Texas and Texans Unit 2, Explorers and Settlers Beginnings until 1821 The Ancient Texans Chapter 3, Section 1 Vocabulary . 1.Archaeologist 2.Artifact 3.Culture 4.Anthropologist 5.Nomad Texans and Their Environment (Survival) Native Americans Gulf Peoples Europeans Texans and Their Environment (Survival) Native Americans Gulf Peoples Europeans Hunted Hunted Hunted Gathered Berries and Roots Farmed Foraged Farmed Learned to prepare new foods Adopted Native American words Sequencing • Place these events into a chronological order 1.Europeans arrive in Texas 2.People obtain food by hunting 3.People migrate from Asia to presentday Alaska 4.People grow food Correct Sequence • Place these events into a chronological order 1.People migrate from Asia to presentday Alaska 2.People obtain food by hunting 3.People grow food 4.Europeans arrive in Texas Reflection Questions 3.1 1. What are some items archaeologists study to learn how people once lived? 2. Define culture. 3. How did early people first reach the American continent from Asia? 4. How do scientists learn how ancient people viewed themselves (think self-expression)? 5. How did farming change the way native people in Texas lived? Southeastern and Gulf Cultures Chapter 3, Section 2 Vocabulary 1. Confederacy 2. Matrilineal 3. Shaman Southeastern and Gulf Cultures Food Caddos Coahuiltecans Karankawas Wichitas Settlements Southeastern and Gulf cultures Food Settlements Caddos Crops, berries, fish, game Villages of mud and straw houses Coahuiltecans Fish, game, cactus plants, campsites mesquite, agave, worms, and lizards Karankawas Nits, berries, game, fish, camps porpoises, turtles, clams, and oysters Wichitas Crops and game Caddo like settlements Where are they now? Native American Group Caddos Wichitas Alabamas Karankawas In Texas Out of Texas Where are they now? Native American Group In Texas Out of Texas Caddos X Wichitas X Alabamas Karankawas X X Reflection Questions 3.2 1. Briefly describe the Caddo system of government. (overall) 2. What tasks did Caddo Government leaders take charge of? (specific function) 3. What was the role of the shaman in Native American culture? 4. Why did the Wichitas and Caddos exist peacefully with the French? 5. How were the Caddos involved in trade with other groups of the time? Discussion Question 3.2 • What do you think is the main reason only the Alabamas Tribe remain in Texas today? Pueblo and Plains Cultures Chapter 3, Section 3 Vocabulary 1. Middlemen 2. Adobe 3. Tepee Pueblo and Plains Cultures Native American Tribes Plains Pueblo Pueblo and Plains Cultures Native American Tribes Jumanos Plains Tonkawas Pueblo Apache Jumanos Tiguas Comanche Kiowas Important facts about Native Tribes Group/Tribe Jumanos Tiguas Tonkawas Apaches Comanches Kiowas Important Fact Important facts about Native Tribes Group/Tribe Jumanos Tiguas Tonkawas Apaches Comanches Kiowas Important Fact Acted as middlemen Culture was matrilineal Lost many of their tribe members to conflict and wars Speak in a language similar to Native Americans of Canada and Alaska Occupied vast territories of land Developed the use of tepees Reflection Questions 3.3 1. How were the Pueblo Jumano homes unique? 2. How does language study help determine a group’s origins? 3. What are two ways the Plains people used the horse? 4. Comanche life centered on what two activities? 5. How did the Kiowas “record” their history? 6. What were some reasons Native American tribes fought other Native Americans and European settlers? Chapter review • Complete chapter review on the paper First steps in a new land Chapter 4, Section 1 Answer these questions in your notebook • What is mercantilism? • What is another name for a Spanish soldier? • What was the main goals of the Spanish exploration? • What was a friar and how did they help the Spanish exploration efforts? • How did the goals of the Spanish explorers in Mexico and texas differ? • Why was cortes so interested in conquering the Aztecs? Explorer sequencing • Use a Flow map to create a time line for the following explorers to texas • Include the year of their exploration in the box with the explorers name • • • • • Cortes Columbus Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico Cabeza de vaca and Narvaez Alvarez de pineda Areas of exploration Explorer Columbus Cortes Alvarez de Pineda Cabeza de Vaca Area of Exploration The Spanish explore texas chapter 4, section 2 • In your notebook: EXPLORER Fray Marcos Estevanico Coronado Moscoso GOAL(S) Native Americans They Encountered Answer these questions after you read • What is a viceroy and why was he such a powerful figure? • Why did Spanish explorers search for Cibola and quivira and what did they find? • what motivated the Spanish explorers to leave home for these daring expeditions to the Americas? Complete in your notebook Explorers Cabeza de Vaca Coronado Moscoso Discoveries Problems Encountered/Setbacks Lasalle awakens Spanish interest • In your notebook: European Exploring Nation England (Great Britain) France Spain Location of Colonies in North America MAP Exercise • Look at the map on page 113 • Find the location of La Salle’s camp at Fort St. Louis which was established in the summer of 1865 • Examine the route taken by La Salle and his men from Fort St. Louis in January, 1687 • Determine the amount of time (in months) it took the remaining men from La Salle’s expedition to reach the Mississippi river (La salle was murdered enroute) Determine a time line • Place these events in chronological order using a modified flow map • • • • • La Salle’s ship sails too far west and south La salle is murdered La salle searches for other settlements Fort st. Louis is built La salle intends to establish a Mississippi riveR colony