • lump offer bid • 外贸函电 还盘，还价 报盘人 受盘人 报价单 报价日 综合报盘（针对两种以 上商品） 递价；出价；递盘（由 买方发出） Sample letter 外贸函电 Dear Mr. Brown, We are glad to know that you, one of the biggest suppliers of tea in the UK, are interested in our products. In order to establish a long friendly business relation with you, we are now making you a special offer. For details, please see quotation sheet. 外贸函电 We are sending you under separate cover the samples of Green Tea Extract and Porcelain Tea Set for your reference. We are confident that you will be satisfied with both the quality of our products and their competitive prices. We await your favorable news. Yours very sincerely, Language Points 外贸函电 报盘还盘是贸易中价格交锋的重点。各种不同 的报盘表达法: 1. We're willing to make you an offer at this price. 我们愿意以此价格为你报实盘。 2. We can offer you a quotation based on the international market. 我们可以按国际市场价格给您报价。 外贸函电 3. We'll give you the official offer next Monday. 下星期就给您正式报盘。 4. I came to hear about your fertilizer offer. 我来听听你们有关化肥的报盘。 5. My offer was based on reasonable profit, not on wild speculations. 我的报价以合理利润为依据，不是漫天 要价。 外贸函电 6. Let me make you a special offer. 我给你一个特别优惠价。 7. This offer is competitive and based on an expanding market…… 此报盘着眼于扩大销路而且很有竞争性。 8. The offer is good until 5 o'clock p.m. June 23, 2005, Beijing time. 报价有效期到2005年6月23日下午5点，北京 时间。 外贸函电 9. All prices on the price lists are subject to our approval. 报价单中所有价格以我方确认为准。 10.Our offers are for 3 days. 我们的报盘三天有效。 11. We prefer to withhold quotation at this time. 我们宁愿暂停报盘。 Zhejiang Caiyunjian Tea Co., Ltd. 报 价 QUOTATION To : 日期 Global Tea Bags (Pvt) Ltd Date May 8, 2004 兹报供下列商品, 均以我方最后确认为准 The following articles are quoted subject to our final confirmation: 品名 Commodity 规格 Specification Green Tea Extract Porcelain Tea Set Model No. 8901 Model No. TS001 包 数量 Quantity 单价 Unit Price Minimum order CIF Liverpool 2000kg. 2000 sets Stg. ￡15 per kilo Stg. ￡15 per set 装 PACKING: aluminum-foil-lined cartons, pumped off air and filled up with nitrogen, bulk be packed in cartons fixed with foamed plastic padding 25kg/carton, 22kg/carton, 20kg/carton, 18kg/carton 装船期 SHIPMENT: can be shipped within one month after receipt of the L/C 付款方式 PAYMENT: by confirmed irrevocable L/C payable by draft at sight 保险 INSURANCE: 外贸函电 单 for 110% of the invoice value 有错当查 E. &. O. E. • • • • • • • • Commodity Specification Quantity Unit Price Packing Shipment Payment Insurance Quantity (1) 重量(weight) 公斤 (kilogram ) 公吨 (metric ton ) 长吨 (long ton)(≈1016kg) 短吨(short ton)(≈907kg) (2) 数量(number) 件 (piece ) 双(pair ) 套 (set ) 打(dozen） 外贸函电 Price Terms • • • • 外贸函电 US$300 per metric ton CIF Seattle 每公吨300美元CIF西雅图 每短吨5600日元FOB横滨 Yokohama JPY 5600 per short ton FOB Yokohama • 每打20美分旧金山到岸价 • USD 0.2 per dozen CIF San Francisco Packing • • • • • • • 木箱（wooden case） 板条箱（crate） 纸箱（carton） 麻袋（gunny bag) 布袋（sack）（cloth bag） 塑料袋（plastic bag) 牛皮纸袋（kraftpaper bag） 外贸函电 Packing • • • • • 铁桶（iron drum） 塑料桶（plastic drum） 木桶（cask） 捆（bundle） 包（bale） 外贸函电 Packing 外贸函电 (1) Cigarettes are to be packed in tin-lined paper box. 香烟要用衬锡纸盒包装。 (2) Pens are to be packed in paper boxes, 10 pieces to one box. 钢笔要用纸盒包装，每盒装十支。 (3) Pens are packed 12 pieces to a box and 200 boxes to a wooden case. 每12支钢笔装在一个纸盒里，每200个纸 盒装在一个木箱里。 Payment 外贸函电 支付工具: • 汇票(bill of exchange ,draft) • 本票(promissory note) • 支票(cheque/check ) 支付方式: • 汇付:信汇(M/T) 电汇(T/T ) 票汇(D/D) • 托收:付款交单(D/P ) 承兑交单(D/A ) • 信用证(letter of credit ,L/C) Payment 外贸函电 by confirmed irrevocable L/C payable by draft at sight 用保兑的不可撤销信用证付款 请用…..方式付款。 • Please pay by…. • Please make the payment by … 外贸函电 • • • • 请用信用证付款。 Please make the payment by L/C. Please pay by L/C. 我们要求付款方式为保兑的不撤销的信用 证。 • We request the payment to be made by confirmed irrevocable L/C. Summary • • • • Offer Non-firm offer Firm offer Structure of an offer letter • Quotation sheet 外贸函电 • Language points • Expressions used to indicate Non-firm offers • Expressions used to indicate validity of offers • Languages used for an offer Assignments 外贸函电 1. Do Exercises I to IV on p 49-52 2. Translate the following into English 亲爱的先生： 2002年7月2日有关查询大米和大豆新加坡到岸价的电 子邮件收悉。 今日上午电子邮件报价：精白米300公吨，每公吨成 本加运费新加坡到岸价为2400澳元。于2002年8或9 月装运。以上实价需由贵公司于2002年7月16日前回 复确实。该报价为最优惠价，请贵公司把握机会，尽 早落实订单为盼。 你真诚的，xxx Case study • • • • 外贸函电 Task Suppose you have made an offer to the inquirer and got no reply for about 14 days. Work in pairs. Discuss with your partner how to write a follow-up letter to persuade the inquirer to purchase the goods. Write a follow-up offer letter according to the result of your discussion according to the information given. (Quote both F.O.B. Shanghai price and C.I.F. New York price.) Chapter Five Counteroffer Contents 外贸函电 Revision Objectives Leading In Sample letter Language Points Summary Assignments Case study Revision 外贸函电 • 我们觉得很难减价5%，因为原材料的成本、 运费都在上涨。 • We find it difficult to reduce our price by 5%, because the freight and cost of raw material are going up. • 为了适应激烈的竞争，请降价10%。 • In order to cope with the heavy competition, please reduce your price by 10%. 外贸函电 • 因为这是与贵方第一次交易，我方准备每套 降到30美元，而不是贵方提议的25美元。 • As this is our first transaction with you, we are prepared to reduce our price to $30 per set instead of $25 as you suggest. • 我方发现你方的报价不合适，因为现在这种 材料正在降价。 • We feel that your quotation is not proper because the price for such material is on the decline at present. Teaching objectives 外贸函电 • Upon completion of this chapter, the students will: • be able to write letters negotiating about trading terms with other companies. • know the effect of counteroffer. • be able to make concessions and attacks politely and reasonably when writing counter-offers. Leading In 外贸函电 • Suppose you’ve just got the offer from ABC Company. You think the price is too high and want to ask them to reduce the price. Then what would you say in your letter? Warming up 外贸函电 • Counter-offer • Counter-offer is the response or reply of the offeree to the offeror during negotiations for signing the contract. There are 2 kinds of replies, one of which is favourable for its showing the offeree’s acceptance, and the other is unfavorable for its showing the acceptance of the offeree together with the suggestions of some additions, restrictions or amendments. The latter kind of reply is called counter-offer. Structure of the Counteroffer 外贸函电 • Thank the seller for his offer, mention briefly the content of the offer. • Express regret at inability to accept (give the reasons for non-acceptance). • Make a counter-offer if, under the circumstances, it is appropriate. • Hope the counter-offer will be accepted and there may be an opportunity to do business together. Sample Letter 外贸函电 Dear Mr. Zhang, Re: Green Tea Extract and Porcelain Tea Set We acknowledge with thanks receipt of your offer of May 8 for the subject goods. In reply, we regret to say that we can’t accept it. Your prices are rather on the high side and out of line with the world market. Information indicates that some parcels of Japanese make have been sold at a much lower level. 