Texas and Texans Unit 2,
Explorers and Settlers
Beginnings until 1821
The Ancient Texans
Chapter 3, Section 1
Vocabulary
.
1.Archaeologist
2.Artifact
3.Culture
4.Anthropologist
5.Nomad
Texans and Their Environment (Survival)
Native Americans
Gulf Peoples
Europeans
Texans and Their Environment (Survival)
Native Americans
Gulf Peoples
Europeans
Hunted
Hunted
Hunted
Gathered Berries
and Roots
Farmed
Foraged
Farmed
Learned to prepare
new foods
Adopted Native
American words
Sequencing
• Place these events into a chronological order
1.Europeans arrive in Texas
2.People obtain food by hunting
3.People migrate from Asia to presentday Alaska
4.People grow food
Correct Sequence
• Place these events into a chronological order
1.People migrate from Asia to presentday Alaska
2.People obtain food by hunting
3.People grow food
4.Europeans arrive in Texas
Reflection Questions 3.1
1. What are some items archaeologists study to learn how
people once lived?
2. Define culture.
3. How did early people first reach the American continent
from Asia?
4. How do scientists learn how ancient people viewed
themselves (think self-expression)?
5. How did farming change the way native people in Texas
lived?
Southeastern and Gulf
Cultures
Chapter 3, Section 2
Vocabulary
1. Confederacy
2. Matrilineal
3. Shaman
Southeastern and Gulf Cultures
Food
Caddos
Coahuiltecans
Karankawas
Wichitas
Settlements
Southeastern and Gulf cultures
Food
Settlements
Caddos
Crops, berries, fish, game Villages of mud and straw
houses
Coahuiltecans
Fish, game, cactus plants, campsites
mesquite, agave, worms,
and lizards
Karankawas
Nits, berries, game, fish, camps
porpoises, turtles, clams,
and oysters
Wichitas
Crops and game
Caddo like settlements
Where are they now?
Native American
Group
Caddos
Wichitas
Alabamas
Karankawas
In Texas
Out of Texas
Where are they now?
Native American
Group
In Texas
Out of Texas
Caddos
X
Wichitas
X
Alabamas
Karankawas
X
X
Reflection Questions 3.2
1. Briefly describe the Caddo system of government.
(overall)
2. What tasks did Caddo Government leaders take charge
of? (specific function)
3. What was the role of the shaman in Native American
culture?
4. Why did the Wichitas and Caddos exist peacefully with
the French?
5. How were the Caddos involved in trade with other
groups of the time?
Discussion Question 3.2
• What do you think is the main reason only the Alabamas Tribe remain
in Texas today?
Pueblo and Plains Cultures
Chapter 3, Section 3
Vocabulary
1. Middlemen
2. Adobe
3. Tepee
Pueblo and Plains Cultures
Native
American
Tribes
Plains
Pueblo
Pueblo and Plains Cultures
Native
American
Tribes
Jumanos
Plains
Tonkawas
Pueblo
Apache
Jumanos
Tiguas
Comanche
Kiowas
Important facts about Native Tribes
Group/Tribe
Jumanos
Tiguas
Tonkawas
Apaches
Comanches
Kiowas
Important Fact
Important facts about Native Tribes
Group/Tribe
Jumanos
Tiguas
Tonkawas
Apaches
Comanches
Kiowas
Important Fact
Acted as middlemen
Culture was matrilineal
Lost many of their tribe members to conflict and wars
Speak in a language similar to Native Americans of Canada
and Alaska
Occupied vast territories of land
Developed the use of tepees
Reflection Questions 3.3
1. How were the Pueblo Jumano homes unique?
2. How does language study help determine a group’s
origins?
3. What are two ways the Plains people used the horse?
4. Comanche life centered on what two activities?
5. How did the Kiowas “record” their history?
6. What were some reasons Native American tribes fought
other Native Americans and European settlers?
Chapter review
• Complete chapter review on the paper
First steps in a new land
Chapter 4, Section 1
Answer these questions in your notebook
• What is mercantilism?
