Rights Expression Languages in
Digital Rights Management
Xin Wang
ContentGuard, Inc.
October 19, 2006
Outline
 Concepts and purpose of DRM
 License-based DRM Systems
 Roles of RELs in DRM
 Business models Supported by RELs
 Conclusions
DRM Concepts
 Digital Assets
 Any resources, contents and services in digital domain
 Digital Rights
 Privileges for creating, distributing, using and managing digital assets
 Digital rights are not just copyrights – e.g., meta-rights
 Licenses
 Digital expressions or objects that carry information about digital rights
 Digital Rights Management (DRM)
 A unified approach to specifying, interpreting, enforcing and managing
digital rights
 Content protection and watermarking technologies are supporting ones to
make DRM more effective and robust.
DRM Purposes
 Not just prevent illegal access and sharing of digital assets
 But, more importantly, allow authorized access and
enjoyment to more high quality assets in more convenient
fashions
 and, at the same time, create more markets and businesses
for creating, distributing and consuming digital assets
DRM in Multimedia Commerce
Create
Package
Aggregate
Original
content
Author / Artist
Rights &
Conditions
Protected
content
Publisher
Play
Sell
Distribute
Prices &
Business models
Clear
Rights &
Payment
Rights &
Conditions
Protected
content
Protected
content
Retailer
Consumer
License-Based DRM
Create
Package
Aggregate
Original
content
Author / Artist
Play
Sell
Distribute
Protected
content
Publisher
Protected
content
Protected
content
Retailer
Consumer
Prices &
Business models
Clear
Rights &
Payment
Rights &
Conditions
License
Prices &
Business models
Rights &
Conditions
License server
License-Based DRM Systems

To use content, one needs to have a valid license to grant usage and possibly
provide crypto key and other information for authorized usage of content

Characteristics
 Licenses are associated with content, but can be separated entities with their own
life cycle
 issuance, distribution, consumption, revocation and expiration
 Licenses specify who have what rights over what resource under what terms and
conditions
 play, print, adapt, …
 Licenses also provide information for implementing business models, rather than
applications hard code it
 preview for 3 times, rent for a week, …
 Licenses also carry information for content protection and trust management
 encrypted content decryption key, license issuance and revocation, …
 Licenses can be defined using Rights Expression Languages (REL)
 ISO MPEG REL, OMA DREL, XrML, XMCL, …
Rights Expression Language (REL)
 A standard language used to specify rights and their terms
and conditions in the form of licenses for distributing and
using digital assets
 Provide an authorization model to determine if a principal
has the right to perform an action on a resource according to
licenses within a given system context
 Support flexible business models in the end-to-end
distribution value chain
 Enables trusted systems to exchange digital contents and
interoperate for end-to-end DRM
Development History of RELs
Mar 96
DRPL 1.0
96
Nov 98
DPRL 2.0
97
98
Jun 00
XrML 1.03
Apr 2000
XrML 1.0
99
Nov 01
XrML 2.0
Nov 01
XrML 1.2.1
00
01
XMCL
Jun 01
95
ODRL 0.5
Aug 00
02
Mar 04
MPEG REL
03
ODRL 1.1
Aug 02
ODRL 1.0
Nov 01
04
05
OMA DREL 1.0
Jun 04
06
Latest Development of RELs
 MPEG REL Profiles
 MAM (Mobile And optical Media)
 DAC (Dissemination And Capture)
 OR (Open Release)
 OMA REL Broadcast profile
 China AVS DREL
MPEG REL Data Model
A license conveys that an issuer authorizes rights in the forms of grants.
License
Grant
Principal
Right
Issuer
Resource
Condition
A grant specifies that a principal has a right over a resource under certain conditions.
A Simple MPEG REL License
<license xmlns="urn:mpeg:mpeg21:2003:01-REL-R-NS" xmlns:dsig="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#"
xmlns:mx="urn:mpeg:mpeg21:2003:01-REL-MX-NS" profileCompliance="urn:embedded:rel-profile">
<grant>
<keyHolder licensePartID="Alice">
<info><dsig:KeyValue>
“PDQ Records
<dsig:RSAKeyValue><dsig:Modulus>oRUTUiTQk … </dsig:Modulus>
grants Alice the
<dsig:Exponent>AQABAA==</dsig:Exponent></dsig:RSAKeyValue>
right to play a
</dsig:KeyValue></info>
song for a month.
</keyHolder>
<mx:play/>
<mx:diReference>
<mx:identifier>urn:PDQRecords:song:WhenTheThistleBlooms.mp3</mx:identifier>
</mx:diReference>
<validityInterval>
<notBefore>2003-02-13T15:30:00</notBefore>
<notAfter>2003-03-13T15:30:00</notAfter>
</validityInterval>
</grant>
<issuer licensePartID=“PDQRecords”>
<dsig:Signature><dsig:SignatureValue>zIRYaxl5EX … </dsig:SignatureValue>
<dsig:KeyInfo><dsig:KeyValue><dsig:RSAKeyValue><dsig:Modulus>yQ== …
</dsig:Modulus><dsig:Exponent>AQAB==</dsig:Exponent></dsig:RSAKeyValue>
</dsig:KeyValue></dsig:KeyInfo></dsig:Signature>
</issuer>
</license>
Authorization in DRM
“Can Alice play
this .mp3 file?”
“Under what
condition?”
“According
to whom?”
License-Based Authorization
“anyone can play
mySong.mp3 in Dec
2003”, Bob says.
Authorization
Query
“Can Alice play
mySong .mp3?”
Context
Information
REL
Authorization
Engine
“Current time is
2003-12-21T10:00:00”
REL
Licenses
Authorization
Response
“Yes, according
to Bob.”
Generic DRM Flow
capability
presentation
user
interaction
“play, save, email …”
“I want to play”
REL-based
authorization
authentication
“who are you?”
“do you have right to play?”
usage tracking
& reporting
content
rendering
watermark
detection
“you’ve played …”
“playing …”
“Watermark presents?”
content
decryption
“decrypt using AES…”
event
reporting
exception
handling
“playing is authorized …”
“player crashed …”
Typical REL Licenses
 End-user license
 rights to play, print, modify, …
 Attribute license
 right to possessProperty
 Distribution license
 right to issue other rights
 Offer license
 right to obtain other rights
 Revocation license
 right to revoke other rights
 Hybrid licenses
 condition prerequisite on other licenses
Advanced REL Features

