European Law and Life Culture
Unit 15: Made in the Image of God
Human Uniqueness, Value, and Rights
in Christian Tradition
Lecturer: Prof. Stephen Lakkis, 臺灣神學院, Center for Public Theology, www.cpt.org.tw
Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)
17 December 2013
EULRC, National Taiwan University: “EU Law, Life and Culture”
Introduction
✤
Lee Kuan Yew (李光耀): “To us in Asia, an individual is an ant; to you he is a child
of God.”
✤
All human beings are sinners.
所有的人類都是罪人。
✤
But: Human beings are created in the image of God (imago Dei).
但是: 人是照著上帝的形象所造。
2
Brief Theological History of Human
Rights and Value
人權和價值的神學簡史
3
✤
Principle of universal human rights was based on an underlying notion of the equal
worth of every single human being, which grew out of a specifically Christian
mentality.
普遍性的人權原則,是基於在一個構成每一位人類平等價值的基
礎上,而它產生於一個具體性地基督教思維。
✤
In the ancient world: Rights were typically linked with citizenship or particular social
status.
在古代世界: 權利很典型地與公民權或特定的社會地位被連結起
來
4
Image of God 上帝的形象(imago dei)
✤
Ancient Israel
古代的以色列
✤
Genesis 1:26–27
Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may
rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild
animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.” So God created
mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he
created them.
5
1. Reflects the kingly ideology of Israel’s neighbors.
反映以色列鄰國王朝的思想體系:
King is seen as God on earth, as a child of the gods on earth, or
as the representative of the gods.
王被視為是地上的上帝,如同地上神明的子女,或是神明的
代表。
Vassal kings represented the power of the distant emperor.
諸候代表遠方皇帝的勢力。
An idol represents the local presence and power of a God.
神像代表神明在地的臨在和力量。
6
2. Biblical view: the image of God is universal.
聖經的看法:上帝的形像是普世性的。
✤
Each and every human being in the image of God, not just the king or the ruler.
上帝形像裏的每一個人,不只是國王或者是統治者。
✤
This idea of the imago Dei is strongly egalitarian: All human beings are the image of
God — even women!
這種上帝的形象的觀念是徹底平等的:所有的人都是上帝的形象,甚至是女人!
7
God
God
King
All People
People
8
✤
In ancient Israel 在古代的以色列:
✤
Job (約伯記) 31:13–15
“If I have denied justice to any of my servants,
whether male or female,
when they had a grievance against me,
what will I do when God confronts me?
What will I answer when called to account?
Did not he who made me in the womb make them?
Did not the same one form us both within our mothers?”
我的僕婢與我爭論的時候,我若輕視他們的案件,
神若起來,我怎麼辦呢?他若鑒察,我怎樣回答呢?
那造我在母腹中的,不也造他嗎?造我們在母胎裡的,
不是同一位嗎?
9
The system of rights was more inclusive.
權利的體制是更具包容性的。
In theory, rights were not assigned by citizenship alone, but by residence within or
outside Israel.
理論上,權利不是單單被公民權所分配的,也是以居住在以色列的境內或境外而
分配。
✤
Leviticus 19:33–34
“When a foreigner resides among you in your land, do not mistreat them. The
foreigner residing among you must be treated as your native-born.”
10
✤
Theological key 神學上的關鍵:
Israel saw itself as chosen to be God’s people, to be special over and above all
others.
以色列視他們自己為被揀選成為上帝的子民,是特別的且高於一切。
A division of rights based on the exclusivity of human worth.
權利的分割是基於在人類價值的排他性。
✤
The concepts of creation and the imago dei were not very important for many Jewish
writers.
創造和上帝的形像的概念對很多猶太作家來說是不很重要的。
11
✤
✤
Critiqued by The Book of Jonah 約拿書的批評:
God loves all people, including Israel’s enemies.
上帝愛所有人類, 包括以色列的敵人。
These ideas became important for the Christians
這些想法對基督徒來說變得重要。
12
The Jewish–Christian Split
猶太基督教的分裂
✤
Jesus and his followers opposed exclusivity, arguing for the universality of God’s love
and thus the universality of human worth.
耶穌和祂的跟隨者反對排他性,爭論上帝的愛的普遍性,以及人類價值的普遍
性。
✤
Acts 10:34 (徒10:34)
“Then Peter began to speak: ‘I now realize how true it is that God does
not show favoritism.’”
