Business
Correspondences
外贸英文函电
Contents
Chapter One
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four
Chapter Five
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Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Chapter Eight
Chapter Nine
Chapter Ten
Introduction to the course
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Course description
Course objectives
Course contents
Learning guide
Assessment and Requirements
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Introduction
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• English business correspondence or
business letter is a written communication
between two parties.
• It is a means through which views are
expressed and ideas or information is
communicated in writing in the process of
business activities.
• It is to learn both the language and the
professional knowledge (in other words, to
learn the language you are going to use
when you work).
Course description
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• Business Correspondence is one of the
most important courses (a compulsory
course) for International Business Trade
Majors. It is designed to help students to
accomplish the transition from general
English learning to specialized English
learning, aiming at preparation for a future
business career.
Course objectives
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After the completion of the whole course,
students are supposed to:
• comprehend and master the basic writing
skills for various types of business
correspondence.
• be familiar with the general conventions as
well as main procedures in international
trade practice.
• conduct business, make quick and correct
reactions to the business information and
make business concluded in real life
situations.
Course contents
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• The contents of Business correspondence
involve many aspects of international
business trade, mainly include :
Establishing business relations; Inquiry;
Offer; Counter offer; Order; Acceptance;
Contract; Packing; Shipment; Payment;
Insurance and Claim.
Learning guide
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• Achieve balance between languagelearning and business-learning.
• Achieve balance between input and output
of what have been learned.
• Achieve balance between course-book
learning and simulated practice.
• Focus on various writing patterns and
writing skills of business correspondences.
• Master the commonly-used business
vocabularies and make good use of them.
Assessment and Evaluation Criteria
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• The course will be assessed as follows:
• Routine performance: 20%, including:
routine attendance ,in-class practice, tests
and outside-class assignments
• Three monthly tests: 40%
• Final exam: 40%
Requirements
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You are appreciated for not
• being late for class or absent from class.
• chewing gums or wearing a cap during
classes.
• picking up the cell phone or letting the
phone ring during classes.
Chapter One
Layout of a Business
Letter
Contents
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Objectives
 Leading In
 Sample letter
 Language Points
 Summary
 Assignments
 Case study
Objectives
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Upon completion of this chapter, you
should:
• be familiar with the layout of business
letters.
• know the formats of business letters.
• know how to address the envelope.
Leading In
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• Name the ways of communication you
know
• What is the layout of an English letter?
Ways of communication
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•
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•
Telephone
Fax
E-mail
Letter
Telegram
Telex
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Warming up
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1. 日期
2. 封内地址
3. 称呼
4. 正文
5. 结尾敬语
6. 签名
Layout of Business Letter
• 1.信头 letter Head
Electronics Ltd.
3 Stockbridge Road Liverpool LP5 20M
Tel.: 087564789076
Fax:087564747867
Website: www.electronics.com.uk
Your Reference:
Our Reference: 2569
April 13, 2004
Fuiji Company
153 Ginza-Chome
Tokyo, Japan
Attention: Sales Manager
Dear Sirs,
Re: Portable Colour TV Sets
We have seen your advertisement in the “Electric Frontier” and are
quite interested in your portable colour television set.
Enclosed is our Inquiry Note No.2368. Please quote us the lowest
price C.I.F. Liverpool, stating the earliest date of shipment.
We look forward to your early reply.
Very truly yours,
ELECTRONICS LTD.
H arold Jones
Harold Jones
Manager
Encl. Inquiry Note
cc: Mr. J.L.Smith, New York
go
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•
•
•
•
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•
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2.日期 Date
3.封内地址 Inside Address
4.称呼 Salutation
5. 正文 Body
6. 结 尾 敬 语 Complimentary
Close
7.签名 Signature
8.事由 Subject
9.附件 Enclosure
a 参考号 Ref.No.
b 经办人 Attention Line
c 抄送 Carbon Copy
Letterhead
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• Generally, a letterhead will include the
company logo, company's name, address,
telephone number, fax number and email
address, and the web address if available.
Inside Address
Always include the recipient's name,
address and postal code. Add job title if
appropriate.
Date
02/01/03
2002年1月3日
2003年2月1日
2003年1月2日
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Chinese way
American way
British way
To avoid confusion, it is a common
practice to write months in words.
Return
salutation
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1. If unsure to whom you should address a
letter, you should use the following
salutations:
Dear Sir or Madam,
2. If you know the name but are not familiar
with the other person, you should use the
following salutation:
Dear Mr./Mrs. XXX,
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3. If you are quite familiar with the other
person, you may use the following
salutation:
Hi XXX,
Hello XXX,
Informal
XXX,
Body of a letter
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The body of a business letter typically
contains three paragraphs:
·
1.introductory paragraph
·
2.one or more body paragraphs
3.concluding paragraph
Complimentary Close
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•
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•
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Formal
Truly/sincerely/Faithfully yours,
Informal
Best regards,
Capitalize only the first word in the
complimentary close, and follow all
phrases with a comma.
Signature
ELECTRONICS LTD.
Harold Jones
Harold Jones
Manager
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Company’s name
Your signature
typed signature
(job title)
Return
Block Format
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--Heading-
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Date
Inside
Address
Dear Sirs,
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Yours Faithfully,
Signature
The block
format is the
simplest format;
all of the writing
is flush against
the left margin.
Format
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The indented format
--Heading--------------
----------
-----------------------------------------------
Date
Inside
Address
Also the first line of each paragraph
is indented.
--Heading--------------
----------
-----------------------------------------------
Dear Sirs,
□□□---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------□□□------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------□□□----------------------------------------------
Yours Faithfully,
Signature
Date
Inside
Address
Dear Sirs,
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------
The semi-block format your
address, date, the closing, signature,
are all indented to the right half of the
page
----------------------------------------------------Yours Faithfully,
Signature
Addressing the envelop
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Summary
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In this chapter, we have learnt the layout
(seven principle parts and six optional
parts) in a business letter. We should at
least remember the seven principle parts
and some useful and common optional
parts. We should also recite the format of
business letters. These rules and
principles are crucial in the business
letters, because it shows your attitude and
ability to do business carefully and
successfully.
Assignments
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•
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Arrange the following in proper form as they should be
set out in a letter. Use the Block Style, and then
address the envelope accordingly.
Seller: Royal Grosvenor Porcelain Company Ltd.
Address: Grosvenor House, Renfrew Road, Oakley
Staffordshire OA7 9AH
Tel: (743069)60591/2/3
Buyer: Colourfloor Co.Ltd.
Address: 238 Wilton Road, Axminster AXz AS
Date : March 5, 2007
Subject : porcelain
The message : -----The letter is written by the seller
Case study
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Task:
• Look at the following page. This is the top
part of a business letter from a French
company. Decide when you would use
these salutations, instead of “Dear Mr.
Brown”.
Dear James, Dear Sirs, Dear Madams,
Dear Sir or Madams.
Case study
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Sunshine Flavours LTD.
Sunrise Technology Park, East Harbor Drive
Lyon AS12 6KM, France
Telephone 03793 832223 Fax 33 3703 835550
Nov 14, 2007
Mr. James Brown
Marketing Director
Brown Industries Inc.
546 Park Avenue IL 43301
Washington, USA
Dear Mr. Brown,
Thank you for your letter of 11 November, suggesting a meeting in
December. The most convenient dates from our point of view are
December 6th or December 7th.
Chapter Two
Establishing
Business Relations
Contents
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Revision
Objectives
Leading In
Sample letter
Language Points
Summary
Assignments
Case study
Revision
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1._________
2._______
a)_________________
3._______
b) ________________
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•
•
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•
•
4._______
8.___________
5._________
6._________
7._________
9.__________
c)_________________
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1.信头 letter Head
2.日期 Date
3.封内地址 Inside Address
4.称呼 Salutation
5. 正文 Body
6. 结 尾 敬 语 Complimentary
Close
7.签名 Signature
8.事由 Subject
9.附件 Enclosure
a 参考号 Ref.No.
b 经办人 Attention Line
c 抄送 Carton Copy
Teaching objectives
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Upon completion of the chapter, you should:
• know the ways that an exporter can use to
seek new customers.
• know how to write this kind of letter.
• grasp the important words and phrases
learned.
Leading In
produce
production
生产商 producer
产品 product
买方 buyer
卖方 seller
顾客 customer
客户 client
生产
v/n
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用户
消费者
制造商
购买
销售
中间商
零售商
批发商
经销商
user
consumer
manufacturer
buy/purchase
sell/sale
middleman
retailer
wholesaler
dealer
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贸易
进口
出口
进口商
出口商
海关
关税
配额,限额
commerce, trade
import
export
importer
exporter
Customs
Customs duty
quota
Warming Up
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• Suppose you are the salesperson of ABC
company. You want to sell the following
products to a children’s store. Now you are
calling the store and the manager answers
the phone. Then what would you say in
order to sell the products.
Sample letter
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Dear Sirs or Madams,
We have obtained your name and address
from the website: www.alibaba.com. We
were informed that you are one of the
biggest importers of tea in UK and you are
now in the market for tea. We take this
opportunity to approach you in the hope of
establishing business relations with you.
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• To give you a general idea of our products,
we enclose herewith a copy of our
brochure covering the main items available
at present.
• If you are interested in any of our products
or have other products you would like to
import, please contact us with your
requirements. We look forward to providing
you with high quality products, superior
customer service.
Language points
be in the market for
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want to buy
1.我们生产各式各样的皮鞋,因此我们想要购买牛
皮。
We produce all kinds of leather shoes, so we are
in the market for cow hide.
2.我们的一个顾客想购买你方的新产品。
One of our customers is in the market for your
new products.
Language points
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take this opportunity
我想借此机会对你为我公司所做的一切表
示感谢。
I would like to take the opportunity to thank
you for all that you have done for our
company.
我们借此机会介绍我们的新产品。
We take this opportunity to introduce our
new products.
Language points
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approach
• We approached the Ministry of Commerce
and they told us that you are able to supply
1000 metric tons of apples at a time.
我们与商务部联系,他们告述我们你们能一次性提
供1000公吨苹果。
• 我们定期与客户联系,看他们是否有新的要求 .
• We approach our clients regularly to see if
they have any new request.
Language points
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• be in the hope of
• 为了能找到客户,我给这页上所有的公司
都打了电话。
• I called all the companies on this page in
the hope of finding a customer.
• 我给您发电子邮件是希望能与您建立业务
关系。
• I am e-mailing you in the hope of
establishing business relations with you.
Language points
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• give sb. a general idea of
• 这个样品是为了让你大概了解我们产品的
质量。
• This sample is meant to give you a
general idea of the quality of our products.
• 这个产品说明书将使你大概了解我们最新
的产品。
• This product description will give you a
general idea about our latest product.
Language points
enclose
put sth. in an envelope
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随函附寄
We are enclosing a sample for your
reference.
我们现随函附寄一个样品供你方参考。
herewith
adv. enclosed in this 随函附上
Language points
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• enclose
• They can be used in the following ways:
• enclose sth.
