Chapter 9
Consumer Behavior
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In this Cadillac ad, the past and
present are identified to launch a
new car.
9-2
Copyright © 2004 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. All rights reserved.
What is Consumer Behavior?
Study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the
processes used to select, secure, use and dispose of
products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy
needs and the impacts that these processes have on
consumers and society.
Answers the question of WHY?
Are managers telepathic? Do decisions regarding
the 4 P’s just come to them?
What are some commonly asked questions regarding
consumer’s behavior?
9-3
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Applications of Consumer Behavior
Marketing strategy: MANAGERIAL
RELEVANCE
Regulatory Policy: Warning Labels/ Nutrition
Labeling
Social Marketing/ TRUTH ads
TV violence
HIV prevention
9-4
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Interpersonal Determinants of
Consumer Behavior
 Cultural Influences
Culture: values, beliefs, preferences, and
tastes handed down from one generation to
the next
It is important to recognize the concept of
ethnocentrism, or the
tendency to view your
own culture as the
norm, as it relates to
consumer behavior.
9-5
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 Core Values in the
U.S. Culture
 While some cultural
values change over
time, basic core values
do not
 Examples of American
core values include:
 Importance of family
and home life
 The work ethic
 Desire to
accumulate wealth
9-6
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 Milton Bradley
Parker Brothers
 Emphasizing the
Importance of Family
and Home Life
9-7
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 Listerine
 This ad from the
early 1900s, which
states “Like every
woman, her
primary ambition
was to marry . . .”
demonstrates how
culture changes
over time.
9-8
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 International Perspective on Cultural
Influences
Cultural differences are particularly important
for international marketers
Successful strategies in one country often
cannot extend to other international markets
because of cultural variations
9-9
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 Benetton
 This Firm Has Been Successful Extending Strategies
Across Cultural and National Boundaries
9-10
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 Subcultures: subgroup of culture with its
own, distinct modes of behavior
 Cultures are not homogeneous entities with
universal values.
 Subcultures can differ by:
Ethnicity
Nationality
Age
Religion
Geographic
distribution
9-11
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 Ethnic and Racial Minorities
0.70%
1.80%
0.40%
3.10%
12.50%
Hispanic American
African Americans
Asian American
Native American
Two or More Races
Other
12.10%
Note: Percentages have been rounded.
SOURCE: Data from Roger Simon and Angie Cannon, “An Amazing Journey,” U.S. News & World Report, August 6. 2001,
p. 12.
9-12
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 Univision
 This web site is designed to meet the needs of the
growing Hispanic population who prefer SpanishLanguage Programs.
9-13
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 Subcultures: AsianAmerican Consumers
 Marketing to AsianAmericans presents
many of the same
challenges as
marketing to Hispanics
 Asian-Americans are
spread among culturally
diverse groups,
including Chinese,
Japanese, Indians,
Koreans, Filipinos, and
Vietnamese --many
retaining their own
languages
9-14
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Interpersonal Determinants of
Consumer Behavior
 Social Influences
Group membership influences an individual’s
purchase decisions and behavior in both
overt and subtle ways.
Norms: are the values, attitudes, and
behaviors that a group deems appropriate
for its members
Status: is the relative position of any
individual member in a group
Roles define behavior that members of a
group expect of individuals who hold
specific positions within the group
9-15
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 Jordache
 Advertisement
Illustrating the
Influence of
Friendship Groups
on Purchase
Decisions
9-16
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 The Asch Phenomenon: the effect of a
reference group on individual decision-making
 Reference groups: groups whose value
structures and standards influence a person’s
behavior
Requires two conditions:
The purchased product must
be one that others can see
and identify.
The purchased item must be
conspicuous; it must stand
out as something unusual,
a brand or product that not
everyone owns.
9-17
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 Opinion leaders: individuals likely to
purchase new products before others and
then share the resulting experiences and
opinions by word-of-mouth
Alternative Channels for Communications Flow
9-18
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Personal Determinants of
Consumer Behavior
9-19
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 Needs and Motives
Need: an imbalance between a consumer’s
actual and desired states
Motives: inner states that direct a person
toward the goal of satisfying a felt need
9-20
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Marketing Strategy and Consumer
Behavior
1-1
Outcomes
Individual
Firm
Society
Consumer decision process
Problem Recognition
Information Search
Alternative Evaluation
Purchase
Use
Evaluation
Marketing strategy
Product, Price, Distribution,
Promotion, Service
Marketing segmentation
Identify product-related need sets
Group Customers with similar need sets
Describe each group
Select attractive segment(s) to target
Marketing analysis
Company
Competitors
Conditions
Consumers
9-21
Copyright © 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights
reserved.
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This advertisement shows how
the customer is helped through
the buying decision making
process…a little unusual but
effective none the less.
9-22
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Describe the Need Set
9-23
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 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Actualization
Esteem Needs
Social Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
9-24
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Physiological Needs
Products
Vitamins, herbal supplements, medicines, food, exercise
equipment, fitness clubs
Marketing
themes
Church’s Fried Chicken—“Gotta love it.”