外贸函电 We have seen your samples and admit that they are of high quality, but there should not be such a big gap between your prices and those of other suppliers. In order to conclude the transaction, we suggest that you reduce the prices of both products by, say 30%. We hope you can accept the counteroffer and wait for your favorable reply. Truly yours, Global Tea Bags (Pvt) Ltd Language Points 外贸函电 acknowledge • 我们已收到你方7月2日来信。 • We acknowledge receipt of your letter dated July 2. • 我方已收到你方关于3公吨花生的定单。 • We acknowledge receipt of your order covering 3 metric tons of groundnuts. be in receipt of 外贸函电 • 我方已收到你方要求我方报1000打男式衬 衫的信。 • We are in receipt of your letter, requesting us to quote for 1000 dozen of men’s shirts. • 我们已收到你方关于1000双皮鞋的信用证。 • We are in receipt of your L/C covering 1000 pairs of leather shoes subject goods 外贸函电 • 请尽快开立标题项下商品的信用证。 • Please open an L/C covering the subject goods as soon as possible. • 我们想向你方订购20公吨标题项下的货物。 • 1We intend to place an order with you for 20 metric tons of the subject goods. be on the high side 外贸函电 • 与其他供应商相比，你们的价格偏高。 • Compared with other suppliers, your price is rather on the high side. • 在我们国家棉花的价格偏高，所以我们不 得不从其他的国家购买。 • The price for cotton is rather on the high side in our country, so we have to purchase from other countries. 外贸函电 • 偏底 on the low side • 太高、太底 too high/low • 有点儿高（底） a little high/low 外贸函电 • 我们的产品质量很好，所以我们的价格有 点儿高。 • Our products are of high quality, so our price is a little high. • 虽然你的产品质量很好，但你的价格也不 应该这么高。 • Though your products are of high quality, your price should not be so high. be out of line with 外贸函电 • 你方的价格与现行市场价格不一致。 • Your price is out of line with the prevailing international market. • 你方报价与市价有差异，所以我们相信减 价百分之三的建议是可行的。 • Your quoted price is out of line with the prevailing level. That is why we feel confident that our suggestion of three percent off your present one is workable. be in line with 外贸函电 • 我们的价格与国内市场价格相一制。 • Our price is in line with the domestic market price. • 为了扩大销售，我们的价格应与世界市场 价格相一致。 • In order to enlarge the sales, our price should be in line with the world market. Information indicates that 外贸函电 • 有消息表明这个产品很受美国年轻人的欢 迎。 • Information indicates that this product is popular among young people. • 有消息表明其他供应商以每个五美元的价 格销售这个产品。 • Information indicates that other suppliers are selling this product at $5 each. sell …at 外贸函电 • 对与订购数量达到1000台的，我们将已每 个20美元的价格销售。 • On orders of 1000 or more, we’ll sell at $20 each. • 在国内试销期间，我们将以优惠的价格销 售这些新产品。 • During the domestic trial period, we will sell these new products at favorable prices. be of __quality 外贸函电 • 你们产品的质量太差，我们不得不将他们 退还给你们。 • Your products are of bad quality, so we have no choice but to return them to you. • 我能向你保证，我们的产品拥有最优良的 品质 • We can assure you that our products are of the best quality. gap 外贸函电 • The gap between A and B is quite big/ large. • There is a big gap between A and B. • 我方价格和日本供应商的价格之间的差距 没有你想象的那么大。 • The gap between our price and those of Japanese suppliers is not as big as what you think. 外贸函电 • 你们的价格与其他供应商的价格之间不应 该有这么大的差距。 • The gap between your prices and those of other suppliers should not be so big. • 你方的价格与我们所能接受的价格相差太 远。 • The gap between your price and the price we can accept is too big. say 外贸函电 • For such a big order like ours, we suggest that you make a reduction, say 20%. 对于像我们这么大的定单，我们建议你方降 价，比方说20%。 • 你方能否降价，比方说20%。 Could you reduce the price by, say 20%? reduce • reduce to/by • Please reduce the price by $20. 请将价格降低20美元。 • Please reduce the price to $20. 请将价格降至20美元。 外贸函电 reduce 外贸函电 • 如果你方能将价格降至每个5美元，我们将 大量订购。 If you could reduce the price to $5 each, we will order in large quantities. • 我们不能降价20%。 It is impossible for us to reduce the price by 20%. as to 外贸函电 • As to terms of payment, we require L/C. 关于付款，我们要求用信用证。 • 至于样品，我们将尽快另寄给你方。 As to the samples, we’ll send them to you under separate cover as soon as possible. rock-bottom price 外贸函电 • This is our rock bottom price. We won’t make any further reductions. 这是我们的最低价了。我们不能再降价了。 • Our rock-bottom price is € 500/MT, and cannot be further lowered. 我们的最低价是每公吨500欧元， 不能再降价了。 do business with 外贸函电 • In order to do business with you, we decide to reduce the price by 30%. 为了与你方做生意，我们决定降价30%。 • 我们与世界各国的人做生意。 We do business with people around the world. 外贸函电 • conclude the transaction达成交易 • Could you lower your price a bit so that .we con conclude the transaction? • 你方能否把价格稍稍降低一点，以便我们能达 成交易? • In order to conclude the transaction, I think you should reduce the price by at least 3 %. • 为了达成交易，我想你们至少得减价3%才行。 外贸函电 • In regard to as to • In regard to shipment, we hope it will be made within one week. 关于装运，我们希望能在一个星期之内装运。 • In regard to insurance, we will cover for 110% of the invoice value. 关于保险，我们将按发票金额的110%投保。 recommend 外贸函电 • We take the advantage of recommending our new products which have been selling well in Europe. 我们利用此次机会向你们推 荐新产品，这些产品在欧洲销售很好。 • We recommend you to make the payment by L/C for it will give you some additional protection. 我们建议你们用信用证付款， 这会给你额外的保护。 make some concessions 外贸函电 • If you could make some concessions, say a reduction of 10%, we may conclude the transaction. 如果你能让步，比方说10%， 我们也许能达成交易。 • We won’t make any concessions, for we will not make any profits at the price you named. 我们不能让步，因为以你们指 定的价格我们将无利可图。 Let us meet each other half way… 外贸函电 • 让我们双方各让一步，用付款交单的方式 付款。 • Let us meet each other half way and make the payment by D/P. • 让我们双方各让一步，将价格降低5%。 • Let us meet each other half way and reduce the price by 5%. 外贸函电 • It shall be highly appreciated if… • 如果你方能接受承兑交单的付款方式，我 们将不胜感激。 • It shall be highly appreciated if you could accept payment by D/A. • 如果你方能寄送给我们免费的样品，我们 将不胜感激。 • It will be highly appreciated if you could send us a sample free of charge. make the payment 外贸函电 • 对于像花这样的特殊产品，我们要求预先付款。 • For special products like flowers, we request the payment to be made in advance. • 因为订购量很大，所以我们要求用信用证的方式 付款。 • Since the order is quite large, we request the payment to be made by L/C. We regret to say that … 外贸函电 • 我们很遗憾，我们不再生产你们询问的商品 了。 • We regret to say that we no longer manufacture the article you enquired about. • 我们很遗憾由于我们的供应商ABC公司的原 因，第10-14-71 号商品现在仍没有货。 • We regret to inform you that due to problems with our supplier, Item No. 10-1471, ABC company, is not yet available. It is our usual practice to… 外贸函电 • 我们的惯例是按发票金额的110%投保。 • It is our usual practice to cover the insurance for 110% of the invoice value. • 我们的惯例是在大量订购前先试订购 • It is our usual practice to place a trial order before placing a large one. The best we can do… 外贸函电 • 我们最多只能给你们打8折。 • The best we can do is to give you a discount of 20%. • 我们最多只能将价格降到每个23欧元。 • The best we can do is to reduce the price to € 23 each. 外贸函电 • We wish to draw your attention to the fact that …请注意 • 我们对于金额达到1万或1万美元以上的订 购，不接受付款交单的付款方式。 • We wish to draw your attention to the fact that we will only accept the payment by D/P for orders less than $10,000. • 请注意此报盘的有效期为5天。 • We wish to draw your attention to the fact that the offer is valid for 5 days. Summary • structure of a counter-offer • Thank the seller for his offer, mention briefly the contents of the offer. • Express regret at inability to accept (give the reasons for nonacceptance). • Make a counter-offer if, under the circumstances, it is appropriate. • Hope the counter-offer will be accepted and there may be an opportunity to do business together. 外贸函电 • • • • • • • • • language points be in receipt of subject goods be on the high side be out of line with reduce to/by rock bottom price make concessions meet each other half way • it is usually practice Assignments 外贸函电 Letter writing • 回复你方8月21日关于Zippo打火机的报盘，我们很遗憾地说我 们不能接受你方报盘。 • 有消息表明印度的厂商以低于你方30%的价格出售， 我们承认 你方的产品质量优良，但是在价格上不应该有这么大的差距。 因此， 我方提议将价格降至每个25美元。 • 至于付款条件，我们希望你方能接受50%承兑交单，50%信用 证付款的方式。 • 希望你方能接受我方的还盘并盼早复。 Case study 外贸函电 Task • Read the following incoming letter. Work in pairs and discuss with your partner the strategies you should use in order to conclude the transaction. • Write a letter to reply to the counteroffer with the result of your discussion. Incoming letter 外贸函电 • Dear Mr. Wang, • Thank you for your prompt reply, offering to give us a discount of 2% for early payment. • In reply, we want you to be more flexible on the discount rate offered. We would prefer a higher discount rate for early settlement. In fact, we have received from another supplier in your country a much more attractive offer about a discount of 5% for early payment. We do not deny that the quality of your products is slightly better, but the difference in discount for early payment should, in no case, be as large as 3%. To facilitate the transaction, we suggest that you accept the discount of 5% for early payment. • As the competition is very keen, we hope you can take advantage of this opportunity and accept our counteroffer. • Yours sincerely, Chapter Six Order Contents 外贸函电 Revision Objectives Leading In Sample letter Language Points Summary Assignments Case study Revision 外贸函电 • We can come to terms if you can only make a little concession. • 只要你方稍加让步，我们就能达成交易。 • This is really our rock bottom price. We will not accept any counteroffer. • 这已是我们的最低价，我们将不接受任何还盘。 • Your counteroffer is too low and out of line with the world market. • 你方的还价太低，与现行市场价格不一致。 Revision 外贸函电 • Could you lower your price a bit so that we con conclude the transaction? • 你方能否把价格稍稍降低一点，以便我们 能达成交易? • If you could make some concessions, say a reduction of 10%, we may conclude the transaction. • 如果你能让步，比方说10%，我们也许能 达成交易。 Objectives 外贸函电 Upon completion of this chapter, the students will: • know the validity of acceptance. • be able to place, decline and accept orders in writing. • be able to draw up purchase orders • be able to gather information from correspondences and fill in the English contract accordingly. Warming up 外贸函电 Order • After carrying out some procedures of transaction negotiating in import and export trade, such as inquiry, offer, counter offer, etc., and after reaching to the acceptance of both sides, the contract of Sales Confirmation may be signed. A contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more parties which starts with an offer from one person but which does not become a contract until the other party signifies a clear willingness to accept the terms of that offer. • Order letters create one half of a contract. The writing of 外贸函电 the ordering letter • To indicate the number of the catalogue and type of the commodities. • To indicate precisely the design, specifications, the style and quantity of the commodities. • To indicate clearly the terms of transaction, such the way of shipment, the date of delivery, insurance, etc. Sample letter 外贸函电 • Dear Mr. Zhang, • We are in receipt of your counteroffer of May 19 and have the pleasure of confirming our acceptance of it. • Enclosed is our purchase order in duplicate. Would you please acknowledge immediately by returning a copy of it signed and/or stamped and dated? Sample letter 外贸函电 • We look forward to your cooperation and hope that both our businesses can grow together for our long-range mutual benefits. • Truly yours, • Global Tea Bags (Pvt) Ltd Language points 外贸函电 • terms and conditions • It was unpleasant to learn that the terms and conditions we finally agreed upon had been turned down by your company. • 得悉我们双方最终商定的条款遭你公司拒 绝，令人不快。 • 合同的其他条款与往常一样。 • Other terms and conditions of the contract will be the same as usual. countersign 外贸函电 • Please return one copy with your countersignature. • 请会签退还一份。 • When the Sales Contract has been signed by the seller, it will be countersigned by the buyer. • 销售合同经卖方签署后，须经买方会签。 stipulate 外贸函电 • 我们注意到你方定单规定装直达船。 • We note that your order stipulates direct shipment. • 合同规定付款条件为即期信用证。 • The contract stipulates payment by sight L/C. • The contract stipulates that the goods should be shipped at one time. • 合同规定货物必须一次全部装运。 summary 外贸函电 • The requirements of writing an ordering letter • To indicate the number of the catalogue and type of the commodities. • To indicate precisely the design, specifications, the style and quantity of the commodities. • To indicate clearly the terms of transaction, such the way of shipment, the date of delivery, insurance, etc. • Language points • terms and conditions • Stipulate • countersign Assignment 外贸函电 • Complete the English contract according to the information given below. • 2008年10月23日，青岛进出口贸易公司 （Qingdao Import and Export Trading Company）和日本KANEBO AGRITECHKK 公司签订第P0825号合同销售100公吨梨，价 格为每公吨46美元FOB 青岛，付款采用信用 证，用纸箱包装，每纸箱25公斤，于11月15 日前运到横宾。 Case study 外贸函电 • Task: Read the following two letters. 