• Enclosed is/are sth.
• Enclosed please find
随函附寄产品说明书。(description)
1.We are enclosing a product description.
2. Enclosed is our product description.
3. Enclosed please find a product description.
Language points
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covering
about
关于
Translate the following sentence:
请寄给我们关于你方新产品的小册子。
Please send us a
your new products.
brochure
covering
Language points
外贸函电
Item
refer to a particular product 单个商品,标
号商品
We have seen your goods and are quite
interested in your item No. TK-103.
我们看了贵方的商品,对标号为TK-103的商品
特别感兴趣。
Language points
Item No. TK-101
Item No. TK-102
Item No. TK-103
Item No. TK-104
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• Item
refers to an individual
unit in a group of
products.
• Goods
refer to a group of
products.
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Contents of company introduction
Paragraph 1 - The introduction
Paragraph 2 - What we do
Paragraph 3 - QA/QC
Paragraph 4 - The closing
The introduction
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The year your company was established
• Your company’s location
• If you are a member of a group company
• What products/services you offer
• Any Foreign investment that you may have
What we do
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Product range/services offered
Machinery and technology used
Production experience
Number of staff
How orders are handled
Share significant achievements that would
be meaningful to buyers
QA/QC
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• Quality certifications (such as ISO) allow
for an increased level of trust and
mentioning them in your company
introduction can only benefit you.
Additionally, adding your monthly output
volume, countries/regions serviced and
any major clients that you have will also
build credibility with buyers.
The closing
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• Many companies use the final paragraph
of their company introductions to state
their corporate values and invite buyers to
contact them.
• Detailed please see the sample
introduction in the textbook.
Summary
• Contents of a letter of •
establishing relations
•
• Important parts in a letter
•
of establishing business
•
relations
• source of information
•
and the intention of
•
writing the letter
•
• Introduction of the
company and products •
• Closing part
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Language points:
be in the market for
take the opportunity
approach
enclose
item
covering
In the hope of
Assignments
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1. Write a letter of establishing business relations
with the following information:
• 从中国日报的广告上了解到对方是一家从事中国
手工艺品的进口商。(handcrafts)
• 我们是手工艺品的出口商,想与对方建立业务关
系。
• 随函寄上关于公司产品的目录。
• 希望对方和我们取得联系。
2. Do the exercises of this Chapter in the textbook.
Case study
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• Background
辽宁玩具电子有限公司创建于1990年,是一家集产品开发
设计、制造、销售于一体,拥有自营进出口权的玩具民营企业。
公司拥有厂区3个,厂房25000平方米、工人1000余名。
自建厂以来,公司致力于产品技术创新和质量控制,严格
按照ISO9001:2000质量体系执行质量管理和推行6S管理体
系,玩具产品通过中国玩具产品认证委员会认证(CCTP认证)
及欧盟EN71取得CE认证。现公司拥有技术开发人员50余人,
先后有31件产品获国家专利,其中3件获国家实用新型专利。
多年来,公司致力于研发具有创造力的高品质产品,培养
不同发展阶段的孩子个人想象能力,为孩子提供许多有趣的学
习方式,在学习玩乐的过程中开启孩子的心去接受新的思维、
新的想法、拓展新的视野。展望未来,公司诚挚邀请海内外嘉
宾携手合作,共创辉煌。
Case study
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• Now plug your MP3 player into I-DOG and
hear your tunes through I-DOG's
speaker! Toggle I-DOG's tail to turn off the
speaker and listen to music via headphones.
• I-DOG “feeds” on YOUR music. Your music
helps form its personality by the type of music
it hears, and its mood changes depending on
how much music you share with I-DOG.
• I-DOG is compatible with most portable music
devices like CD players and MP3 players. To
use. . .
Case study
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• 1. Plug I-DOG into the headphone jack of any handheld or non-portable music system (i.e. MP3 player,
CD player, stereo, etc.). I-DOG’s ears will perk up to
show you that its listening and its head will move
and groove to the music
• 2. I-DOG can listen to music through its built-in
microphone. Sit I-DOG near a speaker and watch it
react!
• Requires 2 “AA” batteries (not included). Includes
dual-plug cable.
• Note: Does not download, record or store music.
Chapter Three
Inquiry
Contents
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
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
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Revision
Objectives
Leading In
Sample letter
Language Points
Summary
Assignments
Case study
Teaching objectives
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Upon completion of this chapter, you should:
• be aware of the information to be covered
in general inquiry and specific inquiry.
• be able to make inquiries on the detailed
information about different products.
• be able to use related words and phrases
to make inquiries.
Leading In
外贸函电
• Inquiry
Inquiry is the first step in business
negotiations and is the beginning of
negotiating the import trade. The inquiry
letter is written by the importer to the
exporter for grasping the information on
commodities. It may fall into two categories:
• general inquiries
• specific inquiries
•
General inquiry
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• If the importer wants to have a general
idea of the commodity, he may make a
request for a pricelist, a catalogue,
samples and other terms. This is a
general inquiry. (Generally, it is also a first
inquiry. That is an inquiry writing without
first writing a letter to establish business
relations).
General inquiry
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• Structure
• The source of information and a brief selfintroduction
• The intention of writing the letter. (Ask for
a catalogue, samples or a pricelist)
• Stating the possibility of placing an order
Specific inquiry
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• If the importer intends to purchase
goods of a certain specification, he
may ask the exporter to make an offer
or a quotation for the goods. That is a
specific inquiry.
Specific inquiry
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• Structure
• Mentioning the previous letter you’ve
received from the exporter.
• Enquiring about the details of the goods
such as names, descriptions, specifications,
quantity, etc.
• Asking whether there is a possibility of giving
a special discount and what terms of
payment and time of delivery you would
expect.
• Stating the possibility of placing an order.
Words and phrases
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
价格
合理的价格
具有竞争力的价格
优惠的价格
单价
总值
金额
佣金
净价
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price
reasonable price
competitive price
favorable price
unit price
total value
amount
commission
net price
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discount
• 折扣
wholesale price
• 批发价
retail price
• 零售价
• 现行价格(时价) current / prevailing price
• 国际市场价格 world (International) market price
离岸价(船上交货价) Free on Board FOB
成本加运费价(离岸加运费价)
Cost and Freight
CFR
到岸价(成本加运费、保险费价)
CIF
cost, insurance and freight
Warming-Up
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If you are interested in the following
products and want to know something
about them, what would you write in your
letter of inquiry?
Sample letter
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Dear Sirs,
We thank you for your letter of May 3
and shall be glad to enter into business
relations with you.
We have seen your brochure and are
interested in Green Tea Extract and
Porcelain Tea Set No.TSM001. We shall
be pleased if you will kindly send us
samples and all the necessary information
regarding these two products.
外贸函电
Meanwhile, please quote us the
lowest price, CIF Liverpool, stating the
earliest date of shipment and the minimum
quantity.
Should your price be competitive and
date of shipment acceptable, we intend to
place a large order with you.
Your early reply will be highly
appreciated.
Truly yours,
Language points
enclose
外贸函电
随函附寄
现随函附寄商品目录供你方参考。
We are enclosing herewith a catalogue
for your reference.
send…under separate cover
另寄
现另寄商品目录供你方参考。
We are now sending you under separate
cover a catalogue for your reference.
Language points
外贸函电
send…under separate cover
We have the pleasure of sending you
under separate cover our latest
catalogue.
我们很荣幸给你方另寄我方最新的商品
目录。
请另寄一个样品。
Please send a sample under separate
cover.
Language points
外贸函电
• regarding
covering 关于
• 1.请寄给我们一个关于你方新产品的商品目
录. Please send us a catalogue
regarding your new products.
• 2.我们将寄关于这些产品的价格单供你方参
考。
We shall send the pricelist regarding these
products for your reference.
Language points
外贸函电
Please quote us the lowest price, C.I.F.
Lagos, inclusive of our 5% commission,
stating the earliest date of shipment.
(1) 请报最低价。
Please quote the lowest price.
(2) 请报上海船上交货最低价。
Please quote the lowest price,
F.O.B Shanghai.
Language points
外贸函电
Please quote us the lowest price, C.I.F.
Lagos, inclusive of our 5% commission,
stating the earliest date of shipment.
(3)请报最低价,包括3%的佣金。
Please quote the lowest price,
including 3% commission.
(4)请报最低价,说明最早的装运期。
Please quote the lowest price,
stating the earliest date of shipment.
Language points
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competitive
具有竞争力的
1.他们的价格更具有竞争性。
Their prices are more competitive.
2.我们的商品卖的很快因为它们的价格具有
竞争力。
Our products are selling very fast
because of their competitive prices.
Language points
外贸函电
reasonable/ favorable
合理的/优惠的
1.我们的价格很合理。我们不能降价。
Our price is very reasonable. It’s
impossible for us to reduce the price.
2.我们的价格非常优惠,所以我们建议你方
立即购买。
Our price is very favorable, so we
recommend you to purchase immediately.
Language points
外贸函电
acceptable
can be accepted
可接受的
1.如果你方的价格可接受,我们将大量购买。
If your price is acceptable to us, we will
buy in large quantities.
2.我们不能接受你方价格。我们只好在别处购
买
Your price is unacceptable to us. We
have no choice but to purchase
elsewhere.
Language points
外贸函电
place an order with sb. for sth.
向某人定购某商品
1.我们将向你方订购100公吨的苹果。
We will place an order with you
for 100 metric tons of apples.
2.如果你能降价,我们将大量订购。
We can place a large order if
you can reduce the price.
Language points
外贸函电
appreciate
感激,感谢
1.We shall be appreciated if you could
send us a brochure.
如果你方能寄给我们一个商品小册子,我
们将不胜感激。
2. We
shall appreciate it if you can ship
the goods before August.
如果你方能在八月前装运货物我们将不胜感激。
Supplementary practice
外贸函电
• I saw your advertisement of commercial
carpets in Business Times dated March 3.
• Please send us a catalogue, a price list,
and a description on carpets of different
grades.
• We are looking for suppliers and intend to
purchase a carpet that is about 5,600
square feet in size in the near future.
外贸函电
• In your price list, be sure to include the
cost of removing the existing carpet.
• If there are other costs (besides the
carpet itself and an installation fee),
please list them along with all the others.
Summary
• Inquiry
• General inquiry
• Structure of
general inquiry
• Specific inquiry
• Structure of
specific inquiry
外贸函电
•
•
•
•
•
Language points
quote
inclusive of
Competitive/favorable
place an order with
sb. for sth.
• appreciate
Assignments
外贸函电
• Exercises from I on p33 to V on
p36.
• Translate the sentences into
English on p36.
Case study
外贸函电
• Task: Work in pairs. Read the following letters
and
• discuss with your partner what you should do
before sending the electronic files.
• discuss how to reply in case someone enquires
for Bottle Pod.
• discuss with your partner how to reply to the third
letter if you do not produce Multi-Function Tripods?
• Writing
• You are requested to write three letters on the
basis of the results of your discussion above.
