Energy Saving: The UK Perspective
Keith Tovey
Energy Science Director
CRed Project
Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук
Факультет экологических исследований
Университета Восточной Англии
Energy Saving: The UK Perspective
• The Background to Energy Conservation
– Why is it important?
• Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK?
• How is Energy Conservation promoted in the
UK?
• Conclusions
Energy Saving: Why is it important?
• The UK has been self sufficient in energy
• Under present trends the UK will be a substantive
importer of natural gas and oil by 2020
• It makes sense to reduce energy demand and still remain
competitive economically.
• Reducing energy demand will also see a reduction in
carbon dioxide - the main contributor to Global Warming
• The Government has set targets and provided mechanisms
to provide grants for individuals and industry.
• However, more could be done.
The Background to Energy Conservation
•
In UK each person is consuming energy at a rate of
5.1 kW
•
In USA it is 10.6 kW
1/20th or World’s Population consumes 25% of all energy
•
•
In Europe it is 5.7 kW
In Russia it is also 5.7 kW
•
Globally it is around 2 kW
• ENERGY Consumption > Carbon Dioxide > Global Warming
Energy Saving: The UK Perspective
GDP changes in UK
Total Energy Demand in UK
Energy Saving: The UK Perspective
Wealth of UK
increased uniformly
with energy in 1950s
and 1960s
Major infra-structure
projects in late 1960s early 1970s
1979 - 1992
restructuring followed
by increase efficiency
1992 - increased
conservation
Energy Saving: The UK Perspective
UK has become more
efficient in using
energy to generate
wealth over past 50
years.
Generate the same
wealth with 45% of
energy as in 1950.
Improvement ~ 1.45%
per annum
The Background to Energy Conservation
Energy - GDP Relationships
40000
USA
GDP per head (US$ (95)
35000
Qatar
Japan
30000
Canada
UK
25000
France
20000
Other EU Countries
Mediterranean EU
Nordic EU
New EU
Germany
Poland
15000
Russia
10000
China
5000
India
0
0
5
10
15
kW per Head
20
25
30
The Background to Energy Conservation
Carbon Dioxide Emissions per unit of Energy
Carbon Emissions per unit of Primary Energy
50
CO2 Emissions per Capita
45
Qatar
40
35
Developing
30 Countries
USA
Australia
25
Russia
20
Other EU
Germany
15
EU nordic
Canada
Japan
UK
10
EU med
5
EU new
France
0
0
5
10
15
20
Primary Energy per Capita (kW)
25
30
Future Global Warming Rates
Concentration of C02 in Atmosphere
380
370
(ppm)
360
350
340
330
320
310
300
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
The Background to Energy Conservation
How much Carbon Dioxide is each person emitting as a
result of the energy they use?
In UK 9 tonnes per annum.
What does 9 tonnes look like?
Equivalent of 5 Hot Air Balloons!
To combat Global Warming
we must reduce CO2 by 60%
i.e. to 2 Hot Air Balloons
How far does one have to drive to emit
the same amount of CO2 as heating an old
persons room for 1 hour?
3.2 km
The Background to Energy Conservation
per capita Consumption in Watts in UK
Domestic
Transport
Industry
Other
Conversion
Total
Non-Energy
1970
816
623
1379
411
1712
4942
240
1980
882
786
1069
414
1565
4716
165
~ 5 kW
1990
902
1076
855
425
1745
5004
249
• Transport Energy use has risen 10.5% in last decade
• Domestic use has risen by over 10%
2002
1060
1207
769
442
1844
5321
241
Energy Saving: The UK Perspective
• The Background to Energy Conservation
• Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK?
• The Domestic Sector
• Small Businesses
• An example from a large business
• How is Energy Conservation promoted in the
UK?
• Conclusions
Energy Saving:
Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK?