1. Work in pairs. Suppose you’ve just received the second letter. Discuss with your partner how to write a letter to persuade the seller to sell the goods at the original prices. 2. Writing a reply to the first letter and agree to pay the delivery charges. First letter 外贸函电 • Dear Mr. Dizard, • Your purchase orders have been referred to this department. We noticed that all the prices of the items on the orders do not include shipping charges. While we appreciate an order of this size, the terms and conditions on page 2 of our catalog clearly specify that international orders are accepted with full payment in advance, and with an amount sufficient to cover delivery. We anticipate delivery charges to be in the neighborhood of $40 U.S. per item ordered. • We are therefore returning your purchase orders. Please resubmit your orders with either a check, or a sight draft. • Thank you for your order. We look forward to serving you in the near future. • Yours very truly, Second letter 外贸函电 • Dear Mr. Dizard, • We are in receipt of your Order No. 2052 in duplicate dated May 4, 2007. • In reply, we regret to say that we can’t accept the order at the price you named. We have to point out that the offer is valid till May 6, and we haven’t got your order till May 8. So your acceptance is invalid. Recently, the cost of raw material has increased considerably, so we adjust our price accordingly. All the prices are raised by 5%. • We hope you will understand our position and look forward to your early reply. • Yours very truly, Chapter Seven Insurance Revision 外贸函电 • When the Sales Contract has been signed by the seller, it will be countersigned by the buyer. • 销售合同经卖方签署后，须经买方会签。 • 合同规定付款条件为即期信用证。 • The contract stipulates payment by sight L/C. Contents 外贸函电 Revision Objectives Leading In Sample letter Language Points Summary Assignments Case study Objectives 外贸函电 • Upon completion of this chapter, you will: • be familiar with the risks frequently used. • be able to use the words and expressions widely used in insurance. • be able to discuss the insurance terms with foreign companies. Leading in 外贸函电 • In international trade, the goods are transported for a long distance from one country to the other. They need to be loaded and unloaded, to be stored, etc. so the goods often run various risks and suffer great losses. In order to get economic compensation after suffering losses, the buyer and the seller have to insure their goods to be shipped against the cargo transportation risks. 外贸函电 • The insurance clauses drawn up by People’s Insurance Company of China are called “China Insurance Clauses” in short, and its abbreviation is CIC. The revised edition was made up in January 1, 1981 and is used at the present-time. Warming up 外贸函电 Who will effect insurance? Usually insurance is arranged by the exporter or the importer approaching an insurance company, which has a department specializing in cargo insurance. Who will effect insurance depends on the particular trade terms adopted. 外贸函电 • Under CIF terms, it is the seller who arranges insurance with an insurance company. Under the terms of FOB, CFR, etc., the buyer effects insurance, but he may ask the seller to arrange insurance on behalf of the buyer. Related Knowledge • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Parties involved Insured Applicant Insurer Insurance Agent Insurance Broker 外贸函电 被保险人 投保人 保险人 保险代理人 保险经纪人 外贸函电 • • • • • • Money involved in insurance Insured Amount 保险金额 Premium 保险费 Insurance Documents Insurance Policy or Policy 保险单 Insurance Certificate 保险凭证 外贸函电 • 平安险 • 水渍险 • 一切险 F.P.A Free From Particular Average W.P.A With Particular Average All Risks Sample letter 外贸函电 • Dear Mr. Zhang, • We wish to refer you to the S/C No. 5356 from which we have noticed that the goods are to be covered against FPA. • In reply, we have to point out that the coverage is not enough for the goods. For Green Tea Extract, you should at least add Risk of Sweating and Heating and Risk of Odor. As to Porcelain Tea Set and Rose Tea Pot, Risk of Clash and Breakage must be included. So we think it is better for you to cover All Risks. • We hope that this will be acceptable to you and wait for your good news. • Truly yours, Language points 外贸函电 cover/insure the goods 险别 • against +risks • for + insurance amount 投保金额 保险人 • with + insurer cover the insurance on +商品 effect insurance cover the goods 外贸函电 • 我们已向中国人民保险公司为货物投保平 安险，金额为3万美元。 • We have covered the goods against F.P.A. for the amount of $ 30,000 with PICC. • 请向中国人民保险公司为这批货物投保金 额为25,000美元的水渍险。 • Please cover insurance on this shipment against W.P.A. for amount of USD 25,000 with the PICC. cover the goods 外贸函电 • 我们将按一般惯例投保水渍险和战争险 • We usually cover the goods against W.P.A and War Risk. • It is our usual practice to cover the goods against W.P.A. and War Risk. • 在CIF条件下，我方一般只投保平安险加偷 盗险。 • It is our usual practice to cover against F.P.A and T.P.N.D on CIF basis. 外贸函电 be borne by/ for one’s account • 我们可以投保其他附加险，但是额外的保 险费应由买方承担。 • We can cover other additional risks, but the extra premium will be for the buyer’s account. 外贸函电 • Buyer’s request for insurance to be covered up to the inland city can be accepted on condition that such extra premium is for buyer’s account. • 假如额外的保险费由买方支付，能同意买 方将保险投保到内陆城市的要求。 外贸函电 • Tell the words from their definitions given below: the insured, insurance policy, insurer, insurance premium, insured amount • A written agreement between an insurance company and policyholder • Sum of money paid regularly to an insurance company in exchange of protection against the specified undesired event 外贸函电 • A company that sells insurance • Usually computed by adding the invoice cost, guaranteed freight, other costs, and insurance premium plus a percentage, commonly 10%. This usually represents landed value. • A person or company that purchases insurance. Summary • • • • Basic risks: F.P.A, W.P.A, All Risks Language points: cover/insure the goods be borne by/ for one’s account 外贸函电 Supplementary practice • • • • • • 外贸函电 应该保哪些险？ What risks should be covered? 保险费是多少？ What is the insurance premium? 保险费总共是800美元。 The total premium is 800 U.S. dollars. 外贸函电 • 装船后，我到保险公司去投保。 • After loading the goods on board the ship, I will go to the insurance company to have them insured. • 我什么时候将这批茶叶投保？ • When should I go and have the tea insured? • 贵公司能为我的这批货保哪些险呢？ • What kind of insurance are you able to provide for our consignment? 外贸函电 • • • • 您能给我一份保险率表吗？ Can you give me an insurance rate? 您能查一下瓷器的保险费率吗？ Could you find out the premium rate for porcelain? • 只保平安险就可以了。 • Free from Particular Average is good enough. Case study 外贸函电 • Case One • A seller of cannery equipment shipped an order to Italy via ocean vessel which was scheduled to arrive just in time to harvest and cut the upcoming season's crop. The equipment for the cannery was damaged in transit and couldn't be used immediately upon arrival. This left the first part of the crop in jeopardy of not being processed in time, so the shipper needed to deliver replacement parts to the customer by air urgently. Case Two 外贸函电 • Four containers of computer monitors were shipped from a U.S. manufacturer to a German distributor. Upon arrival at the German distributor's warehouse on a Friday afternoon, the four containers were taken off the trucks and carefully stocked. The warehouse employees noticed no visible signs of damage so they signed off "clean" (no damage) and full delivery on the trucker's receipt. During the next week the distributor started making deliveries out of its warehouse when a more careful inspection of the cartons made them realize that some of the monitors had actually been damaged in transit. Task 外贸函电 • Wok in pairs. Discuss with your partner the risks that should be covered under the following two circumstances for each case above: – To gain as much profits as possible, and cover only those against the perils occurred frequently. – To ensure that the assured will get compensation whenever there is a peril. • Point out the special requirements needed in order to avoid the circumstances happened above. • Suppose the freight for 200 computer printers is ￡1340 and the insurance rate is 0.7%. The printer is sold at ￡154 each. Then how much will be charged for the insurance? Chapter Eight Payment Contents 外贸函电 Revision Objectives Leading In Sample letter Language Points Summary Assignments Case study Revision 外贸函电 • 我们已向中国人民保险公司为货物投保平 安险，金额为3万美元。 • We have covered the goods against F.P.A. for the amount of $ 30,000 with PICC. • 请向中国人民保险公司为这批货物投保金 额为25,000美元的水渍险。 • Please cover insurance on this shipment against W.P.A. for amount of USD 25,000 with the PICC. 外贸函电 • 我们将按一般惯例投保水渍险和战争险 • We usually cover the goods against W.P.A and War Risk. • 我们可以投保其他附加险，但是额外的保 险费应由买方承担。 • We can cover other additional risks, but the extra premium will be for the buyer’s account. Objectives 外贸函电 Upon completion of this chapter, the students will: • understand the flow chart of L/C. • be able to urge the opening of the relative L/C. • be able to check the L/C. • be able to make the amendment of the L/C Leading in Tools for payment 支付工具 bill of exchange (draft) 汇票 • 1 draft at sight (sight draft) • 2 draft after sight (time draft) • 3 a draft at 30 days’ sight promissory note本票 check/cheque支票 外贸函电 外贸函电 • Terms of payment frequently used （支付 方式） L/C ---confirmed, irrevocable L/C Collection ( documentary collection跟单托收) (1) D/P (2) D/A Remittance汇付 T/T (telegraphic transfer) M/T (mail transfer) D/D (demand draft) Warming up Parties Concerned applicant beneficiary advising bank opening/issuing bank negotiation/negotiating bank paying bank 外贸函电 • • • • • • 开证申请人 受益人 通知行 开证行 议付行 付款行 外贸函电 reimbursing bank confirming bank drawee drawer shipping documents draw on sb. in one’s favor for one’s account • • • • • • • • 偿付行 保兑行 受票人（指汇票） 出票人 海运单据 向某人开具汇票 以（某人）为受益人 以（某人）为付款人 Delay in opening the L/C 外贸函电 • The buyer's delay in opening the L/C after an order is placed can occur in such circumstances as: • The delay in issuing the import permit. • The shortage in the foreign exchange reserves. 外贸函电 • The buyer who places the order is not in charge or does not have the authority to open the L/C. This is often the case in a large company like chain store, in which the Finance Department, not the Import Department, is in charge of the L/C applications. • The importer is in a tight financial position. • The domestic selling price of the import goods drops. 外贸函电 • The currency of the importing country devalues. • The buyer who books the order is laid off. The buyer with whom the exporter deals today can be laid off the next day without advance notice or warning. • The company is being acquired or is merging with another company. 外贸函电 Regardless of the means used in opening an L/C, it is important to request the importer to fax in advance the • L/C number, • L/C issuing and expiry dates, • name and location (city) of the issuing bank, • name and location (city) of the advising bank, and • L/C amount Background Issuance of a Letter of Credit applicant contract order to open (2) credit issuing bank beneficiary (1) credit (4) advice (3) credit advising bank Sample letter 外贸函电 • Dear Mr. Brown, • With reference to your order No. 4755 and S/C No. CN-5356, we wish to point out that the shipment is stipulated before July 15. the goods under our S/C have been ready for quite some time. But we still haven’t received your relevant L/C. • Please draw your attention to the fact that the date of delivery is approaching. We hereby request you to open by fax an irrevocable sight Letter of Credit for the amount of $ 64,500 in our favour, with which we can effect shipment to the original schedule. • Please give this letter your prompt attention. • Yours sincerely, Language points 外贸函电 • L/C 常用搭配 • • • • • covering/regarding+goods for the amount of+ amount in one’s favor+beneficiary for one’s account+ payer with/through+ issuing bank 外贸函电 • 请开立一个20公吨苹果的信用证，金额为2 万美元。 • Please open an L/C covering twenty metric tons of apples for the amount of USD 20,000. • 今早，我们经由花旗银行开立了一个以你 方为受益人的信用证。 • We opened an L/C in your favor through the Citi Bank this morning. with reference to 外贸函电 • 参考你方1月3日报盘，我们想指出价格是 每个24美元而不是26美元。 • With reference to your offer of Jan. 3, we wish to point out that the price is $24 each instead of $ 26. • 请查看我们7月3日关于1000打男式衬衫的 合同。 • We refer you to our contract of July 3 for 1000 dozen of men’s shirts. stipulate 外贸函电 • （合同）规定在7月15日以前装运。 • The shipment is stipulated to be made before July 15. • 合同规定由卖方投保。 • It is stipulated in the contract that the insurance should be covered by the seller. 外贸函电 • get the goods ready (the goods) be ready • 我们将在一个星期内把货备好。 • 货物备妥已有一个星期了。 • We’ll get the goods ready within a week. • The goods have been ready for a week. approach 外贸函电 • Tell the meaning of approach according to the sentences given below: • I think that we’d better begin our promotion for new products since the Christmas selling season is approaching. • We’ll approach the insurance company and cover the insurance on your behalf. Review an L/ C 外贸函电 1. Which Bank issued the Letter of Credit? (Letter of Credit Header under "Received From:") Is this bank a reputable one that can be relied on for payment? (Contact TD's local International Trade Services office if unsure). Does the country in which the Issuing Bank is located have a stable economic and political environment? If not, does the Letter of Credit allow for confirmation by another bank in another country? (SWIFT FORMAT, Field 49) 外贸函电 2 Is the L/C irrevocable? (Field 40A) If it is not stated, the Letter of Credit is irrevocable. 3 Are the Importer's (Applicant's) name and address spelled correctly? (Field 50) 4 Are your name and address spelled correctly? (Field 59) 5 Are the dollar amount and currency of the Letter of Credit correct? (Field 32B) 外贸函电 6 Does the payment term agree with the sales contract? (Field 42C) 7 If necessary, are partial shipments allowed? (Field 43P) 8 Are the points of shipment (Field 44A) and destination (Field 44B) as agreed? 9 Is it possible for you to meet the latest shipping date? Are enough days allowed to present documents? (Field 48) You may need to check with the Freight Forwarder handling the shipment and preparing the documents for you. 外贸函电 10. Is the merchandise description correct and if needed, does it include unit price, weight and quantities? (Field 45A) If necessary, does the Letter of Credit allow for any leeway on the quantity and/or dollar amount? 11. Are the terms of the sale regarding insurance and freight charges as agreed? (Field 45A) 12. Can all documents listed in the Letter of Credit be obtained? (Field 46A) See Document Preparation Checklists for further information. 外贸函电 13. Which party is responsible for the Letter of Credit banking charges? (Field 71B) 14. Where is the Letter of Credit payable? (Field 41D) Note, this will affect the length of time required to receive your funds. 15. Is the Letter of Credit confirmed? (Field 49) 外贸函电 16. After reviewing the Letter of Credit, if you find any terms and conditions that are not to your satisfaction, you must ask the Importer (Applicant) to instruct the Issuing Bank to make the necessary amendments to the Letter of Credit. It is recommended that you do not proceed with shipment until such amendments are received. Background Amendment of an L/C applicant order amendment beneficiary (1) order amendment (2) amendment (4) notification issuing bank (3) advising bank amendment notification Language used for amending L/C 外 贸 函 电 • amend ….as/to • 请修改信用证，允许转船和分批装运。 • Please amend the L/C to allow transshipment and partial shipment. • 请修改信用证金额，金额应为2万5千欧元。 • Please amend the amount of the L/C, which should be €25,000. 外贸函电 • 不允许分批装运应改为允许分批装运。 • ‘Partial shipment is not allowed’ should be amended as ‘Partial shipment is allowed’. • 请将信用证上的金额该为“2% more or less”。 • Please amend the amount of the L/C to read “ 2% more or less” 外贸函电 • 请对信用证速作修改。 。 • Please rush the amendment to the L/C. • 兹附寄第50号信用证的修改通知。 • We enclose amendment advice of L/C No. 50. should be….instead of/not is…not 外贸函电 • 开证行应是中国银行而不是花旗银行。 • The issuing bank should be Bank of China instead of Citi Bank. • 单价应为每公吨38英镑而不是每公吨38欧元。 • The unit price should be £38 per M/T not €38 per M/T. • 装运港是上海，不是大连。 • The port of shipment is Shanghai not Dalian. Checking the incoming of letters of credit 外贸函电 The exporter should check the details of letter of credit, including the following: The names and addresses are complete and spelled correctly. The amount is sufficient to cover the consignment. 外贸函电 The L/C is irrevocable and confirmed by the advising bank, conforming to sales contract. The description of goods is correct. The quantity is correct. The unit price of goods, if stated in the L/C, conforms to the contract price. The latest date for shipment or the shipping date is sufficient to dispatch the consignment. 外贸函电 The latest date for negotiation or the expiry date is sufficient to present the documents and draft(s) to the bank. The port of shipment and the port of destination are correct. The partial shipment is permitted or prohibited. 外贸函电 The transshipment is permitted or prohibited. The L/C is transferable or nontransferable. The type of risk and the amount of insurance coverage, if required. The documents required are obtainable. Summary • The flow chart of L/C • Checking the L/C • Language points: Open a L/C covering/regarding… for the amount of… in one’s favor… for one’s account… with/through… get the goods ready amend ….as/to should be….instead of/not 外贸函电 Assignment 外贸函电 • Translate the following into English • 今天，我方收到由美国花旗银行开出的以你方为付款 人的金额为3500美元的信用证。 这次交易我们将采用“承兑交单 ”的支付方式。 只有金额不超过1500美元的时候我们才接受付款交单。 一般情况下我们采用不可撤消的信用证，凭装运单据 付款。 尽管再三催请开证，仍未收到你方信用证。请立即开 立信用证，否则不能按计划交货。 请将信用证的装运期和有效期分别展至5月15日和5月 30日，以便我们能装运提及的货物。 你们一定要在交货前一个月内把信用证开至我方。 • • • • • Case study 外贸函电 • Task: Discuss with your partner what payment structure suits the following situation best : • CanExport is in the process of negotiating a large sale with a new customer, Widgets Import Inc. This customer is located in a politically unstable developing country. Widgets Import is asking for 180 day payment terms, and CanExport agrees as this promises to be a very lucrative deal. Chapter Nine Shipment Contents 外贸函电 Revision Objectives Leading In Sample letter Language Points Summary Assignments Case study Revision 外贸函电 • 我们今天通过中国人民银行大连分行就第3422号 定单开立了以你方为受益人的不可撤消的信用证， 金额为9千美元。 • Today we have opened an irrevocable L/C in your favor for the amount of US$ 9000 covering our Order No.3422 with the Bank of China, Dalian. • 请修改信用证，允许转船和分批装运。 • Please amend the L/C to allow transshipment and partial shipment. 外贸函电 • • • • 尽管再三催请开证，仍未收到你方信用证。 请立即开立信用证，否则不能按计划交货。 In spite of our repeated requests, we still have not received your letter of credit up to now. 开证行应是中国银行而不是花旗银行。 The issuing bank should be Bank of China instead of Citi Bank. Objectives 外贸函电 Upon completion of this chapter, you will: be able to define such terms as mode of transportation, partial shipment, and transshipment. be able to give shipping instruction and shipping advice. know the words and phrases frequently used for ocean freight. Leading In 外贸函电 • Shipment procedures • Shipment, one of the indispensable terms of sales contract, signifies the seller’s fulfillment of the obligation to make delivery of the goods. In practice, shipment involves such procedures as clearing the goods through the customs, booking shipping space or chartering a ship, completing shipping documents, dispatching shipping advice. Modes of Transport 外贸函电 • Ocean Carriage • It is the most widely used mode of transportation in international trade. • Road Freight • About 50% to 80% of cross-border deliveries are completed using road freight. Generally, a transit distance within 1,000 kilometers using road freight is competitive compared to rail and air freight. 