Letter 1
外贸函电
• Dear Sir or Madam:
• We have seen the brief introduction about your
Gorilla Pod and are quite interested.
• Would you please send us more information as
to the price term, minimum quantity, etc.
Meanwhile, as we would also like to know about
some other lines you handle, your illustrated
catalog by e-mail will be appreciated.
• Yours sincerely
Letter 2
外贸函电
• Dear Mr. Johnson,
• Last year we bought from you a consignment of
Bottle Camera Pods, and they sold well here. Do
you still make camera pods of this type? If so,
please let us know the prices for quantities of not
less than one great gross. Delivery within six
weeks of order would be highly appreciated.
• Best regards,
Letter 3
外贸函电
• Dear Sir or Madam:
• As one of the leading importers and wholesalers of
photographic equipment in Australia, we are very impressed
by the newest tripods you displayed at the recent exhibition in
New York.
• There is a steady demand here for different types of tripods,
especially the fashionable ranges with high quality. We have
been receiving a number of enquiries from our trade
connections in this area for the following tripod:
• Product Name: Multi-Function Tripods
• Features:
• Three way ultra-smooth photo/video fluid-effect pan head with
quick-release plate and bubble level
• Panhandle tension lock for secure positioning and easy
adjustment
• 2 bubble levels for fine adjustments
外贸函电
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Four–section legs with rubber feet and retractable spikes
Quick-lever leg locks for fast and easy set up
Diameter of 1st leg:20mm
Extended height: 144cm
Folded length: 45.0cm
Gross weight: 1kg.
Max. load:2.0 kg.
Will you please, therefore, quote us your lowest price C.I.F.
Sydney? This would enable us to maintain low selling
prices that have been an important reason for the growth
of our business. We may be able to place regular orders
with you if your prices are competitive.
• We are looking forward to receiving your early reply.
• Yours very truly,
Chapter Four
Offer
Contents
外贸函电








Revision
Objectives
Leading In
Sample letter
Language Points
Summary
Assignments
Case study
Revision
外贸函电
• 我们的报盘为实盘,以7月4日前回复为有
效。
• Our offer is firm, subject to your reply
reaching us before July 4.
• 现报盘如下,以你方于4月6日前接受为有
效。
• We are making you the following offer,
subject to your acceptance reaching here
before April 6.
外贸函电
• 以上所报的价格为FOB价,没有约束力。
• The above prices are quoted on FOB
basis and are without engagement.
• 对这个产品的需求很活跃,这将会导致价
格上升。因此,我们不可能让此报盘长期
有效。
• There has been an active demand for this
new product and it will certainly result in
increased price. Therefore, it is impossible
for us to keep this offer open too long.
外贸函电
• 现以我们最优惠的价格报以下商品的盘,以货物未被
售出为有效。
• We are offering the following products at our
most favorable price, subject to prior sale.
• 我们现在为我们所有的老客户报此特惠盘,以货物未
被售出为准。所以我们建议你立即接受。
• We are now making this special offer to all
our old clients, subject to the goods being
unsold. So we suggest you accept it
immediately.
外贸函电
• 按你方要求报20公吨花生盘如下。有效期为
10天。
• As per your request, we are making an offer
for 20 metric tons of groundnuts as follows.
The offer is valid for 10 days.
• 这个特惠报盘在2月23日以前有效。我们建
议抓住这个机会尽快订购。
• This special offer is valid till February 23, so
we suggest you avail yourselves of this
opportunity and place an order immediately.
Teaching objectives
外贸函电
Upon completion of this chapter, the
students will:
• understand the difference between firm
offer and non-firm offer and grasp their
relative expressions.
• be familiar with the terms & conditions
involved in an offer and be able to write
them independently.
Leading In
外贸函电
Offer
• An offer is the expression of the wishes of
the seller to sell particular goods under
stated terms (including quality, prices, time
of shipment, terms of payment etc.). The
person making the offer is called “offeror”报
盘人, while the person receiving the offer is
called “offeree受盘人” In international
business, offers can be divided into two
kinds: firm offer and non-firm offer.
Firm offer
外贸函电
• A firm offer is made when a seller promises to
sell goods at a stated price within a stated
period of time. Once it has been accepted it
cannot be changed or withdrawn and the
transaction will be concluded. When the
validity is overdue, this offer will cease to be
effective and the offeror will no longer take the
responsibility of carrying out the commitments
stipulated in the offer.
Non-firm offer
外贸函电
• Non-firm offer is an informal offer made by
the offeror, which has got no validity terms but
with clear indication of its confirmation
conditions, such as “subject to our final
confirmation. It can be considered as an offer
which are not upon binding the sellers and the
details of the offers may change in certain
situations.
Structure of an offer
外贸函电
• An expression of thanks for the inquiry you
have received
• Informing them of the detailed terms and
conditions about the supplied commodities,
such as names, quality, quantity,
specifications, price terms, discounts, terms
of payment, packing and delivery date etc.
• Informing them of the validity of the offer (for
firm offer)
• Expressing your sincere expectation of
receiving their orders
外贸函电
• Expressions used to indicate a Nonfirm Offer
• subject to our final confirmation
• 以我方最后确认为准
• We are now making you an offer
subject to our final confirmation.
• 现报盘,以我方最后确认为有效。
外贸函电
• without engagement
• 此报盘无约束力
• We are now making you the
following offer without
engagement.
• 现报盘如下,此报盘无约束力。
外贸函电
• subject to the goods being unsold
• 以货物未被售出为准
• We are now making you a special
offer subject to the goods being
unsold.
• 我方向你方报特惠盘,以货物未被售出为
准。
外贸函电
• subject to prior sale
• 以先售为准
• We are now making an offer for airconditioners as follows, subject to
prior sale.
• 我方现报空调盘如下,以先售为准。
Firm offer
外贸函电
• 现为你方报10公吨大米实盘。
• We are now making you a firm offer for
10 metric tons of rice.
• 现为你方报实盘如下。
• We are now offering you firm as follows,
Firm offer’s validity
外贸函电
1.We make you the following offer
subject to your reply within 10 days.
2. We make you an offer, subject to
your reply reaching us not later
than noon time October 21 Beijing
time.
3. The offer is valid for 3 days.
4. The offer is valid till March 15.
Warm-up expressions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
counter-offer
•
offerer
•
offeree
•
offer list/book
•
offering period
•
lump offer
bid
•
外贸函电
还盘,还价
报盘人
受盘人
报价单
报价日
综合报盘(针对两种以
上商品)
递价;出价;递盘(由
买方发出)
Sample letter
外贸函电
Dear Mr. Brown,
We are glad to know that you, one of
the biggest suppliers of tea in the UK, are
interested in our products. In order to
establish a long friendly business relation
with you, we are now making you a
special offer.
For details, please see quotation sheet.
外贸函电
We are sending you under separate
cover the samples of Green Tea Extract
and Porcelain Tea Set for your reference.
We are confident that you will be satisfied
with both the quality of our products and
their competitive prices.
We await your favorable news.
Yours very sincerely,
Language Points
外贸函电
报盘还盘是贸易中价格交锋的重点。各种不同
的报盘表达法:
1. We're willing to make you an offer at this
price.
我们愿意以此价格为你报实盘。
2. We can offer you a quotation based on the
international market.
我们可以按国际市场价格给您报价。
外贸函电
3. We'll give you the official offer next
Monday.
下星期就给您正式报盘。
4. I came to hear about your fertilizer offer.
我来听听你们有关化肥的报盘。
5. My offer was based on reasonable profit,
not on wild speculations.
我的报价以合理利润为依据,不是漫天
要价。
外贸函电
6. Let me make you a special offer.
我给你一个特别优惠价。
7. This offer is competitive and based on an
expanding market……
此报盘着眼于扩大销路而且很有竞争性。
8. The offer is good until 5 o'clock p.m. June
23, 2005, Beijing time.
报价有效期到2005年6月23日下午5点,北京
时间。
外贸函电
9. All prices on the price lists are subject
to our approval.
报价单中所有价格以我方确认为准。
10.Our offers are for 3 days.
我们的报盘三天有效。
11. We prefer to withhold quotation at this
time.
我们宁愿暂停报盘。
Zhejiang Caiyunjian Tea Co., Ltd.
报
价
QUOTATION
To :
日期
Global Tea
Bags (Pvt) Ltd
Date
May 8, 2004
兹报供下列商品, 均以我方最后确认为准
The following articles are quoted subject to our final confirmation:
品名
Commodity
规格
Specification
Green Tea Extract
Porcelain Tea Set
Model No. 8901
Model No. TS001
包
数量
Quantity
单价
Unit Price
Minimum order
CIF Liverpool
2000kg.
2000 sets
Stg. £15 per kilo
Stg. £15 per set
装
PACKING:
aluminum-foil-lined cartons, pumped off air and filled up
with nitrogen, bulk be packed in cartons fixed with foamed
plastic padding
25kg/carton, 22kg/carton, 20kg/carton, 18kg/carton
装船期
SHIPMENT:
can be shipped within one month after receipt of the L/C
付款方式
PAYMENT:
by confirmed irrevocable L/C payable by draft at sight
保险
INSURANCE:
外贸函电
单
for 110% of the invoice value
有错当查
E. &. O. E.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Commodity
Specification
Quantity
Unit Price
Packing
Shipment
Payment
Insurance
Quantity
(1) 重量(weight)
公斤 (kilogram )
公吨 (metric ton )
长吨 (long ton)(≈1016kg)
短吨(short ton)(≈907kg)
(2) 数量(number)
件 (piece )
双(pair )
套 (set )
打(dozen)
外贸函电
Price Terms
•
•
•
•
外贸函电
US$300 per metric ton CIF Seattle
每公吨300美元CIF西雅图
每短吨5600日元FOB横滨 Yokohama
JPY 5600 per short ton FOB
Yokohama
• 每打20美分旧金山到岸价
• USD 0.2 per dozen CIF San Francisco
Packing
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
木箱(wooden case)
板条箱(crate)
纸箱(carton)
麻袋(gunny bag)
布袋(sack)(cloth bag)
塑料袋(plastic bag)
牛皮纸袋(kraftpaper bag)
外贸函电
Packing
•
•
•
•
•
铁桶(iron drum)
塑料桶(plastic drum)
木桶(cask)
捆(bundle)
包(bale)
外贸函电
Packing
外贸函电
(1) Cigarettes are to be packed in tin-lined
paper box.
香烟要用衬锡纸盒包装。
(2) Pens are to be packed in paper boxes,
10 pieces to one box.
钢笔要用纸盒包装,每盒装十支。
(3) Pens are packed 12 pieces to a box and
200 boxes to a wooden case.
每12支钢笔装在一个纸盒里,每200个纸
盒装在一个木箱里。
Payment
外贸函电
支付工具:
• 汇票(bill of exchange ,draft)
• 本票(promissory note)
• 支票(cheque/check )
支付方式:
• 汇付:信汇(M/T) 电汇(T/T ) 票汇(D/D)
• 托收:付款交单(D/P )
承兑交单(D/A )
• 信用证(letter of credit ,L/C)
Payment
外贸函电
by confirmed irrevocable L/C payable
by draft at sight
用保兑的不可撤销信用证付款
请用…..方式付款。
• Please pay by….