Domestic Consumers
• some see Energy Conservation as a way to save money
– less interested when they learn it may take many years to pay
back
• others see Energy Conservation as a moral and environmental issue
and will strive to incorporate energy saving at an early stage
• many over-estimate the size of their energy bills
• several people see themselves as already being energy efficient.
– PowerGen Energy Monitor (October 2004)
• many are influenced by other factors
– e.g. double glazing rather than cavity insulation!
• Many are unaware of what grants are available
Energy Saving:
Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK?
Small/Medium sized Businesses (SME’s)
number of employees < 250
• some see Energy Conservation as a way to save money
– but say they have little time to undertake measures
• many have little accurate knowledge of their energy bills or where
they could save money and energy.
• Some make decisions in which energy efficiency is an important
factor.
• Some see a commercial advantage in being able to demonstrate their
environmental credentials.
• several SME’s see themselves as already being energy efficient.
– PowerGen Energy Monitor (October 2004)
• Many are unaware of what grants are available
Energy Saving:
Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK?
Large Businesses: number of employees > 250
• Many Companies have an Energy Manager
• some significant reductions in energy use, energy bills, and carbon
dioxide reductions have been achieved:
– e.g. combined heat and power
An example University of East Anglia
Unlike Russia, large CHP schemes are not common
only one scheme > 500 MW
most are schemes < 10 MW and over 50% 1 MW or less
UEA has three 1 MW gas engines which provide 70 - 75% of electricity
of peak electricity and supply 4.2 MW of heat
Energy Saving:
Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK?
University of East Anglia: CHP Scheme
Energy Saving:
Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK?
Before Installation: Energy and Carbon Dioxide
1997/98
electricity
gas
oil
kWh
19895328 351418158 33150
kg/kWh
0.43
0.186
0.277
total
balloons
tonnes CO28555
6537.6
9.2 15101.7
8390
After Installation:
electricity (kWh)
demand
20436531
CHP generation 15630431
export
977000
oil (kWh)
gas (kWh)
import
5783100 Boilers
CHP
net import
4806100 14510078 28263077 922563
kg/kWh
tonnes
0.43
2066.6
0.186
2698.9
0.186
5256.9
Saving in CO2: 4824 tonnes or 31.9%
0.277
255.5
total balloons
10278 5710
Energy Saving:
Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK?
Before the scheme
Energy Bill > £1 000 000 per annum
After scheme
Annual Saving initially around £ 400 000 per annum
However, the introduction of the New Electricity Trading
Arrangements have had an impact
out of balance issues for suppliers to whom exports were sold
Government targets were to achieve 10 000 MW by 2010
However, number of schemes have declined slightly, and target will
not be reached may be difficult to achieve 7500 MW
Energy Saving:
Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK?
• In summer, UEA has little demand for heat
• limits amount of electricity generated
• > 1 MW cooling load provided by electric refrigeration
An absorption
chiller uses
waste heat to
provide cooling
• Absorption Chilling will be installed in early 2005.
• Reduces electrical load and Increases electrical generation
Energy Saving: The UK Perspective
• The Background to Energy Conservation
• Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK?
• How is Energy Conservation promoted in the
UK?
• What grants are available
• How is it financed?
• Conclusions
Energy Saving:
How is it promoted in the UK?
• By Government (and Local Government) via:
• Legislation
– e.g. Building Regulations - currently being revised
• Energy Conservation Grants
– e.g. home insulation, low energy light bulbs, etc.
• Energy Labelling
• Promotion of Renewable Energy Schemes
– e.g. Wind, Solar, Biomass, Wave, Tidal
• Climatic Change Levy on businesses (0.43p per kWh)
• Participation in EU (Carbon) Emissions Trading Scheme
– ~ 7 - 10 Euros per tonne
• Awareness / Education / Advice
– e.g.
Energy Saving:
Legislation: Building Regulations
Performance of dwellings
over the years following
Regulation changes.