Campbell’s Healthy Request Soups—“M’m! M’m! Good! . . . and
Healthy!”
Bausch & Lomb—“See the Wonder. ”
Safety Needs
Products
Cars and car accessories, burglar alarm systems, retirement
investments, insurance, smoke and carbon-monoxide detectors,
medicines
Marketing
themes
Fireman’s Fund insurance—“License to get on with it.”
American General Financial Group—“Live the life you’ve imagined.”
Shell Oil—“Count on Shell.”
Bayer—“Changing the world with great care.”
Volvo—“Protect the body. Ignite the soul.”
9-25
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Belongingness
Products
Beauty aids, entertainment, clothing, cars
Marketing
themes
Dell Computer—“Hey Dude, you’re getting a Dell.”
Blue Ridge Knives—“Follow the leader.”
Lawson Software—“Leading-edge technology without the attitude.”
Egift online retailer—“Great gifts for everyone . . . starting with you.”
Esteem Needs
Product
Clothing, cars, jewelry, liquors, hobbies, beauty spa services
Marketing
themes
Saks Fifth Avenue—“Defining Style.”
Van Cleef & Arpels—“The pleasure of perfection.”
Accutron watches—“Perhaps it’s worthy of your trust.”
Jenn-Air kitchen appliances—“The sign of a great cook.”
Self-Actualization
Products
Education, cultural events, sports, hobbies, luxury goods
Marketing
themes
Gatorade—“Is it in you?”
Baccarat Crystal—“Beauty has its reasons.”
Grand Lido Resorts—“Lost and found for the soul.”
Gauthier jewelry—“Wear art.”
9-26
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 Attitudes
Attitudes: a person’s enduring favorable or
unfavorable evaluations, emotional feelings,
or action tendencies toward some object or
data
Attitude components:
 The cognitive component refers to the
individual’s information and knowledge about an
object or concept.
 The affective component
deals with feelings or
emotional reactions.
 The behavioral component
involves tendencies to act
in a certain manner.
9-27
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Attitude Components and Manifestations
11-1
Initiator
Stimuli:
Products,
situations, retail
outlets, sales
personnel,
advertisements,
and other attitude
objects
Component
Component manifestation
Affective
Emotions or feelings about
specific attributes or overall
object
Cognitive
Beliefs about specific
attributes or overall object
Behavioral
Behavioral intentions with
respect to specific attributes
or overall object
9-28
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Attitude
Overall
orientation
toward
object
Attitude Change Strategy
Focusing on Cognitions
11-5
Marketing
stimuli
(advertisement,
package)
Increased
affect
(liking)
Behavior
(purchase)
Behavior
(purchase)
Increased
affect
(liking)
Cognitions
(beliefs)
9-29
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Overall
attitude
change
 Modifying the
Components of Attitude
 Attitudes frequently
change in response to
inconsistencies among
the three components
 The most common
inconsistencies results
when new information
changes the cognitive or
affective components of
an attitude
 Marketers can work to
modify attitudes by
providing evidence of
product benefits and by
correcting
misconceptions
9-30
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Attitude Change Strategy
Focusing on Affect
11-6
Positive
marketing
stimuli
(ad,
package)
Increased
affective
response
(liking)
toward
product
Increased
positive
beliefs
Behavior
(purchase)
Overall
attitude
change
Behavior
(purchase)
Increased
positive
beliefs
9-31
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Advertising Objectives
Kodak Royal Gold
200
What: Quality film
for special
occasions.
9-32
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Attitude Change Strategy
Focusing on Behavior
11-8
Marketing or
situational
stimuli
(free sample,
guests)
Increased
affect
(liking)
Increased
positive
beliefs
Overall
attitude
change
Behavior
(purchase,
consumption)
Increased
positive
beliefs
Increased
affect
(liking)
9-33
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Creating Expectation
Rembrandt
9-34
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Advertising Functions
Informing
Persuading
Reminding
Adding Value
Assisting Other Company Efforts
9-35
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Advertising Functions
Informing
 Makes consumers aware, educates
them about the features and benefits.
 Facilitates the introduction of new
brands and increases demand for
existing brands
9-36
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Advertising Functions
Persuading
 Persuades customers to try advertised
products and services
 Primary demand- creating demand for an
entire product category
 Secondary demand- the demand for a
9-37
specific company’s brand
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Which ad performed best?
 Attention
 Persuasion
9-38
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This Sierra Mist beverage ad
plays on our perceptions to
get our attention and make
their point.
9-39
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Example 5-Ad A
9-40
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Example 5-Ad B
9-41
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Example 22-Ad A
9-42
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Example 22-Ad B
9-43
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Example 23-Ad A
9-44
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Example 23-Ad B
9-45
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 Changing Consumer
Attitudes
 Marketers have two
choices to lead
prospective buyers to
adopt a favorable
attitude toward their
product:
 Attempt to produce
consumer attitudes
that will motivate the
purchase of a
particular product
 Evaluate existing
consumer attitudes
and then make the
product
characteristics
appeal to them
9-46
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This advertisement deals with
feelings or emotional reactions many
of us have felt at one time or another.