• Please make the payment by …
外贸函电
•
•
•
•
请用信用证付款。
Please make the payment by L/C.
Please pay by L/C.
我们要求付款方式为保兑的不撤销的信用
证。
• We request the payment to be made by
confirmed irrevocable L/C.
Summary
•
•
•
•
Offer
Non-firm offer
Firm offer
Structure of an
offer letter
• Quotation sheet
外贸函电
• Language points
• Expressions used to
indicate Non-firm offers
• Expressions used to
indicate validity of offers
• Languages used for an
offer
Assignments
外贸函电
1. Do Exercises I to IV on p 49-52
2. Translate the following into English
亲爱的先生:
2002年7月2日有关查询大米和大豆新加坡到岸价的电
子邮件收悉。
今日上午电子邮件报价:精白米300公吨,每公吨成
本加运费新加坡到岸价为2400澳元。于2002年8或9
月装运。以上实价需由贵公司于2002年7月16日前回
复确实。该报价为最优惠价,请贵公司把握机会,尽
早落实订单为盼。
你真诚的,xxx
Case study
•
•
•
•
外贸函电
Task
Suppose you have made an offer to the
inquirer and got no reply for about 14 days.
Work in pairs. Discuss with your partner how
to write a follow-up letter to persuade the
inquirer to purchase the goods.
Write a follow-up offer letter according to the
result of your discussion according to the
information given. (Quote both F.O.B.
Shanghai price and C.I.F. New York price.)
Chapter Five
Counteroffer
Contents
外贸函电








Revision
Objectives
Leading In
Sample letter
Language Points
Summary
Assignments
Case study
Revision
外贸函电
• 我们觉得很难减价5%,因为原材料的成本、
运费都在上涨。
• We find it difficult to reduce our price by
5%, because the freight and cost of raw
material are going up.
• 为了适应激烈的竞争,请降价10%。
• In order to cope with the heavy
competition, please reduce your price by
10%.
外贸函电
• 因为这是与贵方第一次交易,我方准备每套
降到30美元,而不是贵方提议的25美元。
• As this is our first transaction with you, we
are prepared to reduce our price to $30 per
set instead of $25 as you suggest.
• 我方发现你方的报价不合适,因为现在这种
材料正在降价。
• We feel that your quotation is not proper
because the price for such material is on the
decline at present.
Teaching objectives
外贸函电
• Upon completion of this chapter, the
students will:
• be able to write letters negotiating about
trading terms with other companies.
• know the effect of counteroffer.
• be able to make concessions and attacks
politely and reasonably when writing
counter-offers.
Leading In
外贸函电
• Suppose you’ve just got the offer from
ABC Company. You think the price is
too high and want to ask them to
reduce the price. Then what would you
say in your letter?
Warming up
外贸函电
• Counter-offer
• Counter-offer is the response or reply of the
offeree to the offeror during negotiations for
signing the contract. There are 2 kinds of
replies, one of which is favourable for its
showing the offeree’s acceptance, and the
other is unfavorable for its showing the
acceptance of the offeree together with the
suggestions of some additions, restrictions or
amendments. The latter kind of reply is called
counter-offer.
Structure of
the Counteroffer
外贸函电
• Thank the seller for his offer, mention
briefly the content of the offer.
• Express regret at inability to accept (give
the reasons for non-acceptance).
• Make a counter-offer if, under the
circumstances, it is appropriate.
• Hope the counter-offer will be accepted
and there may be an opportunity to do
business together.
Sample Letter
外贸函电
Dear Mr. Zhang,
Re: Green Tea Extract and Porcelain Tea Set
We acknowledge with thanks receipt of your
offer of May 8 for the subject goods.
In reply, we regret to say that we can’t
accept it. Your prices are rather on the high side
and out of line with the world market.
Information indicates that some parcels of
Japanese make have been sold at a much lower
level.
外贸函电
We have seen your samples and admit that
they are of high quality, but there should not
be such a big gap between your prices and
those of other suppliers.
In order to conclude the transaction, we
suggest that you reduce the prices of both
products by, say 30%.
We hope you can accept the counteroffer
and wait for your favorable reply.
Truly yours,
Global Tea Bags (Pvt) Ltd
Language Points
外贸函电
acknowledge
• 我们已收到你方7月2日来信。
• We acknowledge receipt of your letter
dated July 2.
• 我方已收到你方关于3公吨花生的定单。
• We acknowledge receipt of your order
covering 3 metric tons of groundnuts.
be in receipt of
外贸函电
• 我方已收到你方要求我方报1000打男式衬
衫的信。
• We are in receipt of your letter, requesting
us to quote for 1000 dozen of men’s shirts.
• 我们已收到你方关于1000双皮鞋的信用证。
• We are in receipt of your L/C covering
1000 pairs of leather shoes
subject goods
外贸函电
• 请尽快开立标题项下商品的信用证。
• Please open an L/C covering the subject
goods as soon as possible.
• 我们想向你方订购20公吨标题项下的货物。
• 1We intend to place an order with you for
20 metric tons of the subject goods.
be on the high side
外贸函电
• 与其他供应商相比,你们的价格偏高。
• Compared with other suppliers, your price
is rather on the high side.
• 在我们国家棉花的价格偏高,所以我们不
得不从其他的国家购买。
• The price for cotton is rather on the high
side in our country, so we have to
purchase from other countries.
外贸函电
• 偏底
on the low side
• 太高、太底
too high/low
• 有点儿高(底)
a little high/low
外贸函电
• 我们的产品质量很好,所以我们的价格有
点儿高。
• Our products are of high quality, so our
price is a little high.
• 虽然你的产品质量很好,但你的价格也不
应该这么高。
• Though your products are of high quality,
your price should not be so high.
be out of line with
外贸函电
• 你方的价格与现行市场价格不一致。
• Your price is out of line with the prevailing
international market.
• 你方报价与市价有差异,所以我们相信减
价百分之三的建议是可行的。
• Your quoted price is out of line with the
prevailing level. That is why we feel
confident that our suggestion of three
percent off your present one is workable.
be in line with
外贸函电
• 我们的价格与国内市场价格相一制。
• Our price is in line with the domestic
market price.
• 为了扩大销售,我们的价格应与世界市场
价格相一致。
• In order to enlarge the sales, our price
should be in line with the world market.
Information indicates that
外贸函电
• 有消息表明这个产品很受美国年轻人的欢
迎。
• Information indicates that this product is
popular among young people.
• 有消息表明其他供应商以每个五美元的价
格销售这个产品。
• Information indicates that other suppliers
are selling this product at $5 each.
sell …at
外贸函电
• 对与订购数量达到1000台的,我们将已每
个20美元的价格销售。
• On orders of 1000 or more, we’ll sell at
$20 each.
• 在国内试销期间,我们将以优惠的价格销
售这些新产品。
• During the domestic trial period, we will
sell these new products at favorable prices.
be of __quality
外贸函电
• 你们产品的质量太差,我们不得不将他们
退还给你们。
• Your products are of bad quality, so we
have no choice but to return them to you.
• 我能向你保证,我们的产品拥有最优良的
品质
• We can assure you that our products are
of the best quality.
gap
外贸函电
• The gap between A and B is quite big/
large.
• There is a big gap between A and B.
• 我方价格和日本供应商的价格之间的差距
没有你想象的那么大。
• The gap between our price and those of
Japanese suppliers is not as big as what
you think.
外贸函电
• 你们的价格与其他供应商的价格之间不应
该有这么大的差距。
• The gap between your prices and those of
other suppliers should not be so big.
• 你方的价格与我们所能接受的价格相差太
远。
• The gap between your price and the price
we can accept is too big.
say
外贸函电
• For such a big order like ours, we suggest
that you make a reduction, say 20%.
对于像我们这么大的定单,我们建议你方降
价,比方说20%。
• 你方能否降价,比方说20%。
Could you reduce the price by, say 20%?
reduce
• reduce to/by
• Please reduce the price by $20.
请将价格降低20美元。
• Please reduce the price to $20.
请将价格降至20美元。
外贸函电
reduce
外贸函电
• 如果你方能将价格降至每个5美元,我们将
大量订购。
If you could reduce the price to $5 each,
we will order in large quantities.
• 我们不能降价20%。
It is impossible for us to reduce the
price by 20%.
as to
外贸函电
• As to terms of payment, we require L/C.
关于付款,我们要求用信用证。
• 至于样品,我们将尽快另寄给你方。
As to the samples, we’ll send
them to you under separate cover
as soon as possible.
rock-bottom price
外贸函电
• This is our rock bottom price. We won’t
make any further reductions.
这是我们的最低价了。我们不能再降价了。
• Our rock-bottom price is € 500/MT, and
cannot be further lowered.
我们的最低价是每公吨500欧元,
不能再降价了。
do business with
外贸函电
• In order to do business with you, we
decide to reduce the price by 30%.
为了与你方做生意,我们决定降价30%。
• 我们与世界各国的人做生意。
We do business with people around
the world.
外贸函电
• conclude the transaction达成交易
• Could you lower your price a bit so that .we
con conclude the transaction?
• 你方能否把价格稍稍降低一点,以便我们能达
成交易?
• In order to conclude the transaction, I think
you should reduce the price by at least 3 %.
• 为了达成交易,我想你们至少得减价3%才行。
外贸函电
• In regard to
as to
• In regard to shipment, we hope it will be
made within one week.
关于装运,我们希望能在一个星期之内装运。
• In regard to insurance, we will cover for
110% of the invoice value.
关于保险,我们将按发票金额的110%投保。
recommend
外贸函电
• We take the advantage of recommending
our new products which have been selling
well in Europe. 我们利用此次机会向你们推
荐新产品,这些产品在欧洲销售很好。
• We recommend you to make the payment
by L/C for it will give you some additional
protection. 我们建议你们用信用证付款,
这会给你额外的保护。
make some
concessions
外贸函电
• If you could make some concessions, say
a reduction of 10%, we may conclude the
transaction. 如果你能让步,比方说10%,
我们也许能达成交易。
• We won’t make any concessions, for we
will not make any profits at the price you
named.
我们不能让步,因为以你们指
定的价格我们将无利可图。
Let us meet each other half way…
外贸函电
• 让我们双方各让一步,用付款交单的方式
付款。
• Let us meet each other half way and make
the payment by D/P.
• 让我们双方各让一步,将价格降低5%。
• Let us meet each other half way and
reduce the price by 5%.
外贸函电
• It shall be highly appreciated if…
• 如果你方能接受承兑交单的付款方式,我
们将不胜感激。
• It shall be highly appreciated if you could
accept payment by D/A.
• 如果你方能寄送给我们免费的样品,我们
将不胜感激。
• It will be highly appreciated if you could
send us a sample free of charge.
make the payment
外贸函电
• 对于像花这样的特殊产品,我们要求预先付款。
• For special products like flowers, we request the
payment to be made in advance.
