V-Model
Lifecycle Process Model
Olman Hernández
[email protected]
DePaul University
SE-470 Spring 03
Objectives
Brief Description of the V-model
 Understand the basics of the model

History
 Principles
 Components
 Usage Guidelines
 Marketplace Analysis
 References

History
1986 - IABG for the Federal Ministry
of Defense
 1991 – Obligatory standard
 1992 – Federal Ministry of the
Interior
 1997 - Comprehensive revision
 2004 - Major Update Expected

Principles
Independence of methods and tools
 Independence of Organizations
 Separation into “submodels”
 Orientation to activities and
products
 Adaptability of the model

Standardization

The value of a standard
Reduction of cost in the entire lifecycle
 Improvement of software quality
 Better communication between
customer and contractor


Regulations on 3 levels
Procedure (what)
 Allocation of methods (how)
 Functional tool requirements (what)

Structure

All levels the regulations are
structured according to activity
areas
Systems development
 Quality assurance
 Configuration management
 Project management


Development standard developed for
each area.
Levels of Standardization
Configuration Management
Quality Assurance
System Development
Project Management
Procedure
Methods
Tool Requirements
General Directives
Configuration Management
Quality Assurance
System Development
Project Management
Procedure
Methods
Tool Requirements
Procedure
General directive 250
 What has to be done:

Activities to be carried out
 Results that have to be produced
 Content of the results
 Roles


Lifecycle process model
Structure

Binding Regulations



Supplements with regard to Authorities



Activities
Products
German Federal Armed Forces
Civilian Federal Administration
Collection of Manuals

Special topics
• Object Oriented Languages
• Incremental Development
• Use of Off-the-Shelf Products
Tailoring


No important document is “forgotten”
Tailoring relevant for tendering




Selection of the necessary activities and
products
Deletion conditions
The resulting subset of the Lifecycle is put
together in the Project Manual
Technical Tailoring

Adapting to conditions during the course of
the project
Tailoring Steps
Cooperation of Sub-models
Software Development

SD1-System Req. analysis


SD2–System design


Segmentation of the system into SW/HW
SD3-SW/HW requirement analysis


Description of the Req. of the system and its
environment, Risk Analysis , and User Req.
Detail Technical Requirements
SD4-Preliminary SW design

Structuring of the interfaces and interaction of
SW components
Software Development

SD5-Detailed SW design


SD6-SW implementation


Integration of modules
SD8-System integration


Coding in chosen programming language
SD7-SW integration


Description of functionality, Data
administration and error handling of SWC
Integration of SW and HW components
SD9-Transition to utilization

Activities for Deployment into Production
Software Development
S y s te m
S y s te m R e q u ire m e n ts
S y s te m D e s ig n
S y s te m In te g ra tio n
P la n
D P R e q u ire m e n ts
D P D e s ig n
D P In te g ra tio n P la n
SWD 1
S ys te m
R e q u ir e m e n ts A n a lys is
a n d D e s ig n
SWD 9
S ys te m
In te g r a tio n
Segment
Manual
In fo rm a tio n
SWD 2
SWD 8
DP
R e q u ir e m e n ts A n a lys is
a n d D e s g in
D P In te g r a tio n
S W R e q u ire m e n ts
SWD 3
SW CI
In te g ra tio n
S W R e q u ir e m e n ts
A n a lys is
P ro g ra m
D o c u m e n ts
(S W C I)
SW CI
SWD 7
S W In te g r a tio n
S W A rc h ite c tu re
In te rfa c e D e s ig n
S W C I In te g ra tio n P la n
P ro g ra m D o c u m e n ts
(C o m p o n e n t)
SWD 4
P r e lim in a r y
D e s ig n
C o mpo ne nt
In te g ra tio n
Component
D a ta -D ic tio n a ry
S W D e s ig n
SWD 5
P ro g ra m D o c u m e n ts
(M o d u le )
D e ta ile d
D e s ig n
M o d u le
SWD 6
Im p le m e n ta tio n
Legend:
P ro o f
a c tivitie s
(s e e Q A )
SW D
A c tivity
Quality Assurance