彼得就開口說,我真看出上帝是不偏待人。
13
✤
The universalization of human dignity based on equality before God.
人類尊嚴的普遍性,是基於在上帝面前的平等。
✤
A globalized system of rights and dignity that (in principle) transcended national
borders or the isolated privileges of citizenship.
一個全球化權利和尊嚴的體制,(原則上)是超越了國家邊界或是被隔絕的公
民特權。
14
What is the imago Dei?
上帝形象是甚麼?
15
St. Augustine 奧古斯丁 (354–430 CE)
✤
✤
“Not in the body but in the mind was man made in the image of God.”
「上帝的形像不在於肉體上,而是在心靈裡。」
The ability to transcend the world, to transcend time, and to transcend ourselves.
有能力去超越自然世界、時間和我們自己。
16
✤
“Memory”: the active ability to create and recreate entire versions of the world inside our
minds.
「記憶」:在我們心靈裡的一種活耀積極的能力,可以去創造和重新創造世界的整個
描述。
We can make the past world reappear in our minds.
我們可以在我們心靈中重現過去的世界。
We can recreate the current world, manipulate it, and test out possibilities.
我們能夠重新創造這現在的世界、運用它,並且充分地檢驗其可能性。
We can create in our minds the future world: imagine the future, plan action, express our
hopes.
我們可以在我們心裡創造一個未來世界:未來的圖像、行動計劃、陳述我們的盼望
17
✤
✤
This ability of the mind allows us to transcend
time, and to transcend ourselves; to make
ourselves an object of our examination.
這能力給與我們去超越時間,和超越我們自
己;且使我們自己成為自己檢視的對象。
Through “memory” we can transcend the
natural world, our bodies, our selves, and even
our own minds.
通過「記憶」,我們能夠超越自然世界、我
們的身體、我們自己,甚至是我們的心靈。
18
Mind/
meta-analysis
Mind
Thomas Helwys (ca. 1550–ca. 1616)
✤
✤
The Protestant Reformation (post-1517) protested against the church as well as the
authority of the state.
新教宗教改革運動反對教會,也反對政府的權力。
“The Peace of Augsburg” 「奧斯堡和平契約」(1555年9月25日)
✤
Cuius regio, eius religio: the person who rules can decide on the religion of
the people in that region.
Cuius regio, eius religio: 統治者可以決定當地地區人民的宗教。
19
✤
Thomas Helwys:
✤
Took the concept of transcendence and applied it to the political authority of the state
and kings.
他視超越性的概念,並且將之運用在政府和君權的政治權力上來思考。
✤
The final transcendence of that person over all other persons, including the king.
個人的最終超越性,且越過所有其他人,包括:王。
20
✤
The king can make rules about the physical bodies and physical lives of his subjects,
but he has no right to make any rules about a person’s faith. 君王可以對其臣屬自民
制訂關於物質身體和物質生活的規定,但他沒有權力去規定個人的信仰。
Faith in
God
21
✤
✤
“[O]ur Lord the king is but an earthly king, and he has no authority as a king but in
earthly causes. And if the king’s people be obedient and true subjects, obeying all
human laws made by the king, our lord the king can require no more. For men’s
religion to God is between God and themselves. The king shall not answer for it. Neither
may the king be judge between God and man. Let them be heretics, Turks, Jews, or
whatsoever it appertains not to the earthly power to punish them in the least measure.”
「我們的君王只是一位世俗的君王,且他除了對世俗的事件有權柄以外,就沒有
任何權柄。假如王的人民是服從的和真正地屈服,且遵守由王所制定的法律,我
們的君王不能再有更多的要求。因為人對上帝的宗教是上帝和他們自己之間的事
情。君王不應該代表它說話。君王也不能在上帝和人之間作裁決或審判。讓他們
成為異教徒、土耳其人、猶太人或不管什麼-地上的權力一點都沒有任何權力因
宗教去責罰他們。」
22
✤
The relationship between God and the individual human being: No one else has the
ability to control this transcendent relationship.
上帝和人類個體之間的關係:沒有人有能力去控制這個超越性的關係。
It is the transcendence of the human being and our relationship to God that limits the
authoritarian power of the state.
正是人類的超越性和我們與上帝的關係,限制縮小了政府的極權力量。
✤
The earliest English-language statement on the absolute freedom of religion.