• 因为订购量很大,所以我们要求用信用证的方式
付款。
• Since the order is quite large, we request the
payment to be made by L/C.
We regret to say that …
外贸函电
• 我们很遗憾,我们不再生产你们询问的商品
了。
• We regret to say that we no longer
manufacture the article you enquired about.
• 我们很遗憾由于我们的供应商ABC公司的原
因,第10-14-71 号商品现在仍没有货。
• We regret to inform you that due to
problems with our supplier, Item No. 10-1471, ABC company, is not yet available.
It is our usual practice to…
外贸函电
• 我们的惯例是按发票金额的110%投保。
• It is our usual practice to cover the
insurance for 110% of the invoice value.
• 我们的惯例是在大量订购前先试订购
• It is our usual practice to place a trial order
before placing a large one.
The best we can do…
外贸函电
• 我们最多只能给你们打8折。
• The best we can do is to give you a
discount of 20%.
• 我们最多只能将价格降到每个23欧元。
• The best we can do is to reduce the price
to € 23 each.
外贸函电
• We wish to draw your attention to the
fact that …请注意
• 我们对于金额达到1万或1万美元以上的订
购,不接受付款交单的付款方式。
• We wish to draw your attention to the fact
that we will only accept the payment by
D/P for orders less than $10,000.
• 请注意此报盘的有效期为5天。
• We wish to draw your attention to the fact
that the offer is valid for 5 days.
Summary
• structure of a counter-offer
• Thank the seller for his offer,
mention briefly the contents of
the offer.
• Express regret at inability to
accept (give the reasons for nonacceptance).
• Make a counter-offer if, under the
circumstances, it is appropriate.
• Hope the counter-offer will be
accepted and there may be an
opportunity to do business
together.
外贸函电
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
language points
be in receipt of
subject goods
be on the high side
be out of line with
reduce to/by
rock bottom price
make concessions
meet each other half
way
• it is usually practice
Assignments
外贸函电
Letter writing
• 回复你方8月21日关于Zippo打火机的报盘,我们很遗憾地说我
们不能接受你方报盘。
• 有消息表明印度的厂商以低于你方30%的价格出售, 我们承认
你方的产品质量优良,但是在价格上不应该有这么大的差距。
因此, 我方提议将价格降至每个25美元。
• 至于付款条件,我们希望你方能接受50%承兑交单,50%信用
证付款的方式。
• 希望你方能接受我方的还盘并盼早复。
Case study
外贸函电
Task
• Read the following incoming letter. Work
in pairs and discuss with your partner the
strategies you should use in order to
conclude the transaction.
• Write a letter to reply to the counteroffer
with the result of your discussion.
Incoming letter
外贸函电
• Dear Mr. Wang,
• Thank you for your prompt reply, offering to give us a
discount of 2% for early payment.
• In reply, we want you to be more flexible on the discount
rate offered. We would prefer a higher discount rate for early
settlement. In fact, we have received from another supplier
in your country a much more attractive offer about a
discount of 5% for early payment. We do not deny that the
quality of your products is slightly better, but the difference
in discount for early payment should, in no case, be as large
as 3%. To facilitate the transaction, we suggest that you
accept the discount of 5% for early payment.
• As the competition is very keen, we hope you can take
advantage of this opportunity and accept our counteroffer.
• Yours sincerely,
Chapter Six
Order
Contents
外贸函电
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Revision
Objectives
Leading In
Sample letter
Language Points
Summary
Assignments
Case study
Revision
外贸函电
• We can come to terms if you can only make a
little concession.
• 只要你方稍加让步,我们就能达成交易。
• This is really our rock bottom price. We will not
accept any counteroffer.
• 这已是我们的最低价,我们将不接受任何还盘。
• Your counteroffer is too low and out of line with
the world market.
• 你方的还价太低,与现行市场价格不一致。
Revision
外贸函电
• Could you lower your price a bit so that we
con conclude the transaction?
• 你方能否把价格稍稍降低一点,以便我们
能达成交易?
• If you could make some concessions, say
a reduction of 10%, we may conclude the
transaction.
• 如果你能让步,比方说10%,我们也许能
达成交易。
Objectives
外贸函电
Upon completion of this chapter, the
students will:
• know the validity of acceptance.
• be able to place, decline and accept orders
in writing.
• be able to draw up purchase orders
• be able to gather information from
correspondences and fill in the English
contract accordingly.
Warming up
外贸函电
Order
• After carrying out some procedures of transaction
negotiating in import and export trade, such as
inquiry, offer, counter offer, etc., and after
reaching to the acceptance of both sides, the
contract of Sales Confirmation may be signed. A
contract is a legally binding agreement between
two or more parties which starts with an offer
from one person but which does not become a
contract until the other party signifies a clear
willingness to accept the terms of that offer.
• Order letters create one half of a contract.
The writing of
外贸函电
the ordering letter
• To indicate the number of the catalogue and
type of the commodities.
• To indicate precisely the design,
specifications, the style and quantity of the
commodities.
• To indicate clearly the terms of transaction,
such the way of shipment, the date of
delivery, insurance, etc.
Sample letter
外贸函电
• Dear Mr. Zhang,
• We are in receipt of your counteroffer of
May 19 and have the pleasure of
confirming our acceptance of it.
• Enclosed is our purchase order in
duplicate. Would you please acknowledge
immediately by returning a copy of it
signed and/or stamped and dated?
Sample letter
外贸函电
• We look forward to your cooperation and
hope that both our businesses can grow
together for our long-range mutual benefits.
• Truly yours,
• Global Tea Bags (Pvt) Ltd
Language points
外贸函电
• terms and conditions
• It was unpleasant to learn that the terms
and conditions we finally agreed upon had
been turned down by your company.
• 得悉我们双方最终商定的条款遭你公司拒
绝,令人不快。
• 合同的其他条款与往常一样。
• Other terms and conditions of the contract
will be the same as usual.
countersign
外贸函电
• Please return one copy with your countersignature.
• 请会签退还一份。
• When the Sales Contract has been signed
by the seller, it will be countersigned by
the buyer.
• 销售合同经卖方签署后,须经买方会签。
stipulate
外贸函电
• 我们注意到你方定单规定装直达船。
• We note that your order stipulates direct
shipment.
• 合同规定付款条件为即期信用证。
• The contract stipulates payment by
sight L/C.
• The contract stipulates that the goods
should be shipped at one time.
• 合同规定货物必须一次全部装运。
summary
外贸函电
• The requirements of writing an ordering letter
• To indicate the number of the catalogue and type of
the commodities.
• To indicate precisely the design, specifications, the
style and quantity of the commodities.
• To indicate clearly the terms of transaction, such the
way of shipment, the date of delivery, insurance, etc.
• Language points
• terms and conditions
• Stipulate
• countersign
Assignment
外贸函电
• Complete the English contract according
to the information given below.
• 2008年10月23日,青岛进出口贸易公司
(Qingdao Import and Export Trading
Company)和日本KANEBO AGRITECHKK
公司签订第P0825号合同销售100公吨梨,价
格为每公吨46美元FOB 青岛,付款采用信用
证,用纸箱包装,每纸箱25公斤,于11月15
日前运到横宾。
Case study
外贸函电
• Task: Read the following two letters.
1. Work in pairs. Suppose you’ve just received
the second letter. Discuss with your partner
how to write a letter to persuade the seller
to sell the goods at the original prices.
2. Writing a reply to the first letter and agree
to pay the delivery charges.
First letter
外贸函电
• Dear Mr. Dizard,
• Your purchase orders have been referred to this department.
We noticed that all the prices of the items on the orders do
not include shipping charges. While we appreciate an order of
this size, the terms and conditions on page 2 of our catalog
clearly specify that international orders are accepted with full
payment in advance, and with an amount sufficient to cover
delivery. We anticipate delivery charges to be in the
neighborhood of $40 U.S. per item ordered.
• We are therefore returning your purchase orders. Please
resubmit your orders with either a check, or a sight draft.
• Thank you for your order. We look forward to serving you in
the near future.
• Yours very truly,
Second letter
外贸函电
• Dear Mr. Dizard,
• We are in receipt of your Order No. 2052 in duplicate
dated May 4, 2007.
• In reply, we regret to say that we can’t accept the order
at the price you named. We have to point out that the
offer is valid till May 6, and we haven’t got your order till
May 8. So your acceptance is invalid. Recently, the cost
of raw material has increased considerably, so we adjust
our price accordingly. All the prices are raised by 5%.
• We hope you will understand our position and look
forward to your early reply.
• Yours very truly,
Chapter Seven
Insurance
Revision
外贸函电
• When the Sales Contract has been signed
by the seller, it will be countersigned by
the buyer.
• 销售合同经卖方签署后,须经买方会签。
• 合同规定付款条件为即期信用证。
• The contract stipulates payment by
sight L/C.
Contents
外贸函电
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Revision
Objectives
Leading In
Sample letter
Language Points
Summary
Assignments
Case study
Objectives
外贸函电
• Upon completion of this chapter, you
will:
• be familiar with the risks frequently used.
• be able to use the words and expressions
widely used in insurance.
• be able to discuss the insurance terms
with foreign companies.
Leading in
外贸函电
• In international trade, the goods are
transported for a long distance from one
country to the other. They need to be loaded
and unloaded, to be stored, etc. so the
goods often run various risks and suffer
great losses. In order to get economic
compensation after suffering losses, the
buyer and the seller have to insure their
goods to be shipped against the cargo
transportation risks.
外贸函电
• The insurance clauses drawn up by
People’s Insurance Company of China are
called “China Insurance Clauses” in short,
and its abbreviation is CIC. The revised
edition was made up in January 1, 1981
and is used at the present-time.
Warming up
外贸函电
Who will effect insurance?
Usually insurance is arranged by the
exporter or the importer approaching an
insurance company, which has a
department specializing in cargo insurance.
Who will effect insurance depends on the
particular trade terms adopted.
外贸函电
• Under CIF terms, it is the seller who
arranges insurance with an insurance
company. Under the terms of FOB,
CFR, etc., the buyer effects insurance,
but he may ask the seller to arrange
insurance on behalf of the buyer.
Related Knowledge
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Parties involved
Insured
Applicant
Insurer
Insurance Agent
Insurance Broker
外贸函电
被保险人
投保人
保险人
保险代理人
保险经纪人
外贸函电
•
•
•
•
•
•
Money involved in insurance
Insured Amount
保险金额
Premium
保险费
Insurance Documents
Insurance Policy or Policy 保险单
Insurance Certificate
保险凭证
外贸函电
• 平安险
• 水渍险
• 一切险
F.P.A Free From Particular Average
W.P.A With Particular Average
All Risks
Sample letter
外贸函电
• Dear Mr. Zhang,
• We wish to refer you to the S/C No. 5356 from
which we have noticed that the goods are to be
covered against FPA.