• What is another name for a Spanish soldier?
• What was the main goals of the Spanish exploration?
• What was a friar and how did they help the Spanish exploration
efforts?
• How did the goals of the Spanish explorers in Mexico and texas differ?
• Why was cortes so interested in conquering the Aztecs?
Explorer sequencing
• Use a Flow map to create a time line for the following explorers to
texas
• Include the year of their exploration in the box with the explorers
name
•
•
•
•
•
Cortes
Columbus
Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico
Cabeza de vaca and Narvaez
Alvarez de pineda
Areas of exploration
Explorer
Columbus
Cortes
Alvarez de Pineda
Cabeza de Vaca
Area of Exploration
The Spanish explore texas
chapter 4, section 2
• In your notebook:
EXPLORER
Fray Marcos
Estevanico
Coronado
Moscoso
GOAL(S)
Native Americans They
Encountered
Answer these questions after you read
• What is a viceroy and why was he such a powerful figure?
• Why did Spanish explorers search for Cibola and quivira and what did
they find?
• what motivated the Spanish explorers to leave home for these daring
expeditions to the Americas?
Complete in your notebook
Explorers
Cabeza de Vaca
Coronado
Moscoso
Discoveries
Problems Encountered/Setbacks
Lasalle awakens Spanish interest
• In your notebook:
European Exploring Nation
England (Great Britain)
France
Spain
Location of Colonies in North America
MAP Exercise
• Look at the map on page 113
• Find the location of La Salle’s camp at Fort St. Louis which was
established in the summer of 1865
• Examine the route taken by La Salle and his men from Fort St. Louis in
January, 1687
• Determine the amount of time (in months) it took the remaining men
from La Salle’s expedition to reach the Mississippi river (La salle was
murdered enroute)
Determine a time line
• Place these events in chronological order using a modified flow map
•
•
•
•
•
La Salle’s ship sails too far west and south
La salle is murdered
La salle searches for other settlements
Fort st. Louis is built
La salle intends to establish a Mississippi riveR colony
Fact review
• What is a sandbar?
• What is a stockade?
• When the French colonists established fort St. Louis in 1865, they
expected to make it a permanent settlement. Why did fort St. Louis
fail?
Missions and Settlements
Chapter 5
First Spanish missions in texas
• In your notebook:
Location
Near El Paso
East Texas
Mission
Date (year)
First Spanish missions in texas
• In your notebook:
Location
Mission
Date (year)
Near El Paso
Corpus Christi de la Yslenta 1682
East Texas
San Fransisco de los Tejas
1690
Key persons in the missions of texas
• In your notebook:
Person
de Leon
Angelina
Massanet
Hildago
St. Denis
Ramon
Role in Early Texas Missions
Key person in the Missions of Texas
• In your notebook:
Person
Role in Early Texas Missions
de Leon
Established a relationship with Tejas
Angelina
Guide and interpreter
Massanet
Established first mission
Hidalgo
Asked French to set up missions
St. Denis
Built a trading post
Ramon
Commander of the Presidio
Discussion Question 5.1
• MLA Format
• At least 75 words
• How did the French and Spanish differ in their relations with the
Native Americans of Texas?
Building Communities
Chapter 5, Section 3
Building communities
• Identify an ayuntamiento and an alcalde and relate them to terms we
currently use
• What is the difference between a Tejano and a mestizos?
• Why were there more males than females making up the population
of the Spanish settlements?
• What was life like for Native Americans in the missions?
Occupations in Spanish Texas
Spanish
Women
African Americans
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.
4.
5.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
6.
Occupations in Spanish Texas
Spanish
Women
African Americans
1. Soldiers
1. Midwives
1. Miners
2. Farmers
2. Ranchers
2. Domestics
3. Ranchers
3. Seamstresses
3. Farmers
4. Merchants
4. Storekeepers
4. Ranchers
5. Tailors
5. Farm Managers
5. Merchants
6. Shoemakers
7. Barbers
8. Blacksmiths
6. Carpenters
Make comparisons
Missions
What was the purpose?
