World Exploration Results
Colonies
• Colonies are lands controlled by other
nations
• Once this “New World” had been
discovered there was a scramble to claim
as much land as possible
New Colonial Rivals
Colonies
• Britain's colonies: Maine to Georgia
• France’s colonies: Canada/ Mid-West
United States
• Spain’s colonies: Mexico and South
America
• Portugal’s colonies: Brazil
Jacques Cartier: France
• French explorer who claimed what is now
Canada for France.
• He was the first European to describe and
map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the
shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which
he named "The Country of Canada's"
Francis Drake
• He also carried out the second
circumnavigation of the world, from 1577
to 1580. He died of dysentery in January
1596
• His exploits were legendary, making him a
hero to the English but a pirate to the
Spaniards
Colonies: Spain and Portugal
• Encomienda System
• In the encomienda, the crown granted a person a
specified number of natives for whom they were to take
responsibility.
• In theory, the receiver of the grant was to protect the
natives from warring tribes and to instruct them in the
Spanish language and in the Catholic faith: in return
they could extract tribute from the natives in the form of
labor, gold or other products.
• In practice, the difference between encomienda and
slavery could be minimal. Natives were forced to do
hard labor and subjected to extreme punishment and
death if they resisted.
Hacienda
Britain's Colonies
• 1st Colony: Jamestown in 1607
• Puritans = Pilgrims settle the northern
New England colonies
• Eventually the colonies would number 13
from Maine to Georgia
France’s Colonies
• New France
– the territory of New France extended from
Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and
from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico. The
territory was then divided into five colonies,
each with its own administration: Canada,
Acadia, Hudson Bay, Newfoundland and
Louisiana
French and Indian War
• War between Britain's colonies and
France’s colonies
– Native Americans sided with both in order to
regain territory they lost to the opposing
colonies
• The war was waged for land and profits
• In the end the British won
Mercantilism
• Between 1600 and 1800 most of the states of western
Europe were heavily influenced by a policy usually known
as mercantilism.
Mercantilism
• an economic theory that states that the
world only contained a fixed amount of
wealth and that to increase a countries
wealth, one country had to take some
wealth from another either through having
a higher import/export ratio or in actual
conquest of new lands and resources.
Mercantilism
The “Columbian Exchange”

Squash

Avocado

Peppers

Sweet Potatoes

Turkey

Pumpkin

Tobacco

Quinine

Cocoa

Pineapple

Cassava

POTATO

Peanut

TOMATO

Vanilla

MAIZE

Syphilis

Trinkets

Liquor

GUNS

Olive

COFFEE BEAN

Banana

Rice

Onion

Turnip

Honeybee

Barley

Grape

Peach

SUGAR CANE

Oats

Citrus Fruits

Pear

Wheat

HORSE

Cattle

Sheep

Pigs

Smallpox

Flu

Typhus

Measles

Malaria

Diptheria

Whooping Cough
Favorable Balance of Trade
• Regulated commerce could produce a
favorable balance of trade.
• In general, tariffs should be high on
imported manufactured goods and low
on imported raw material.
Fleets
• Sea power was necessary to control
foreign markets.
• A powerful merchant fleet would obviate
the necessity of using the ships of another
nation and becoming dependent on
foreign assistance.
• In addition, a fleet in being could add to a
nation's prestige and military power.
New Weapons Technology
Zones of world economy
• Core nations (mostly European) profited from
the world economy.
– Controlled international banking and commercial
services
– Exported manufactured goods and imported raw
materials
• Dependent economic zones are the regions
within the world economy that produced raw
materials
– They were dependent upon European markets and
shipping; tendency to build systems based on forced
and cheap labor
Lead to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Competition between nations
Navigation and other Trade Acts
Avoidance of tariffs
Need for large labor force
Slave Trade
Conflict on the seas
Larger Ships more maneuverable ships
The Slave Trade
1. Existed in Africa before the coming of the
Europeans.
2. Portuguese replaced European slaves with
Africans.
Sugar cane & sugar plantations.
First boatload of African slaves brought by the
Spanish in 1518.
275,000 enslaved Africans exported
to other countries.
3. Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans
shipped to the Americas.
Triangle Trade
Slave Ship
“Coffin” Position Below Deck
The Middle Passage
• This was the time from when an African
was caught to being brought to the
Americas and sold
• About 20% of slaves would die from
starvation and disease
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
Descargar

Mercantilism