• In reply, we have to point out that the coverage is
not enough for the goods. For Green Tea Extract,
you should at least add Risk of Sweating and
Heating and Risk of Odor. As to Porcelain Tea Set
and Rose Tea Pot, Risk of Clash and Breakage
must be included. So we think it is better for you to
cover All Risks.
• We hope that this will be acceptable to you and wait
for your good news.
• Truly yours,
Language points
外贸函电
cover/insure the goods
险别
• against +risks
• for
+ insurance amount 投保金额
保险人
• with
+ insurer
cover the insurance
on +商品
effect insurance
cover the goods
外贸函电
• 我们已向中国人民保险公司为货物投保平
安险,金额为3万美元。
• We have covered the goods against F.P.A.
for the amount of $ 30,000 with PICC.
• 请向中国人民保险公司为这批货物投保金
额为25,000美元的水渍险。
• Please cover insurance on this shipment
against W.P.A. for amount of USD 25,000
with the PICC.
cover the goods
外贸函电
• 我们将按一般惯例投保水渍险和战争险
• We usually cover the goods against W.P.A
and War Risk.
• It is our usual practice to cover the goods
against W.P.A. and War Risk.
• 在CIF条件下,我方一般只投保平安险加偷
盗险。
• It is our usual practice to cover against
F.P.A and T.P.N.D on CIF basis.
外贸函电
be borne by/ for one’s account
• 我们可以投保其他附加险,但是额外的保
险费应由买方承担。
• We can cover other additional risks,
but the extra premium will be for the
buyer’s account.
外贸函电
• Buyer’s request for insurance to be
covered up to the inland city can be
accepted on condition that such extra
premium is for buyer’s account.
• 假如额外的保险费由买方支付,能同意买
方将保险投保到内陆城市的要求。
外贸函电
• Tell the words from their definitions given
below:
the insured, insurance policy, insurer,
insurance premium, insured amount
• A written agreement between an
insurance company and policyholder
• Sum of money paid regularly to an
insurance company in exchange of
protection against the specified
undesired event
外贸函电
• A company that sells insurance
• Usually computed by adding the
invoice cost, guaranteed freight,
other costs, and insurance premium
plus a percentage, commonly 10%.
This usually represents landed value.
• A person or company that purchases
insurance.
Summary
•
•
•
•
Basic risks: F.P.A, W.P.A, All Risks
Language points:
cover/insure the goods
be borne by/ for one’s account
外贸函电
Supplementary practice
•
•
•
•
•
•
外贸函电
应该保哪些险?
What risks should be covered?
保险费是多少?
What is the insurance premium?
保险费总共是800美元。
The total premium is 800 U.S. dollars.
外贸函电
• 装船后,我到保险公司去投保。
• After loading the goods on board the ship,
I will go to the insurance company to have
them insured.
• 我什么时候将这批茶叶投保?
• When should I go and have the tea
insured?
• 贵公司能为我的这批货保哪些险呢?
• What kind of insurance are you able to
provide for our consignment?
外贸函电
•
•
•
•
您能给我一份保险率表吗?
Can you give me an insurance rate?
您能查一下瓷器的保险费率吗?
Could you find out the premium rate for
porcelain?
• 只保平安险就可以了。
• Free from Particular Average is good
enough.
Case study
外贸函电
• Case One
• A seller of cannery equipment shipped an order
to Italy via ocean vessel which was scheduled to
arrive just in time to harvest and cut the
upcoming season's crop. The equipment for the
cannery was damaged in transit and couldn't be
used immediately upon arrival. This left the first
part of the crop in jeopardy of not being
processed in time, so the shipper needed to
deliver replacement parts to the customer by air
urgently.
Case Two
外贸函电
• Four containers of computer monitors were
shipped from a U.S. manufacturer to a German
distributor. Upon arrival at the German distributor's
warehouse on a Friday afternoon, the four
containers were taken off the trucks and carefully
stocked. The warehouse employees noticed no
visible signs of damage so they signed off "clean"
(no damage) and full delivery on the trucker's
receipt. During the next week the distributor
started making deliveries out of its warehouse
when a more careful inspection of the cartons
made them realize that some of the monitors had
actually been damaged in transit.
Task
外贸函电
• Wok in pairs. Discuss with your partner the risks
that should be covered under the following two
circumstances for each case above:
– To gain as much profits as possible, and cover
only those against the perils occurred frequently.
– To ensure that the assured will get compensation
whenever there is a peril.
• Point out the special requirements needed in order
to avoid the circumstances happened above.
• Suppose the freight for 200 computer printers is
£1340 and the insurance rate is 0.7%. The printer
is sold at £154 each. Then how much will be
charged for the insurance?
Chapter Eight
Payment
Contents
外贸函电
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Revision
Objectives
Leading In
Sample letter
Language Points
Summary
Assignments
Case study
Revision
外贸函电
• 我们已向中国人民保险公司为货物投保平
安险,金额为3万美元。
• We have covered the goods against F.P.A.
for the amount of $ 30,000 with PICC.
• 请向中国人民保险公司为这批货物投保金
额为25,000美元的水渍险。
• Please cover insurance on this shipment
against W.P.A. for amount of USD 25,000
with the PICC.
外贸函电
• 我们将按一般惯例投保水渍险和战争险
• We usually cover the goods against W.P.A
and War Risk.
• 我们可以投保其他附加险,但是额外的保
险费应由买方承担。
• We can cover other additional risks, but
the extra premium will be for the buyer’s
account.
Objectives
外贸函电
Upon completion of this chapter, the
students will:
• understand the flow chart of L/C.
• be able to urge the opening of the relative
L/C.
• be able to check the L/C.
• be able to make the amendment of the L/C
Leading in
Tools for payment 支付工具
bill of exchange (draft) 汇票
• 1 draft at sight (sight draft)
• 2 draft after sight (time draft)
• 3 a draft at 30 days’ sight
promissory note本票
check/cheque支票
外贸函电
外贸函电
• Terms of payment frequently used (支付
方式)
L/C ---confirmed, irrevocable L/C
Collection ( documentary collection跟单托收)
(1) D/P (2) D/A
Remittance汇付 T/T (telegraphic transfer)
M/T (mail transfer)
D/D (demand draft)
Warming up
Parties Concerned
applicant
beneficiary
advising bank
opening/issuing bank
negotiation/negotiating bank
paying bank
外贸函电
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•
•
•
•
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开证申请人
受益人
通知行
开证行
议付行
付款行
外贸函电
reimbursing bank
confirming bank
drawee
drawer
shipping documents
draw on sb.
in one’s favor
for one’s account
•
•
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•
•
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偿付行
保兑行
受票人(指汇票)
出票人
海运单据
向某人开具汇票
以(某人)为受益人
以(某人)为付款人
Delay in opening the L/C
外贸函电
• The buyer's delay in opening the L/C after
an order is placed can occur in such
circumstances as:
• The delay in issuing the import permit.
• The shortage in the foreign exchange
reserves.
外贸函电
• The buyer who places the order is not in
charge or does not have the authority to
open the L/C. This is often the case in a
large company like chain store, in which
the Finance Department, not the Import
Department, is in charge of the L/C
applications.
• The importer is in a tight financial position.
• The domestic selling price of the import
goods drops.
外贸函电
• The currency of the importing country
devalues.
• The buyer who books the order is laid off.
The buyer with whom the exporter deals
today can be laid off the next day without
advance notice or warning.
• The company is being acquired or is
merging with another company.
外贸函电
Regardless of the means used in opening an
L/C, it is important to request the importer to
fax in advance the
• L/C number,
• L/C issuing and expiry dates,
• name and location (city) of the issuing bank,
• name and location (city) of the advising
bank, and
• L/C amount
Background
Issuance of a Letter of Credit
applicant
contract
order
to open (2)
credit
issuing bank
beneficiary
(1)
credit
(4) advice
(3)
credit
advising bank
Sample letter
外贸函电
• Dear Mr. Brown,
• With reference to your order No. 4755 and S/C No.
CN-5356, we wish to point out that the shipment is
stipulated before July 15. the goods under our S/C
have been ready for quite some time. But we still
haven’t received your relevant L/C.
• Please draw your attention to the fact that the date
of delivery is approaching. We hereby request you
to open by fax an irrevocable sight Letter of Credit
for the amount of $ 64,500 in our favour, with
which we can effect shipment to the original
schedule.
• Please give this letter your prompt attention.
• Yours sincerely,
Language points
外贸函电
• L/C 常用搭配
•
•
•
•
•
covering/regarding+goods
for the amount of+ amount
in one’s favor+beneficiary
for one’s account+ payer
with/through+ issuing bank
外贸函电
• 请开立一个20公吨苹果的信用证,金额为2
万美元。
• Please open an L/C covering twenty
metric tons of apples for the amount of
USD 20,000.
• 今早,我们经由花旗银行开立了一个以你
方为受益人的信用证。
• We opened an L/C in your favor
through the Citi Bank this morning.
with reference to
外贸函电
• 参考你方1月3日报盘,我们想指出价格是
每个24美元而不是26美元。
• With reference to your offer of Jan. 3, we
wish to point out that the price is $24 each
instead of $ 26.
• 请查看我们7月3日关于1000打男式衬衫的
合同。
• We refer you to our contract of July 3 for
1000 dozen of men’s shirts.
stipulate
外贸函电
• (合同)规定在7月15日以前装运。
• The shipment is stipulated to be made
before July 15.
• 合同规定由卖方投保。
• It is stipulated in the contract that the
insurance should be covered by the seller.
外贸函电
• get the goods ready
(the goods) be ready
• 我们将在一个星期内把货备好。
• 货物备妥已有一个星期了。
• We’ll get the goods ready within a week.
• The goods have been ready for a week.
approach
外贸函电
• Tell the meaning of approach according
to the sentences given below:
• I think that we’d better begin our promotion
for new products since the Christmas
selling season is approaching.
• We’ll approach the insurance company
and cover the insurance on your behalf.
Review an L/ C
外贸函电
1. Which Bank issued the Letter of Credit?
(Letter of Credit Header under "Received From:")
Is this bank a reputable one that can be relied on
for payment? (Contact TD's local International
Trade Services office if unsure).
Does the country in which the Issuing Bank is
located have a stable economic and political
environment? If not, does the Letter of Credit
allow for confirmation by another bank in another
country? (SWIFT FORMAT, Field 49)
外贸函电
2 Is the L/C irrevocable? (Field 40A) If it
is not stated, the Letter of Credit is
irrevocable.
3 Are the Importer's (Applicant's) name
and address spelled correctly? (Field 50)
4 Are your name and address spelled
correctly? (Field 59)
5 Are the dollar amount and currency of
the Letter of Credit correct? (Field 32B)
外贸函电
6 Does the payment term agree with the sales
contract? (Field 42C)
7 If necessary, are partial shipments allowed?
(Field 43P)
8 Are the points of shipment (Field 44A) and
destination (Field 44B) as agreed?
9 Is it possible for you to meet the latest shipping
date? Are enough days allowed to present
documents? (Field 48) You may need to check
with the Freight Forwarder handling the
shipment and preparing the documents for you.