Variable
Flexibility to specify an element instance at the time of exercising right, but not at the
time of issuing the license
 Convenience for a collection of elements with common properties


Pattern


Capability of specifying a set of element instances according to some rules
Service Reference
Encapsulation of information necessary to interact with a service
 Support interoperability for stateful conditions


Delegation

Allowance and control on how rights can be delegated and transferred
Business Models










Unlimited usage
Flat fee sale
Pay per view
Preview
Promotion
Subscription/Membership
Transfer
Gifting
Personal lending
Library loan









Site/volume license
Rent
Territory restricted
Component based model
User types based model
Payment to multiple rights Holders
Super-distribution
Multi-tier models
Composite content
Example Business Models

Fixed subscription


Limited subscription


Pay per view, per file, or per message (e.g., 10¢ per message)
Burn to CD, output to portable device (e.g., 69¢ to listen a song, but 99¢ to burn to CD)
Session-based charging


Monthly charge with fixed amount of content consumption (e.g., $9/month, up to 35
movies each month)
Event or transaction based charging



Monthly or annually charge (e.g., $19/month for any songs in subscription)
Charged according to amount of time or data traffic used, (e.g., 2¢ per minute or KB)
Multi-tier models


Fixed subscription for Gold members, limited subscription for regular members
2 or more levels of limited subscription (e.g., $9/m for 35 movies, $19/m for 100)
Subscription and Domain Management
 Subscription management
 Subscriber license
 “Alice is a subscriber until Dec 31, 2006, issued by provider P”
 Subscription license
 “Anyone X can play a collection of content, provided X has a valid subscriber
license issued by provider P”)
 Domain management
 Domain-device license
 “Desktop PC Z is a device of domain Y, issued by domain manager M”
 Domain license
 “Any device X can play a collection of content, provided X has a valid domain-
device license issued by domain manager M”
Conclusions
 License based DRM systems support more flexible business
models, via use of licenses
 RELs are languages used to
 specify rights and their terms and conditions
 provide the authorization function to grant rights
 support flexible business models in the end-to-end
distribution value chain
 enables trusted systems to exchange digital contents and
interoperate for end-to-end DRM
Descargar

Promoting the REL Profile for Optical Media