最早的英語在宗教上絕對自由的聲明。
23
“I know that they promise freedom of conscience
provided there is no public worship and no offence is given,
but this is only to trap and ensnare us.
For it is well known that conscience, which resides in people’s minds, is always free
and cannot be examined by other men and still less be put under their control or
command.
And in fact, no one has ever been executed or harassed merely on grounds of
conscience, but always for having committed some public act or demonstration, either
in words, which are said to be an offence, or in acts which are described as exercise
of religion.
There is no difference between so-called freedom of conscience without public
worship, and the old rigours of the edicts and inquisition of Spain.”
✤
✤
— 17th Century Dutch Protestant Pamphlet
24
✤
我知道他們承諾良心的自由是以沒有給予公開的敬拜和罪行為條件,
但這只是為了要設陷並誘補我們。良心是眾所皆知的,它駐留在人
們的心思中,是永遠自由且不受他人檢驗的,甚至更談不上被放置
在他人的控制和命令下。事實上,也沒有人僅僅是良心的理由,而
被處決或是被騷擾,但總是會犯下一些公開的舉動或是示威,無論
是在言語上的一種罪行,或是那些被形容為宗教操練的行動。所謂
的沒有公開敬拜的良心自由,和法令的嚴厲及西班牙的宗教裁判所
二者之間,並沒有什麼差別。
25
Rights of Religious Practice
宗教權利的實踐
Freedom to believe is not enough if there is not also the freedom to practice that belief
如果沒有自由去實踐信仰,自由相信是不夠的
freedom to assemble 集會自由
✤
freedom to raise children in
accordance with our beliefs
依照我們的信仰自由的養育孩子
✤
freedom to act toward others in
compassion (social welfare for
minorities)
在憐憫中對他人行動的自由(對少數
民族的社會福利)
freedom to speak what we believe
自由發言我們所相信的
to worship 敬拜
to evangelize 傳福音
to learn and be taught 學習和被教導
26
the right of self-governance 自我管理的權利
the right to own common property 享有共同財產的權利
the right to organize and fund charities (hospitals, orphanages, etc.)
組織和提供慈善資金的權利(醫院,孤兒院等)
freedom of the press (to publish religious books, church newsletters, Bibles and
hymnals in [forbidden] languages)
新聞自由(在語言文字中[被禁止的]出版宗教書籍,教會報刋,聖經和讚
美詩。)
freedom of association 結社的自由
✤
Religious Liberty as a “Gateway Right”
宗教的自由作為一個「通道權」
27
✤
Helwys points us in a new direction: transcendence and the image of God is about a
relationship rather than a special ability.
Helwys向我們指出一個新方向:超越性和上帝的形象是在乎於關係,甚於一個
特殊的能力。
28
The imago Dei as
Gift and
Responsibility
Jürgen Moltmann
(1926–)
29
Imago Dei as a “mixed relation”
上帝的形象作為「混雜的關係」
God
Inviolable
Gift
Call and
responsibility
30
✤
✤
1. God’s relation to us 上帝跟我們的關係
We are primarily God’s image because God decides that we are to be his image.
我們是上帝的形象的主要原因是因為上帝決定我們是他的形象。
God puts himself into a particular relationship with us, and it is this relationship
(God to us!) that defines us as God’s image.
上帝使自己來與我們進入一個特別的關係,而正是這個關係(上帝對我們!)
定義了我們有上帝的形象。
31
✤
God’s relationship with us is absolute and universal.
上帝對我們的關係是絕對且普世的。
God’s relation to us is based in his promise given to all human beings.
上帝對我們的關係是建立在他給全人類的應許之上。
We are the image of God, because God has created this special relationship to us.
我們是上帝的形象,因為上帝創造了對我們的這個特殊關係。
We have no power to change this relationship
我們沒有權力改變這個關係
32
✤
2. Our relation to God: Becoming the imago Christi
我們跟上帝的關係:成為基督的樣式
✤
✤
Romans 8.29: Christians are in a long process of becoming “conformed to the image of
the Son.”
羅8:29:基督徒都在「效法他兒子的榜樣」這個漫長過程之中。
God’s image is both a gift and a responsibility
上帝的形象既是禮物、也是責任
We pervert our relationship to God, but we can never destroy God’s relationship to us.