外贸函电
10. Is the merchandise description correct and if
needed, does it include unit price, weight and
quantities? (Field 45A) If necessary, does the
Letter of Credit allow for any leeway on the
quantity and/or dollar amount?
11. Are the terms of the sale regarding insurance
and freight charges as agreed? (Field 45A)
12. Can all documents listed in the Letter of Credit
be obtained? (Field 46A) See Document
Preparation Checklists for further information.
外贸函电
13. Which party is responsible for the
Letter of Credit banking charges? (Field
71B)
14. Where is the Letter of Credit payable?
(Field 41D) Note, this will affect the length
of time required to receive your funds.
15. Is the Letter of Credit confirmed? (Field
49)
外贸函电
16. After reviewing the Letter of Credit, if
you find any terms and conditions that are
not to your satisfaction, you must ask the
Importer (Applicant) to instruct the Issuing
Bank to make the necessary amendments
to the Letter of Credit. It is recommended
that you do not proceed with shipment
until such amendments are received.
Background
Amendment of an L/C
applicant
order
amendment
beneficiary
(1)
order
amendment (2)
amendment
(4) notification
issuing bank
(3)
advising bank
amendment
notification
Language used for amending L/C 外 贸 函 电
• amend ….as/to
• 请修改信用证,允许转船和分批装运。
• Please amend the L/C to allow
transshipment and partial shipment.
• 请修改信用证金额,金额应为2万5千欧元。
• Please amend the amount of the L/C,
which should be €25,000.
外贸函电
• 不允许分批装运应改为允许分批装运。
• ‘Partial shipment is not allowed’ should
be amended as ‘Partial shipment is
allowed’.
• 请将信用证上的金额该为“2% more or
less”。
• Please amend the amount of the L/C to
read “ 2% more or less”
外贸函电
• 请对信用证速作修改。 。
• Please rush the amendment to the
L/C.
• 兹附寄第50号信用证的修改通知。
• We enclose amendment advice of
L/C No. 50.
should be….instead of/not
is…not
外贸函电
• 开证行应是中国银行而不是花旗银行。
• The issuing bank should be Bank of China
instead of Citi Bank.
• 单价应为每公吨38英镑而不是每公吨38欧元。
• The unit price should be £38 per M/T not €38
per M/T.
• 装运港是上海,不是大连。
• The port of shipment is Shanghai not Dalian.
Checking the incoming
of letters of credit
外贸函电
The exporter should check the details of
letter of credit, including the following:
 The names and addresses are
complete and spelled correctly.
The amount is sufficient to cover the
consignment.
外贸函电
The L/C is irrevocable and confirmed by
the advising bank, conforming to sales
contract.
 The description of goods is correct.
 The quantity is correct.
 The unit price of goods, if stated in the
L/C, conforms to the contract price.
The latest date for shipment or the
shipping date is sufficient to dispatch the
consignment.
外贸函电
The latest date for negotiation or the
expiry date is sufficient to present the
documents and draft(s) to the bank.
 The port of shipment and the port of
destination are correct.
The partial shipment is permitted or
prohibited.
外贸函电
The transshipment is permitted or
prohibited.
 The L/C is transferable or nontransferable.
 The type of risk and the amount of
insurance coverage, if required.
 The documents required are obtainable.
Summary
• The flow chart of L/C
• Checking the L/C
• Language points:
Open a L/C covering/regarding…
for the amount of…
in one’s favor…
for one’s account…
with/through…
get the goods ready
amend ….as/to
should be….instead of/not
外贸函电
Assignment
外贸函电
•
Translate the following into English
•
今天,我方收到由美国花旗银行开出的以你方为付款
人的金额为3500美元的信用证。
这次交易我们将采用“承兑交单 ”的支付方式。
只有金额不超过1500美元的时候我们才接受付款交单。
一般情况下我们采用不可撤消的信用证,凭装运单据
付款。
尽管再三催请开证,仍未收到你方信用证。请立即开
立信用证,否则不能按计划交货。
请将信用证的装运期和有效期分别展至5月15日和5月
30日,以便我们能装运提及的货物。
你们一定要在交货前一个月内把信用证开至我方。
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Case study
外贸函电
• Task: Discuss with your partner what
payment structure suits the following
situation best :
• CanExport is in the process of negotiating
a large sale with a new customer, Widgets
Import Inc. This customer is located in a
politically unstable developing country.
Widgets Import is asking for 180 day
payment terms, and CanExport agrees as
this promises to be a very lucrative deal.
Chapter Nine
Shipment
Contents
外贸函电
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Revision
Objectives
Leading In
Sample letter
Language Points
Summary
Assignments
Case study
Revision
外贸函电
• 我们今天通过中国人民银行大连分行就第3422号
定单开立了以你方为受益人的不可撤消的信用证,
金额为9千美元。
• Today we have opened an irrevocable L/C in
your favor for the amount of US$ 9000 covering
our Order No.3422 with the Bank of China,
Dalian.
• 请修改信用证,允许转船和分批装运。
• Please amend the L/C to allow transshipment
and partial shipment.
外贸函电
•
•
•
•
尽管再三催请开证,仍未收到你方信用证。
请立即开立信用证,否则不能按计划交货。
In spite of our repeated requests, we still
have not received your letter of credit up
to now.
开证行应是中国银行而不是花旗银行。
The issuing bank should be Bank of
China instead of Citi Bank.
Objectives
外贸函电
Upon completion of this chapter, you
will:
be able to define such terms as mode of
transportation, partial shipment, and
transshipment.
be able to give shipping instruction and
shipping advice.
know the words and phrases frequently
used for ocean freight.
Leading In
外贸函电
• Shipment procedures
• Shipment, one of the indispensable terms
of sales contract, signifies the seller’s
fulfillment of the obligation to make
delivery of the goods.
In practice, shipment involves such
procedures as clearing the goods through
the customs, booking shipping space or
chartering a ship, completing shipping
documents, dispatching shipping advice.
Modes of Transport
外贸函电
• Ocean Carriage
• It is the most widely used mode of
transportation in international trade.
• Road Freight
• About 50% to 80% of cross-border
deliveries are completed using road
freight. Generally, a transit distance
within 1,000 kilometers using road
freight is competitive compared to
rail and air freight.
外贸函电
• Rail Freight
• Rail transport is a major mode of transport in
terms of capacity, only second to ocean
transport. It is capable of achieving relatively
high speed and is most economical.
• Air Freight
• Most air cargoes are carried on passenger
airliner.
Shipping advice
外贸函电
• In international trade the buyer sometimes send the
shipping instructions to the seller. Sometimes the
buyer will write to the seller for informing the seller of
effecting shipment in case of shipment delay.
• After the shipment of the goods, the seller will send
the buyer the Shipping Advice to inform the buyer he
related shipment details, the contents of which are
as follows:
• The date of shipment
• The shipped goods
• The way of shipment
Warming up
• date of shipment
• date of delivery
• port of loading (port of
shipment)
• port of discharge (port of
destination)
• transshipment
• partial shipment
• shipping marks
• freight
外贸函电
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•
装运日期
交货日期
装货港
(装运港)
卸货港(目的港)
转船
分批装运
唛头
运费
Language points
外贸函电
• make/effect shipment
• 装船将在收到信用证以后的一个月内执行
• The shipment will be effected within one month
after receipt of the L/C.
• 一旦货物备妥,我们将立即装运。
• We will effect shipment as soon as possible
once the goods are ready.
• 请立即开立信用证以便于我们能及时装运。
• Please open an L/C immediately so that we can
effect shipment in due course.
s.s.
•
•
•
•
steam ship (s.s.)(s/s)
motor vessel (m.v.)(m/v)
请用东风号轮装运。
Please ship the goods by s.s.
DONGFENG.
外贸函电
due to
外贸函电
• 王子号预计将在明天启航,大约在10月1日
左右抵达利物浦,并在新家坡转船。
• S.s. Prince is due to sail tomorrow and
arrive at Liverpool on or about Oct.1 with
transshipment at Singapore.
• 这艘船预计在9月10日能抵达目的港纽约。
• This ship is due to arrive at the port of
destination-New York- on Sep. 10.
available
外贸函电
• an L/C available by draft at sight
• 即期信用证
• We regret that these goods are not
available at present.
• 我们很遗憾目前不能供应此货物。
• Please ship the subject goods by the first
available steamer.
• 请用第一艘可订到舱位的船装运标题项下
货物。
freight
外贸函电
• 请报从中国上海运往美国纽约的2000公吨
煤的运费。
• Please quote the freight for 2000 metric
tons of coal from Shanghai, China to New
York,U.S.
• 根据合同,运费由买方支付。
• According to the contract, the freight is for
the buyer’s account.
book shipping space
外贸函电
• 我们已在东风号轮上订到舱位,预计在7月
2号左右驶向你方港口。
• We have booked shipping space on s.s.
Dongfeng which is due to sail to your port
on or about July 2.
• 请尽快开信用证以便我们可以订到舱位。
• Please open L/C as soon as possible so
that we may book shipping space.
depart---call at
外贸函电
• 你方指定的船刚刚离开。下一个可订到舱位的
船将在三天后启航,大概在十月二十一日抵达
你港口。
• This ship you named has just departed. The
next available steamer will sail three days
later and call at your port on or about Oct. 21.
• 我们能在开船前将货备好。
• We can get the goods ready before the ship’s
departure.
extend to
外贸函电
• Because of the recent fire in the factory, all
the stocks were destroyed. In this case,
we cannot make shipment as arranged
before. Please extend the date of
shipment and the expiry date of L/C No.
44779 to 30 April and 15 May respectively.
• 由于最近工厂发生火灾烧毁了全部库存,
一不能按照原来安排交货。请将44779号信
用证交货期和有效期分别展至4月30日和5
月15日。
delay
外贸函电
• 由于你们延迟开立信用证,我们未能如期装
船。
• As a result of your delay in opening L/C, we
were unable to effect shipment in good
time.
• 任何装运的延误都将给我们带来很大的困难。
• Any delay in shipment will involve us in no
small difficulty.
外贸函电
• 由于你方已有数次延误了开证,希望这次
勿再耽搁。
• As you have delayed opening Ls/C several
times, we hope you will not delay again
this time.
• 该船系因天气恶劣而误点。
• The ship’s delay was due to bad weather.
• 这将造成15天的延误。
• This will cause a delay of about 15 days.
外贸函电
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Time of Shipment
在2004年11月25日以前装运
to be shipped before November 25,2004
装运日期不迟于2004年7月31日
to be shipped not later than July 31, 2004
最迟装运期限:2005年4月30日
the latest time of shipment is April 30,
2005
外贸函电
• 在2004年10月和11月份装运
• to be shipped between October/
November, 2004
• 在2004年11月和2005年2月之间装运
• to be shipped from November 2004 to
February 2005
Supplementary
外贸函电
• 1.我们将尽量满足特殊的运输要求,但额外
的费用要由顾客自行承担。
• We’ll try our best to meet the special
requirements for shipment, but the extra
charges should be borne by the clients
themselves.