Variation of Carbon Emission and Carbon Index with
Building Regulations
70
pre-war
60
1955
1965
50
2
kg CO2 /m /yr
Theorectical
Perfection
in 2002
Regulations
40
Modern houses
• use only 20% of energy
1976
30
1985
1990
• emit only 20% of CO2
1994
20
2002
10
of pre-war houses
Elizabeth Fry
ZICER
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Carbon Index
7
8
9
10
Standards to improve
further in future
Energy Saving: Energy Conservation Grants
Home Energy Conservation Act 1995 - HECA
www.heca.co.uk
Energy Saving Trust: Grants for Domestic
Properties - also Transport
www.est.org.uk
Carbon Trust:
Grants for Businesses
www.thecarbontrust.co.uk
Energy Saving: HECA www.heca.co.uk
Energy Saving: Energy Saving Trust: www.est.org.uk
Energy Saving: Energy Saving Trust www.est.org.uk
Energy Saving: The Carbon Trust
www.thecarbontrust.co.uk
Energy Saving: Energy Labelling
Energy Saving: Renewable Energy
• Government Targets
• 10.4% of total electricity by 2010
• unlikely to be met - at best 6 - 7%
• 20% by 2020
60 MW offshore Wind Farm at Yarmouth - to be
commissioned by end of October 2004.
New Wave Powered device - launched 6th August 2004
Onshore 1.5 MW turbine
Energy Saving: Climatic Change Levy
• Climatic Change Levy on businesses
• Encourages Businesses to reduce energy
– 0.43p per kWh (electricity) or £4.3 per tonne of carbon dioxide
• scheme is financially neutral over all businesses
– income finances a reduction in National Insurance
Contributions paid by all employers for every employee.
• Energy Efficient premises with large numbers of employees
benefit.
• Heavy energy users with few employees loose out.
– Certain key industries e.g. Electricity Generation etc are
exempt.
Energy Saving: European Trading Scheme
• Comes into force 1st January 2005
• All businesses with a thermal output > 20 MW must participate
• All EU countries have had to set a National Plan consistent with
Kyoto Objectives.
• All EU countries have to allocate each plant (> 20 MW) a number
of free credits for the years 2005 - 2007.
• There is an overall reduction in emissions
– e.g. electricity sector to reduce by ~ 15% over period
• Steps must be taken to conserve energy, buy credits on the open
market or pay the ultimate price of 40 Euros a tonne.
• Current trading price ~ 7 - 10 Euros per tonne
• will cause price of electricity to consumers to rise.
Energy Saving: Awareness / Education / Advice
• Understandable Language
A mobile phone charger left on
------
up to 25 kg CO2 a year
Standby on television > 60 kg per year
Filling up with petrol (~£30 for a full tank)
--------- 90 kg of CO2
(5% of a balloon)
A tumble dryer uses four times as much
energy as the equivalent washing machine
- use the dryer sparingly
Boiling an extra cup full of water causes the
emission of 25 cupfuls of carbon dioxide.
Energy Saving: The UK Perspective
• The Background to Energy Conservation
• Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK?
• How is Energy Conservation promoted in the
UK?
• Conclusions
Energy Saving: Conclusions
• UK has made some steps to reduce primary energy
• More could be done
• Achieved as a combinations of
–
–
–
–
–
–
Legislation
Energy Conservation GrantsEnergy Labelling
Promotion of Renewable Energy Schemes
Climatic Change Levy
Participation in EU (Carbon) Emissions Trading Scheme
Awareness / Education / Advice
Key Web Sites:
Home Energy Conservation Act
www.heca.co.uk
Energy Saving Trust
www.est.org.uk
Carbon Trust
www.thecarbontrust.co.uk
National Energy Foundation
www.natenergy.org.uk
[email protected]
Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук
Факультет экологических исследований
Университета Восточной Англии
Energy Science Director, Low Carbon Innovation Centre
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Energy Saving: The UK Perspective