QA1-Initialization


QA2-Assessment Preparation


Specified procedures were adhered to during the
realization of an activity
QA4-Product Assessment


Generation of unambiguous Assessment specification
and procedures & Req. of Assessment Environment
QA3-Process Assessment of Activities


Generated the QA and Assessment Plan
Assessment with respect to the formal criteria & the
contents of the product. Assessment Report generated.
QA5-Reporting

Assessment Reports are assessed in regular intervals
and the results submitted to PM.
Configuration Management

CM1-CM Initialization


CM2-Product and CM


Administration of products, configurations and
rights
CM3-Change Management


Generation of the CM plan and setting of the
CM resources
Controlled artifacts are recorded and
administered
CM4-CM Services

General services (e.g Product Catalog)
Project Management
PM1-Project Initialization
 PM2-Placement/Procurement
 PM3-Contractor Management
 PM4-Detailed Planning
 PM5-Cost/Benefit Analysis
 PM6-Phase Review
 PM7-Risk Management

Project Management
PM8-Project Control
 PM9-Information Service/Reporting
 PM10-Training/Instruction
 PM11-Supplying Resources
 PM12-Allocation of Work Orders
 PM13-Staff Training
 PM14-Project Completion


Final Project Report
General View
General Directives
Configuration Management
Quality Assurance
System Development
Project Management
Procedure
Methods
Tool Requirements
Methods Allocation


General directive 251
How is something to be done:



Basic: specific/delimited aspect of the
system


Methods used to perform activities
Means of presentation in the results
E/R modeling,state transition modeling, functional
decomposition
Complex:comprise of various methodical
components and integrate them into a total
method

Graphical Enginnering system, integrated software
technology
Methods Allocation

Categories of methods: basic methods
that offer different solution approaches
for a certain class of tasks. Only one
required



Estimation models: Function Point Method,
Constructive Cost Model
Formal Specification: Temporal logic,
Mathematical Specification, Algorithmic
Methods allocation


Allocation tables
Methods interfaces
Allocation Table

Briefly describe how the methods
are to be used in the individual
activities
Methods Interfaces

Describe what information is exchanged
between the individual methods and what
to take into account when exchanging
information.
General Directives
Configuration Management
Quality Assurance
System Development
Project Management
Procedure
Methods
Tool Requirements
Tool Requirements
General Directive 252
 What is to be used to do something:


Functional characteristics must the
tools have
Introduces the Software
Development Environment
 Use for:

Selection of tools
 Evaluation
 Further Development of tools

Tool Requirements

SDE reference model
User Interface
 Work flow management
 Security and integrity requirements
 Software development
 Quality assurance
 Configuration Management
 Project Management
 Object Management

Benefits
Is complete, All functional areas
 Is mature
 Complies w/ Best Practices
 Open source
 Supports when tendering
 Adaptable to circumstances
 Adapt to Phase Models.
 Living Methodology and Products

Drawbacks
Does not include the maintenance
phase. It is considered a Scenario.
 Is project specific, does not extend
to the organization level.(Rev.2004)
 Delivery Vehicle. PDF format
 Lack of depth on some activities
 No Templates

Usage Guidelines

When/How to Use




When not to Use


Basis for contracts
Guideline
Communication Basis
Inexperience Development Team
Implementation




Very easy to understand
Wide application spectrum
Tailoring, Organization and tool Independent
Support, mostly German
Marketplace Analysis

Key players

Change Control Board
• Industrial and Public authority users
• Obliged to deal with all submitted change request


Products


IABG, Federal Ministry of the interior
In-Step by Microtool
Market Data





EUROMETHOD, EU Project
Basis of Austria’s IT-BVM and Switzerland’s HERMES
DaimlerChrysler Aerospace,Defense and Civil Syst. Div.
Siemens corporate Technology division
Binding obligatory regulation in Germany (Civilian &
Defense)
V-Model and CMM
References

IABG, English Version


http://www.v-modell.iabg.de/vm97.htm#ENGL
University of Bremen in Germany

http://www.informatik.uni-bremen.de/gdpa/
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V-Model - DePaul University