• 2.你方应负责订舱、报关及清关。
• You should be responsible for booking
shipping space, declaring and clearing the
goods through the customs.
外贸函电
• 3. 我们向RS Shipping订了一个20尺集装箱,
整箱货的价格是每箱1500美元,即每立方米
45.455美元。
• We ordered a 20-foot container from RS
Shipping. The price for FCL is USD 1500,
that is 45.455 cbm.
• 4. 我们英国的零售商坚持要求用标准的托盘
将货物送到他们的配送中心。
• Our retailers in UK insist that standard pallets
are used to send the goods to their
distributing centers.
外贸函电
• 5. 我们已收到贵方质疑运费季节性涨价的电子邮件。随
附清单,请查看。
• We’ve received your email questioning the seasonal
increase in freight. Enclosed is our list, please check it.
• 我们要强调的是我们的运输费用和承运人收取的费用几
乎是一致的。想查看承运人将货运到贵国每吨所需费用,
请点击这里。
• I must emphasize that our freight is almost the same
as what the carrier charges. For details for the freight
to your country per ton, please click here.
外贸函电
• 7. 请散装白糖,而不是用袋装,并根据行
业标准包装味素(monosodium glutamate) 。
• Please ship the sugar in bulk, not in bags.
• Please pack the monosodium glutamate
according to the industrial standard.
外贸函电
• 8. 我们对货物质量很满意,但对货物的内
包装不太满意,太粗糙,图案不理想。因
此,我们想使用自己的包装袋。
• We are quite satisfied with the quality of
the goods, but not the inner packing.
• It is too coarse and the design is too
unsatisfactory.
• So, we want to use our own packing.
外贸函电
• 9. 国际集装箱超期使用费计算办法为:40
英尺冷藏集装箱超期使用费标准为1-4天免
费,5-10天每天30美元,11-40天每天42美
元,41天以上每天120美元。
• The method for calculating overdue
international containers is as follows,
• 40-foot refrigerated containers
• 1-4 days --- free
• 5-10 days --- USD 30 per day
• 41 days and above --- USD 120 per day
外贸函电
• 10.你方应在2008年10月派船到装运港接货。如
果在此期间不能派船接货,我方保留28天,但
仓储、保险、利息等费用由你方负责。
• You should send a ship to the port of shipment
to take delivery of the goods in Oct. 2008.
• If you fail to do it, we will keep the goods for 28
days.
• But the extra charges for storage, insurance
and interest will be borne by you.
Summary
外贸函电
• Mode of transport: Ocean Carriage,
Road Freight, Rail Freight, Air Freight
• Shipping advice: the date of shipment,
the shipped goods, the way of shipment
• Language points: make/effect shipment,
book shipping space, available, freight, s.s,
extend to, delay
Assignment
外贸函电
• Write a letter with the information given
below:
• 已按要求向轮船公司订舱位,但舱位已订满,
很抱歉。
• 在 “黄河”号订到舱位, 预计在3月2日左右
开往你方, 但在香港要转船。
• 请尽快修改信用证, 允许转船和分批装运。
Case study
外贸函电
• 请翻译以下的信件:
• 我方接到开证行通知,关于第3459号合同项下第
xxx号信用证50公吨冷冻罗非鱼(Frozen Tilapia
Fillet)包装规格,据开证行称,贵公司不同意接受
20公斤包装规格货物,这不符合我们双方在洽谈
时达成的条件。在洽谈时,贵方同意我方对于货
物的包装规格可以选择20公斤和25公斤两种规格
中的一种,而我方本次装运的50公吨冷冻罗非鱼
中,20公吨的包装规格为20公斤,30公吨的包装
规格为25公斤,这符合我们双方签订的合同规定。
请接受。
外贸函电
• 请根据以下的信息写一封回信:
• 1. 合同与信用证中在包装规格的选择上用的是
“或”,而不是“和”,前者意为非此即彼,后
者意为两者都可以。
• 2. 我们在合同与信用证中明确规定为20公斤或25
公斤。也就是说,在包装规格方面,要么全部选
择20公斤的,要么选择25公斤的,不能同时选择
这两种包装规格装运货物。
• 3. 贵方在装运时同时选择两种规格的包装,这不
符合合同与信用证的规定,我方无法接受。
Chapter Ten
Claim
Contents
外贸函电
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Revision
Objectives
Leading In
Sample letter
Language Points
Summary
Assignments
Case study
Revision
外贸函电
• 我们已经收到你方10月3日的来信,要求我们修改标题订单以
前安排的装运事宜。
• 我们知道,我们现在 80%的货物在2002年11月装运,其余的
在12月装运,而不是于2002年1月和2月分两次等批装运。
• 现答复并告诉你们,虽然我们对上述订单的货物可供现货,但
是航运公司通知我们,由于驶往你港口的直达船不论是班轮或
不定期船都很稀少,因此,到11月底所有的舱位都已被订完了。
在这种情况下我们抱歉未能满足你方的要求。
• 但是,假如你们允许在香港转船,我们会尽力与航运公司就11
月装运第一批货物的问题进一步订立合同。如果是这样,你方
必须负担增加的费用。尽管如此,我们仍怀疑所述货物能比原
定的时间更早到达你处。
• 请考虑上述问题并尽快将决定告诉我们。
Objectives
外贸函电
Upon completion of this chapter, the
students will:
• be able to express yourself accurately
when lodging a claim or settling a claim.
• grasp the terminology concerning cargo
insurance claim.
• understand some related knowledge such
as the procedure of lodging a claim.
Leading in
外贸函电
• Procedures of lodging a claim
• Beginning: Announce the claim
• Middle: Expand with details
1.Provide a narrative of the error: For a product,
include name, model, serial number, warranty
information, where purchased, when, and for
how much.
外贸函电
2.Describe your compliance with any requested
claims procedure.
3.Refer to any pertinent documents, like sales
slips, that you enclose.
4. Describe the requested action: A refund? A
repair? A new item?
Ending positively: you’ll remain a customer
if the company corrects the problem.
Warming up
外贸函电
• Structure of a letter for claim
• Identify the purpose of the letter, reminding
the reader of the source of the complaint
as well as of any suggestions the reader
originally made for dealing with the
complaint
• Deal with the complaint, outlining whatever
the writer can do to help the reader
• Assure the reader of the writer’s goodwill
and attention to the problem
Sample letter
外贸函电
Dear Mr. Zhang,
Re: 90 broken sets
We have received the goods under our order No.4753
respectively.
On examination, we found that the cartons of Porcelain
Tea Sets were in a damaged condition. All the cartons
in nine wooden cases had burst open as a result of
friction in transit. So, almost 90 sets are broken. We
proceeded to have a survey report made. The report has
now confirmed our initial findings. It indicates that the
loss was due to improper stowage before shipment, for
which you, the supplier, are responsible.
Sample letter
外贸函电
On the strength of the survey report, we
hereby register our claim against you as
follows:
Breakage value:£1,980
Survey charges:£150
Total claimed:£2,130
We hereby enclose Survey Report No. AE
25863 for your reference and look forward
to your early settlement.
Truly yours,
Language points
外贸函电
• 索赔常见表达方式
lodge
file
against/with + sb. for
raise
certain reason on +
register
shipment for + amount
常见索赔原因
•
•
•
•
•
•
shortage (short weight)
Breakage
Leakage
damage
Improper/faulty packing
Inferior quality
外贸函电
•
•
•
•
•
•
短重
破碎
渗漏
损坏
不良包装
不良品质
claim
外贸函电
• 由于分量短少,买主对此批货物索赔人民
币1500元。
• Buyers have lodged a claim on this
shipment for RMB 1500 for short weight.
• 因运输途中受损,我们已经向保险公司提
出要求赔偿310美元.
• We have already raised a claim against
the insurance company for $310 for
damage in transit.
外贸函电
• 经过照发票查对之后,发现数量少了很多。
• After checking the goods against your
invoice, we discovered a considerable
shortage in number.
• 由“大庆”轮运来的50吨花生,由于短运,
我方提出索赔2050美元。
• We claim US$ 2050 for short shipment on
the 50 tons peanuts ex s.s. “Daqing”.
in good condition
外贸函电
• As the case is in good condition and does
not appear to have been tampered with,
we surmise that you must have shortshipped.
• 由于包装外型良好,且无动过的迹象,因
此,我们认为你们一定是少装了。
外贸函电
•
•
•
•
•
hold sb. responsible for sth.
要某人负责某事
to be responsible to sb. for sth
向某人对某事负责
We are not responsible for the delay. The
shipper must be held responsible.
• 延误的责任不在我方。必须由发货人负责。
responsible
外贸函电
• We must hold you responsible for all
consequences arising there from.
• (You should be responsible for all the
consequences arising there from.)
• 由此发生的一切后果我们必须要你方负责。
(你方应对由此发生的一切后果负责。)
外贸函电
• It is established beyond controversy that
the shipping company is responsible for
the damage of the goods in transit.
• It is established beyond controversy
that… 确定无可争议的是…
• 确定无可争议的是,船公司对货物在运输
途中受残负有责任。
on the strength of
外贸函电
• You may draw a draft on us on the
strength of our written instructions dated
the 15th March.
• 你方可凭我方3月15日的书面通知向我方开
出光票收据。
• We shall, on strength of the Inspection
Report issued by the said Bureau, have
the right to reject the goods delivered.
• 根据上述商检局的检验报告,我们将有权
拒绝收货。
settle a claim
外贸函电
• 今天航空邮出3000美元支票一张,以支付
你方500英镑短重索赔。
• Our cheque for US$ 3000 was airmailed to
you today in settlement of your claim for
short weight of 500 lb.
Summary
外贸函电
• Structure of a letter for claim
• Identify the purpose of the letter, reminding
the reader of the source of the complaint
as well as of any suggestions the reader
originally made for dealing with the
complaint
• Deal with the complaint, outlining whatever
the writer can do to help the reader
• Assure the reader of the writer’s goodwill
and attention to the problem
• Language points
Assignment
外贸函电
• Write a letter with the information given
below:
• 收到5月3日来信及相关索赔附件。看过后,
发现货物损失发生在内陆地区。双方以CIF
成交,卖方只负责投保到目的港。不能接
受索赔。
Case study
外贸函电
• Background
• Shanghai Huadong Corporation purchased 7.5
metric tons of frozen pork shoulders at the price of
¢68 per pound C.I.F. Shanghai. The seller covered
the insurance for 110% of the invoice value against
All Risks.
• The American seller shipped the load of frozen pork
shoulders in three refrigerated containers. In transit
one of the refrigeration units ceased functioning
and the goods within were spoiled, while another
was not plugged in due to the negligence of the
carrier. The food products within were deteriorated
when they reached the destination port of Shanghai.
外贸函电
• Task
• Wok in pairs
• Discuss with your partner with whom
should Shanghai Huadong Corporation
lodge a claim for the damages under Case
One?
外贸函电
Thank you!
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幻灯片 1 - 辽宁对外经贸学院