Who lived there?
Presidios
Settlements
To convert the Native
Americans
Spanish Soldiers
What were the daily
activities?
Ranching, farming,
community events
What were the main
problems?
No schools, diseases
Make comparisons
Missions
Persidios
Settlements
What was the purpose?
To convert the Native
Americans
Protect missions and
settlements
Create towns in Spanish
Texas
Who lived there?
Friars, Native Americans
Spanish Soldiers
Spaniards, African
Americans, Native
Americans
What were the daily
activities?
Farming, crafts, education Protecting the missions
and settlements
Ranching, farming,
community events
What were the main
problems?
Harsh discipline, far from
the other settlements;
Native American
resentment, they did not
want to stay there
No schools, diseases
Controlling the Native
Americans, scouting,
danger, low pay, lack of
supplies
End of Spanish Rule
Chapter 6
Vocabulary
• Define these words:
• Alliance
• Filibuster
Cause and effect
Cause
Spain entered the Revolutionary War
Treaty of Paris
Purchase of the Louisiana Territory
Effect
Cause and effect
Cause
Effect
Spain entered the Revolutionary War
Kept New Orleans out of British hands
Treaty of Paris
Britain gained Canada and all French land east of the
Mississippi River, except New Orleans
Purchase of the Louisiana Territory
Anglos pushed across the Mississippi River toward
Spanish held Texas
Time Line
Put these events into chronological order
• A. Baron de Ripperda closes three missions.
• B. Fifteen forts are built from Mexico to the Gulf of California.
• C. Nacogdoches is founded.
• D. Bucareli is founded.
Time Line
Put these events into chronological order
Fifteen forts
are built
from Mexico
to the Gulf
of
California.
Baron de
Ripperda
closes three
missions.
Bucareli is
founded.
Nacogdoches
is founded.
Unrest Grows in Texas
Chapter 6, Section 2
Classify Information
• In your notebook:
People
Bernardo Guitierrez and Augustus Magee
Michel Aury and Jean Laffite
James Long
Significant Action (What did they do that was
important?)
Classify Information
• In your notebook:
People
Significant Action (What did they do that was
important?)
Bernardo Guitierrez and Augustus Magee
They led the Republican Army and claimed
independence for Texas.
Michel Aury and Jean Laffite
They captured Spanish vessels (ships) and occupied
Galveston Island.
James Long
He declared Texas to be free, but he was
imprisoned and killed.
Reflection Questions
• Why were Mexicans unhappy with Spain and why did they seek to be
independent from Spanish rule?
• What was the difference between the government wanted by the
Americans when compared to the type of government desired by the
Mexicans?
• Why could you call Jean Laffite a “pirate?”
Event Outcomes
• In your notebook:
Event
Hidalgo calls for independence
Americans and Mexicans quarrel (fight/argue) over
the form of the new government
James Long invades Texas
Outcome
Event Outcomes
• In your notebook:
Event
Outcome
Hidalgo calls for independence
Hidalgo was captured and executed.
Americans and Mexicans quarrel (fight/argue) over
the form of the new government
The Republican Army was defeated, and the settlers
were forced to leave Texas.
James Long invades Texas
He declared Texas to be independent and was
elected president. He later was captured and killed
in Mexico City.
Spanish Rule Ends in Texas
Chapter 6, Section 3
Vocabulary
• Define and know (what it means, not just what the glossary says)
these words:
• Vaquero
• Lariat
Reflection Questions
• What are the three settlements located in the interior of Texas in
1821?
• Why will a lack of settlements make it harder for Mexico to lay claim
to Texas?
• How did Antonio Martinez describe Texas (especially San Antonio)
when he was governor?
• Do you think Mexico has a valid claim to Texas? Why or Why Not?
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Texas and Texans Unit 2, Explorers and Settlers