我們扭曲了我們跟上帝的關係,但我們永遠無法破壞上帝跟我們的關係。
33
Conclusion: Imago Dei and the Law
結論:上帝的形象和法律
34
✤
The value that the imago Dei gives to each human being is “inviolable” and
unalterable.
Imago Dei 給予每個人的價值是不可侵犯以及不可改變的。
Human value cannot be removed or destroyed by the actions of others, by the state,
or by oneself.
人的價值不能夠被他人、國家或自我給移除或毀壞。
35
✤
Foundation of Christian opposition to the death penalty.
基督徒反對死刑的根基
✤
Basis of the search for reparative and transformative justice.
尋求修復式正義以及轉型正義的一種根據。
While addressing the needs of victims is the most important task, justice also needs
to be sought for perpetrators.
處理被害者的需求是最重要工作,但是肇事者的正義也是需要被看重。
36
✤
The gift of the imago Dei (and the inalienable human rights and human value that it
represents) also comes with a call to responsibility:
Imago Dei (以及他所代表的那不可被剝奪的人權和人的價值)所帶來的祝福(禮物)
之外,他同時也叫我們要有所負責任:
The responsibility to recognize the universality of human dignity, since all people
bear the image of God.
有責任認出人類尊嚴的普遍性,因為每一個人都帶有上帝的形像。
The responsibility to live up to our status as images of God, expressed in the love
and care of others.
有責任透過愛人以及關懷他人,活出我們身為上帝形像的身份。
37
版權聲明
頁碼
作品
版權圖示
來源 / 作者
本作品轉載自Microsoft Office 2010 PowerPoint 設計主題範本,依據Microsoft 服務合約及著作
權法第46、52、65條合理使用。
1-41
2
To us in
Asia… a
child of God.
李光耀,quoted from Robin Oxman. 2001. Justice: The Crime, The Criminal, The Law, The Courts,
Politics and the Rest of Us. Published by Xlibris Corporation. p. 140.
依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。
5
Then God
said…he
created them.
《舊約聖經》創世紀,第一章25-26節
依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。
6
Cowofgold / Unknown
https://cowofgold.wikispaces.com/Ra
本作品以創用CC「姓名標示」3.0版授權釋出。
8
台灣神學院 Professor Stephen Lakkis
本作品以創用CC「姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣3.0版授權釋出。
版權聲明
頁碼
作品
版權圖示
來源/作者
9
If I have…
within our
mothers.
《舊約聖經》〈約伯記〉,第三十一章,13-15節
依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。
10
To us in
Asia… a child
of God.
《舊約聖經》〈利未記〉,第十九章,33-34節
依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。
13
Then Peter
began…not
show
favoritism.
《新約聖經》〈使徒行傳〉,第十章,34節
依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。
16
Not in the
body … made
in the image of
God.
St. Augustine聖奧古斯丁
本作品已超過著作財產權存續期間,屬公共領域之著作。
18
台灣神學院 Professor Stephen Lakkis
本作品以創用CC「姓名標示-相同方式分享」3.0版授權釋出。
版權聲明
頁碼
作品
版權圖示
來源/作者
台灣神學院 Professor Stephen Lakkis
本作品以創用CC「姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣3.0版授權釋出。
21
22
Our Lord the
King…in the
least measure.
Thomas Helwys, A Short Declaration of the Mystery Iniquity
本作品已超過著作財產權存續期間,屬公共領域之著作。
24
I know that…
inquisition of
Spain.
17th Century Dutch Protestant Pamphlet
本作品已超過著作財產權存續期間,屬公共領域之著作。
29
Wikimedia commons / Orwell123
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:J%C3%BCrgen_Moltmann_at_Aarhus_University.JPG
本作品以創用CC「姓名標示-相同方式分享」3.0版授權釋出。
30
台灣神學院 Professor Stephen Lakkis
本作品以創用CC「姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣3.0版授權釋出。
版權聲明
頁碼
作品
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來源/作者
33
Christians are
in a …image
of the Son.
《新約聖經》〈羅馬書〉,第八章,29節
依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。
9
我的僕婢與我
爭論的時
候,…不是同
一位嗎?
《舊約聖經》〈約伯記〉,第三十一章,13-15節,新譯本
依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。
13
彼得就開口說,
我真看出上帝
是不偏待人。
《新約聖經》〈使徒行傳〉,第十章,34節,新標點和合本
依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。
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European Law and Life Culture Made in the Image of God