Fact review • What is a sandbar? • What is a stockade? • When the French colonists established fort St. Louis in 1865, they expected to make it a permanent settlement. Why did fort St. Louis fail? Missions and Settlements Chapter 5 First Spanish missions in texas • In your notebook: Location Near El Paso East Texas Mission Date (year) First Spanish missions in texas • In your notebook: Location Mission Date (year) Near El Paso Corpus Christi de la Yslenta 1682 East Texas San Fransisco de los Tejas 1690 Key persons in the missions of texas • In your notebook: Person de Leon Angelina Massanet Hildago St. Denis Ramon Role in Early Texas Missions Key person in the Missions of Texas • In your notebook: Person Role in Early Texas Missions de Leon Established a relationship with Tejas Angelina Guide and interpreter Massanet Established first mission Hidalgo Asked French to set up missions St. Denis Built a trading post Ramon Commander of the Presidio Discussion Question 5.1 • MLA Format • At least 75 words • How did the French and Spanish differ in their relations with the Native Americans of Texas? Building Communities Chapter 5, Section 3 Building communities • Identify an ayuntamiento and an alcalde and relate them to terms we currently use • What is the difference between a Tejano and a mestizos? • Why were there more males than females making up the population of the Spanish settlements? • What was life like for Native Americans in the missions? Occupations in Spanish Texas Spanish Women African Americans 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 5. 5. 5. 6. 7. 8. 6. Occupations in Spanish Texas Spanish Women African Americans 1. Soldiers 1. Midwives 1. Miners 2. Farmers 2. Ranchers 2. Domestics 3. Ranchers 3. Seamstresses 3. Farmers 4. Merchants 4. Storekeepers 4. Ranchers 5. Tailors 5. Farm Managers 5. Merchants 6. Shoemakers 7. Barbers 8. Blacksmiths 6. Carpenters Make comparisons Missions What was the purpose? Who lived there? Presidios Settlements To convert the Native Americans Spanish Soldiers What were the daily activities? Ranching, farming, community events What were the main problems? No schools, diseases Make comparisons Missions Persidios Settlements What was the purpose? To convert the Native Americans Protect missions and settlements Create towns in Spanish Texas Who lived there? Friars, Native Americans Spanish Soldiers Spaniards, African Americans, Native Americans What were the daily activities? Farming, crafts, education Protecting the missions and settlements Ranching, farming, community events What were the main problems? Harsh discipline, far from the other settlements; Native American resentment, they did not want to stay there No schools, diseases Controlling the Native Americans, scouting, danger, low pay, lack of supplies End of Spanish Rule Chapter 6 Vocabulary • Define these words: • Alliance • Filibuster Cause and effect Cause Spain entered the Revolutionary War Treaty of Paris Purchase of the Louisiana Territory Effect Cause and effect Cause Effect Spain entered the Revolutionary War Kept New Orleans out of British hands Treaty of Paris Britain gained Canada and all French land east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans Purchase of the Louisiana Territory Anglos pushed across the Mississippi River toward Spanish held Texas Time Line Put these events into chronological order • A. Baron de Ripperda closes three missions. • B. Fifteen forts are built from Mexico to the Gulf of California. • C. Nacogdoches is founded. • D. Bucareli is founded. Time Line Put these events into chronological order Fifteen forts are built from Mexico to the Gulf of California. Baron de Ripperda closes three missions. Bucareli is founded. Nacogdoches is founded. Unrest Grows in Texas Chapter 6, Section 2 Classify Information • In your notebook: People Bernardo Guitierrez and Augustus Magee Michel Aury and Jean Laffite James Long Significant Action (What did they do that was important?) Classify Information • In your notebook: People Significant Action (What did they do that was important?) Bernardo Guitierrez and Augustus Magee They led the Republican Army and claimed independence for Texas. Michel Aury and Jean Laffite They captured Spanish vessels (ships) and occupied Galveston Island. James Long He declared Texas to be free, but he was imprisoned and killed. Reflection Questions • Why were Mexicans unhappy with Spain and why did they seek to be independent from Spanish rule? • What was the difference between the government wanted by the Americans when compared to the type of government desired by the Mexicans? • Why could you call Jean Laffite a “pirate?” Event Outcomes • In your notebook: Event Hidalgo calls for independence Americans and Mexicans quarrel (fight/argue) over the form of the new government James Long invades Texas Outcome Event Outcomes • In your notebook: Event Outcome Hidalgo calls for independence Hidalgo was captured and executed. Americans and Mexicans quarrel (fight/argue) over the form of the new government The Republican Army was defeated, and the settlers were forced to leave Texas. James Long invades Texas He declared Texas to be independent and was elected president. He later was captured and killed in Mexico City. Spanish Rule Ends in Texas Chapter 6, Section 3 Vocabulary • Define and know (what it means, not just what the glossary says) these words: • Vaquero • Lariat Reflection Questions • What are the three settlements located in the interior of Texas in 1821? • Why will a lack of settlements make it harder for Mexico to lay claim to Texas? • How did Antonio Martinez describe Texas (especially San Antonio) when he was governor? • Do you think Mexico has a valid claim to Texas? Why or Why Not?