外贸函电 • Rail Freight • Rail transport is a major mode of transport in terms of capacity, only second to ocean transport. It is capable of achieving relatively high speed and is most economical. • Air Freight • Most air cargoes are carried on passenger airliner. Shipping advice 外贸函电 • In international trade the buyer sometimes send the shipping instructions to the seller. Sometimes the buyer will write to the seller for informing the seller of effecting shipment in case of shipment delay. • After the shipment of the goods, the seller will send the buyer the Shipping Advice to inform the buyer he related shipment details, the contents of which are as follows: • The date of shipment • The shipped goods • The way of shipment Warming up • date of shipment • date of delivery • port of loading (port of shipment) • port of discharge (port of destination) • transshipment • partial shipment • shipping marks • freight 外贸函电 • • • • • • • • • 装运日期 交货日期 装货港 (装运港) 卸货港（目的港) 转船 分批装运 唛头 运费 Language points 外贸函电 • make/effect shipment • 装船将在收到信用证以后的一个月内执行 • The shipment will be effected within one month after receipt of the L/C. • 一旦货物备妥，我们将立即装运。 • We will effect shipment as soon as possible once the goods are ready. • 请立即开立信用证以便于我们能及时装运。 • Please open an L/C immediately so that we can effect shipment in due course. s.s. • • • • steam ship (s.s.)(s/s) motor vessel (m.v.)(m/v) 请用东风号轮装运。 Please ship the goods by s.s. DONGFENG. 外贸函电 due to 外贸函电 • 王子号预计将在明天启航，大约在10月1日 左右抵达利物浦，并在新家坡转船。 • S.s. Prince is due to sail tomorrow and arrive at Liverpool on or about Oct.1 with transshipment at Singapore. • 这艘船预计在9月10日能抵达目的港纽约。 • This ship is due to arrive at the port of destination-New York- on Sep. 10. available 外贸函电 • an L/C available by draft at sight • 即期信用证 • We regret that these goods are not available at present. • 我们很遗憾目前不能供应此货物。 • Please ship the subject goods by the first available steamer. • 请用第一艘可订到舱位的船装运标题项下 货物。 freight 外贸函电 • 请报从中国上海运往美国纽约的2000公吨 煤的运费。 • Please quote the freight for 2000 metric tons of coal from Shanghai, China to New York,U.S. • 根据合同，运费由买方支付。 • According to the contract, the freight is for the buyer’s account. book shipping space 外贸函电 • 我们已在东风号轮上订到舱位，预计在7月 2号左右驶向你方港口。 • We have booked shipping space on s.s. Dongfeng which is due to sail to your port on or about July 2. • 请尽快开信用证以便我们可以订到舱位。 • Please open L/C as soon as possible so that we may book shipping space. depart---call at 外贸函电 • 你方指定的船刚刚离开。下一个可订到舱位的 船将在三天后启航，大概在十月二十一日抵达 你港口。 • This ship you named has just departed. The next available steamer will sail three days later and call at your port on or about Oct. 21. • 我们能在开船前将货备好。 • We can get the goods ready before the ship’s departure. extend to 外贸函电 • Because of the recent fire in the factory, all the stocks were destroyed. In this case, we cannot make shipment as arranged before. Please extend the date of shipment and the expiry date of L/C No. 44779 to 30 April and 15 May respectively. • 由于最近工厂发生火灾烧毁了全部库存， 一不能按照原来安排交货。请将44779号信 用证交货期和有效期分别展至4月30日和5 月15日。 delay 外贸函电 • 由于你们延迟开立信用证，我们未能如期装 船。 • As a result of your delay in opening L/C, we were unable to effect shipment in good time. • 任何装运的延误都将给我们带来很大的困难。 • Any delay in shipment will involve us in no small difficulty. 外贸函电 • 由于你方已有数次延误了开证，希望这次 勿再耽搁。 • As you have delayed opening Ls/C several times, we hope you will not delay again this time. • 该船系因天气恶劣而误点。 • The ship’s delay was due to bad weather. • 这将造成15天的延误。 • This will cause a delay of about 15 days. 外贸函电 • • • • • • • Time of Shipment 在2004年11月25日以前装运 to be shipped before November 25,2004 装运日期不迟于2004年7月31日 to be shipped not later than July 31, 2004 最迟装运期限：2005年4月30日 the latest time of shipment is April 30, 2005 外贸函电 • 在2004年10月和11月份装运 • to be shipped between October/ November, 2004 • 在2004年11月和2005年2月之间装运 • to be shipped from November 2004 to February 2005 Supplementary 外贸函电 • 1.我们将尽量满足特殊的运输要求，但额外 的费用要由顾客自行承担。 • We’ll try our best to meet the special requirements for shipment, but the extra charges should be borne by the clients themselves. • 2.你方应负责订舱、报关及清关。 • You should be responsible for booking shipping space, declaring and clearing the goods through the customs. 外贸函电 • 3. 我们向RS Shipping订了一个20尺集装箱， 整箱货的价格是每箱1500美元，即每立方米 45.455美元。 • We ordered a 20-foot container from RS Shipping. The price for FCL is USD 1500, that is 45.455 cbm. • 4. 我们英国的零售商坚持要求用标准的托盘 将货物送到他们的配送中心。 • Our retailers in UK insist that standard pallets are used to send the goods to their distributing centers. 外贸函电 • 5. 我们已收到贵方质疑运费季节性涨价的电子邮件。随 附清单，请查看。 • We’ve received your email questioning the seasonal increase in freight. Enclosed is our list, please check it. • 我们要强调的是我们的运输费用和承运人收取的费用几 乎是一致的。想查看承运人将货运到贵国每吨所需费用， 请点击这里。 • I must emphasize that our freight is almost the same as what the carrier charges. For details for the freight to your country per ton, please click here. 外贸函电 • 7. 请散装白糖，而不是用袋装，并根据行 业标准包装味素(monosodium glutamate) 。 • Please ship the sugar in bulk, not in bags. • Please pack the monosodium glutamate according to the industrial standard. 外贸函电 • 8. 我们对货物质量很满意，但对货物的内 包装不太满意，太粗糙，图案不理想。因 此，我们想使用自己的包装袋。 • We are quite satisfied with the quality of the goods, but not the inner packing. • It is too coarse and the design is too unsatisfactory. • So, we want to use our own packing. 外贸函电 • 9. 国际集装箱超期使用费计算办法为：40 英尺冷藏集装箱超期使用费标准为1-4天免 费，5-10天每天30美元，11-40天每天42美 元，41天以上每天120美元。 • The method for calculating overdue international containers is as follows, • 40-foot refrigerated containers • 1-4 days --- free • 5-10 days --- USD 30 per day • 41 days and above --- USD 120 per day 外贸函电 • 10.你方应在2008年10月派船到装运港接货。如 果在此期间不能派船接货，我方保留28天，但 仓储、保险、利息等费用由你方负责。 • You should send a ship to the port of shipment to take delivery of the goods in Oct. 2008. • If you fail to do it, we will keep the goods for 28 days. • But the extra charges for storage, insurance and interest will be borne by you. Summary 外贸函电 • Mode of transport: Ocean Carriage, Road Freight, Rail Freight, Air Freight • Shipping advice: the date of shipment, the shipped goods, the way of shipment • Language points: make/effect shipment, book shipping space, available, freight, s.s, extend to, delay Assignment 外贸函电 • Write a letter with the information given below: • 已按要求向轮船公司订舱位,但舱位已订满, 很抱歉。 • 在 “黄河”号订到舱位, 预计在3月2日左右 开往你方, 但在香港要转船。 • 请尽快修改信用证, 允许转船和分批装运。 Case study 外贸函电 • 请翻译以下的信件： • 我方接到开证行通知，关于第3459号合同项下第 xxx号信用证50公吨冷冻罗非鱼(Frozen Tilapia Fillet)包装规格，据开证行称，贵公司不同意接受 20公斤包装规格货物，这不符合我们双方在洽谈 时达成的条件。在洽谈时，贵方同意我方对于货 物的包装规格可以选择20公斤和25公斤两种规格 中的一种，而我方本次装运的50公吨冷冻罗非鱼 中，20公吨的包装规格为20公斤，30公吨的包装 规格为25公斤，这符合我们双方签订的合同规定。 请接受。 外贸函电 • 请根据以下的信息写一封回信： • 1. 合同与信用证中在包装规格的选择上用的是 “或”，而不是“和”，前者意为非此即彼，后 者意为两者都可以。 • 2. 我们在合同与信用证中明确规定为20公斤或25 公斤。也就是说，在包装规格方面，要么全部选 择20公斤的，要么选择25公斤的，不能同时选择 这两种包装规格装运货物。 • 3. 贵方在装运时同时选择两种规格的包装，这不 符合合同与信用证的规定，我方无法接受。 Chapter Ten Claim Contents 外贸函电 Revision Objectives Leading In Sample letter Language Points Summary Assignments Case study Revision 外贸函电 • 我们已经收到你方10月3日的来信，要求我们修改标题订单以 前安排的装运事宜。 • 我们知道，我们现在 80%的货物在2002年11月装运，其余的 在12月装运，而不是于2002年1月和2月分两次等批装运。 • 现答复并告诉你们，虽然我们对上述订单的货物可供现货，但 是航运公司通知我们，由于驶往你港口的直达船不论是班轮或 不定期船都很稀少，因此，到11月底所有的舱位都已被订完了。 在这种情况下我们抱歉未能满足你方的要求。 • 但是，假如你们允许在香港转船，我们会尽力与航运公司就11 月装运第一批货物的问题进一步订立合同。如果是这样，你方 必须负担增加的费用。尽管如此，我们仍怀疑所述货物能比原 定的时间更早到达你处。 • 请考虑上述问题并尽快将决定告诉我们。 Objectives 外贸函电 Upon completion of this chapter, the students will: • be able to express yourself accurately when lodging a claim or settling a claim. • grasp the terminology concerning cargo insurance claim. • understand some related knowledge such as the procedure of lodging a claim. Leading in 外贸函电 • Procedures of lodging a claim • Beginning: Announce the claim • Middle: Expand with details 1.Provide a narrative of the error: For a product, include name, model, serial number, warranty information, where purchased, when, and for how much. 外贸函电 2.Describe your compliance with any requested claims procedure. 3.Refer to any pertinent documents, like sales slips, that you enclose. 4. Describe the requested action: A refund? A repair? A new item? Ending positively: you’ll remain a customer if the company corrects the problem. Warming up 外贸函电 • Structure of a letter for claim • Identify the purpose of the letter, reminding the reader of the source of the complaint as well as of any suggestions the reader originally made for dealing with the complaint • Deal with the complaint, outlining whatever the writer can do to help the reader • Assure the reader of the writer’s goodwill and attention to the problem Sample letter 外贸函电 Dear Mr. Zhang, Re: 90 broken sets We have received the goods under our order No.4753 respectively. On examination, we found that the cartons of Porcelain Tea Sets were in a damaged condition. All the cartons in nine wooden cases had burst open as a result of friction in transit. So, almost 90 sets are broken. We proceeded to have a survey report made. The report has now confirmed our initial findings. It indicates that the loss was due to improper stowage before shipment, for which you, the supplier, are responsible. Sample letter 外贸函电 On the strength of the survey report, we hereby register our claim against you as follows: Breakage value:￡1,980 Survey charges:￡150 Total claimed:￡2,130 We hereby enclose Survey Report No. AE 25863 for your reference and look forward to your early settlement. Truly yours, Language points 外贸函电 • 索赔常见表达方式 lodge file against/with + sb. for raise certain reason on + register shipment for + amount 常见索赔原因 • • • • • • shortage (short weight) Breakage Leakage damage Improper/faulty packing Inferior quality 外贸函电 • • • • • • 短重 破碎 渗漏 损坏 不良包装 不良品质 claim 外贸函电 • 由于分量短少，买主对此批货物索赔人民 币1500元。 • Buyers have lodged a claim on this shipment for RMB 1500 for short weight. • 因运输途中受损，我们已经向保险公司提 出要求赔偿310美元. • We have already raised a claim against the insurance company for $310 for damage in transit. 外贸函电 • 经过照发票查对之后，发现数量少了很多。 • After checking the goods against your invoice, we discovered a considerable shortage in number. • 由“大庆”轮运来的50吨花生，由于短运， 我方提出索赔2050美元。 • We claim US$ 2050 for short shipment on the 50 tons peanuts ex s.s. “Daqing”. in good condition 外贸函电 • As the case is in good condition and does not appear to have been tampered with, we surmise that you must have shortshipped. • 由于包装外型良好，且无动过的迹象，因 此，我们认为你们一定是少装了。 外贸函电 • • • • • hold sb. responsible for sth. 要某人负责某事 to be responsible to sb. for sth 向某人对某事负责 We are not responsible for the delay. The shipper must be held responsible. • 延误的责任不在我方。必须由发货人负责。 responsible 外贸函电 • We must hold you responsible for all consequences arising there from. • (You should be responsible for all the consequences arising there from.) • 由此发生的一切后果我们必须要你方负责。 （你方应对由此发生的一切后果负责。) 外贸函电 • It is established beyond controversy that the shipping company is responsible for the damage of the goods in transit. • It is established beyond controversy that… 确定无可争议的是… • 确定无可争议的是，船公司对货物在运输 途中受残负有责任。 on the strength of 外贸函电 • You may draw a draft on us on the strength of our written instructions dated the 15th March. • 你方可凭我方3月15日的书面通知向我方开 出光票收据。 • We shall, on strength of the Inspection Report issued by the said Bureau, have the right to reject the goods delivered. • 根据上述商检局的检验报告，我们将有权 拒绝收货。 settle a claim 外贸函电 • 今天航空邮出3000美元支票一张，以支付 你方500英镑短重索赔。 • Our cheque for US$ 3000 was airmailed to you today in settlement of your claim for short weight of 500 lb. Summary 外贸函电 • Structure of a letter for claim • Identify the purpose of the letter, reminding the reader of the source of the complaint as well as of any suggestions the reader originally made for dealing with the complaint • Deal with the complaint, outlining whatever the writer can do to help the reader • Assure the reader of the writer’s goodwill and attention to the problem • Language points Assignment 外贸函电 • Write a letter with the information given below: • 收到5月3日来信及相关索赔附件。看过后， 发现货物损失发生在内陆地区。双方以CIF 成交，卖方只负责投保到目的港。不能接 受索赔。 Case study 外贸函电 • Background • Shanghai Huadong Corporation purchased 7.5 metric tons of frozen pork shoulders at the price of ￠68 per pound C.I.F. Shanghai. The seller covered the insurance for 110% of the invoice value against All Risks. • The American seller shipped the load of frozen pork shoulders in three refrigerated containers. In transit one of the refrigeration units ceased functioning and the goods within were spoiled, while another was not plugged in due to the negligence of the carrier. The food products within were deteriorated when they reached the destination port of Shanghai. 外贸函电 • Task • Wok in pairs • Discuss with your partner with whom should Shanghai Huadong Corporation lodge a claim for the damages under Case One? 外贸函电 Thank you!