Think about the last time you “went
for that parking spot and at the last
second someone else got to it first.”
9-47
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Interpersonal Determinants of
Consumer Behavior
 Family Influences
 Autonomic role is when the partners independently
make equal numbers of decisions.
 Husband-dominant role is when the husband
makes most of the decisions.
 Wife-dominant role is when the wife makes most of
the decisions.
 Syncratic role is when
both partners jointly
make most decisions.
9-48
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 Children and
teenagers in family
purchases
 Growing numbers
are assuming
responsibility for
family shopping
 They also influence
what parents buy
 They represent over
50 million consumers
in their own right
9-49
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 Lindblad Special
Expeditions
 Service Aimed at
Satisfying a Selfactualization Need
9-50
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 Perception: the
meaning that a person
attributes to incoming
stimuli gathered
through the five
senses – sight,
hearing, touch, taste,
and smell.
9-51
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 Perceptual screens:
the filtering
processes through
which all inputs must
pass
 Sony
 Breaking Through
Perceptual Screens
9-52
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 Learning: an immediate or expected change
in behavior as a result of experience
Drive: strong stimulus that impels action
Cue: any object in the environment that
determines the nature of a consumer’s
response to a drive
Response: an individual's reaction to a set
of cues and drives
Reinforcement: reduction
in a drive that results from
an appropriate consumer
response
9-53
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 Citibank
 Reinforcing a
buying behavior
9-54
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 Applying Learning
Theory to Marketing
Decisions
 Shaping: process of
applying a series of
rewards and
reinforcements to
permit more complex
behavior to evolve
over time
 Prego
 Using a discount
coupon to shape
behavior
9-55
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 Self-Concept: person’s multifaceted picture of
himself or herself, composed of the real self,
self-image, looking-glass self, and ideal self
9-56
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This Michelob ad highlights
the low carbohydrate content
of this product.
Do you see any connection to
self-concept in its delivery?
9-57
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The Consumer Decision Process
Problem
Opportunity
Recognition
Search
Alternative
Evaluation
Purchase
Decision
 Consumers complete a step-by-step
process when making purchase
decisions
 High-involvement purchase
decisions are those with high levels
of potential social or economic
consequences
 Low-involvement decisions are
routine purchases that pose little
risk to the consumer
Purchase
Act
Postpurchase
Evaluation
9-58
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9-59
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 Problem or Opportunity Recognition
Consumer becomes aware of a significant
discrepancy between the existing situation
and the desired situation
Motivates the individual to achieve the
desired state of affairs
9-60
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 Search
 Consumer gathers
information related to their
attainment of the desired
state of affairs
 Identifies alternative
means of problem solution
 May cover internal or
external sources of
information
 Brands that a consumer
actually considers buying
before making a purchase
decision are known as the
evoked set
 Powerstreet part of
consumer’s evoked set?
9-61
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Evoked Set
Model
All
Brands
Known
Brands
Evoked
Acceptable
Set
Brands
Purchased
Brand
Unknown
Brands
Unacceptable
Brands
Rejected
Brands
Inert
Set
9-62
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Overlooked
Brands
 Evaluation of Alternatives
Consumer evaluates the evoked set
Actually, it’s difficult to completely separate
the second and third steps, since some
evaluation takes place as the search
progresses
Outcome of the evaluation stage is the
choice of a brand or product (or possibly a
decision to renew the search)
Evaluative criteria: features that a
consumer considers in choosing a model
alternatives
Evaluative criteria are important in this
stage
9-63
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 Progresso
 An Attempt to
Influence
Evaluative Criteria
9-64
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 Purchase Decision
Consumer narrows the alternatives down to one
Next, the purchase location is decided
 Purchase Act
Consumers tend to choose outlets by
considering such characteristics as location,
price, assortment, personnel, store image,
physical design, and services
Some choose the convenience of in-home
shopping
Increasingly, the www is the outlet of choice for
many consumers
9-65
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 Post-purchase
Evaluation
After the purchase,
consumers are either
satisfied or experience
post-purchase anxiety
Post-purchase anxiety
that results from an
imbalance among an
individual’s
knowledge, beliefs,
and attitudes is called
cognitive
dissonance (CD)
 Michelin relieving CD
9-66
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 Classifying Consumer Problem-Solving
Processes
 Routinized Response Behavior
Purchases made routinely by choosing a
preferred brand or one of a limited group of
acceptable brands
Examples: regular brand of a soft drink,
orange juice, or alkaline batteries
9-67
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 Limited Problem Solving
Situation where the consumer has
previously set evaluative criteria for a
particular kind of purchase but then
encounters a new, unknown brand or item
Example: Consumer considers trying a
new brand of shampoo or selects a roast
for a special dinner
9-68
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 Extended Problem Solving
Results when brands are difficult to
categorize or evaluate
High-involvement purchase decisions
usually require extended problem
solving
Example: purchase of a
new car, new home, or
baby furniture
9-69
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Ch 09: Consumer Behavior