TOP MAN VOCABULARY
PROJECT
By: Alyssa
B.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Slide
Slide
Slide
Slide
Slide
Slide
Slide
Slide
Slide
Slide
1- Title Page
2- Table of Contents
3- About my project
4- Characterization
5- Setting
6- Plot
7- Conflict
8- Foreshadowing
9- Inference
10- Suspense
Slide 11- Symbolism
Slide 12- Irony
Slide 13- Connotation
Slide 14- Denotation
Slide 15- Simile
Slide 16- Metaphor
Slide 17- Conclusion
Slide 18- Pictures
Slide 19- Bibliography
Slide 20- Bibliography Continued
ABOUT MY PROJECT
In this project, I will be talking about the story, Top Man.
Top Man, by James Ramsey Ullman, is a very good story in which
a group of men are out to conquer the fourth tallest mountain
in the world, K3. Along with the harsh weather conditions of the
Himalayan mountains, the men learn that they have to work
together in order to survive. Even when they try their hardest,
some things don’t always turn out the way they planned. Within
the story, there are a variety of examples of literary terms to
help make the story more interesting. I will be talking about the
definitions of each term, along with an example from the story.
CHARACTERIZATION
Definition: the presentation or
telling of a character in a stor y
For the five types of
characterization, the writer may:
•Give a physical description of
the character
•Show its actions
•Let it speak
•Reveal the characters thoughts
and reveal what other characters
think of them
•Comment directly on the
character
E xa m ple:
“ H i s l e a n Bri t i s h fa c e , u n d e r i t s m a s k
o f s t u b b l e a n d wi n d b u rn , wa s
ex p re s s i o n l e s s . H i s l i p s we re a t h i n
l i n e , a n d h i s eye s s e e m e d a l m o s t
shut.”
Th i s i s a phy s i c al de s c ri pt ion g i ven o f
N a c e duri n g t h e s to r y.
“ I n c o n tr as t, N a c e wa s s l ow,
m et h o d ical , u n s p e ctacul ar. ”
Th i s i s t h e n a rra to r di re c t l y
c o m m ent ing o n N a c e duri n g t h e s to r y.
“ We ’ l l h ave to go d own to m orrow,” he
s a i d q u i et l y.
Th i s i s a n exa m ple o f a c h a ra c ter
di re c t l y s pe a kin g. N a c e s a i d t h i s a f te r
t h ey we re a l m ost to t h e to p o f t h e
m o un t ain , h e di dn ’ t t h i n k t h ey c o ul d
m a ke i t . Th i s pe r fe c t l y de s c ribe s
N a c e be c a us e h e i s a l ways s o m ew hat
n e g a tive, h e do e s n’ t h ave a ny fa i t h .
SETTING
Definition: the time
and place in which
the events of a story
occur.
The setting usually
establishes a simple
background of a story
or it can be used to
create an
atmosphere.
The setting of Top Man
was in the Himalayan
mountains. The men in
this story were set to
conquer K3, the fourth
tallest mountain in the
world.
PLOT
Definition: sequence
of events that take
place in a story.
Some stories can
have multiple plots.
The main event in
the plot is the
conflict.
T h e s et t i n g o f To p M a n i s i n t h e
H i m al aya n m o un t ai n s o f I n d i a , t h e m e n
a r e t r y i n g to c o n q u e r K 3 , t h e f o u r t h
t a l l e s t m o un t a i n i n t h e w o r l d . A s t h i n g s
c a r r y o n i n t h e s to r y, t h e m e n r u n i n to
t r o ub l e s s u c h a s w e a t h e r, e q u i p m e n t
p r o b l em s , a n d ev e n s o m e o f t h e m
g et t i n g h u r t a n d h av i n g to d e s c e n d b a c k
d o w n t h e m o u n t ai n . T h e m a i n ev e n t i n
t h e s to r y o c c ur s w h e n O s b o r n t r i e s to
c l i mb t h e m o un t a i n b y h i m s e l f . N a c e
a n d Fr a n k , w h o i s t h e n a r r a to r o f t h e
s to r y, g o to s to p h i m , b u t r u n i n to
t r o ub l e . W h e n O s b o r n h a s h i s l i fe a t
r i s k , N a c e t r i e s to s av e h i m , b u t
a c c i d e n t a l ly f a l l s to h i s d e a t h i n t h e
p r o c e s s . A s t h e s to r y c o n t i n ue s , O s b o r n ,
who still hasn’t learned his lesson,
c o n t i n ue s to c l i m b t h e m o un t a i n b y
h i m s el f . W h e n h e c o m e s b a c k d o w n , h e
s a i d h e n ev e r m a d e i t to t h e to p . B u t , a t
t h e e n d o f t h e s to r y, i t s ay s t h a t N a c e ’ s
a x w a s f o u n d a t t h e to p o f t h e
m o un t ai n , b u t s i n c e N a c e d i e d b e f o r e
h e m a d e i t to t h e to p , i t o n l y c o ul d h av e
been Osborn who put Nace’s ax there.
S i n c e N a c e d i e d to s av e O s b o r n , O s b o r n
repaid him by giving him the credit of
m a k i n g i t to t h e to p .
CONFLICT
Definition: the struggle
occurring between two
opposing forces.
Conflict can occur as
person vs. person, person
vs. self, person vs. society,
or person vs. nature.
Example:
Person vs. person:
Osborn and Nace fighting
would be a good example
of conflict. They were two
very different people and
could never agree on
anything.
Person vs. nature:
All of the Englishman were
battling the K3 mountain
along with the harsh
weather so they could
make it to the top of the
unconquered mountain.
FORESHADOWING
Definition: hints or
clues that suggest
events that do actually
happen later in the
story
Foreshadowing builds
suspense in a story
which leads the reader
to the main event.
In Top Man, Osborn says
that he didn’t make it to
the top of K3 mountain
when the narrator, Frank,
asks him. This sounded
very suspicious and
foreshadows that later in
the story, we will learn
something else. At the end
of the story, it said Nace’s
ax was at the top of the
mountain, but since Nace
had died before he made it
to the top, it only could
have been Osborn because
he was the only one who
tried to climb it by himself.
INFERENCE
Definition: a
conclusion made
about something
based on context
clues or facts
The author may not
tell all parts of the
story so we have to
assume them on our
own.
At the end of Top Man, we
assume that Osborn did make
it to the top but didn’t tell
anybody because he wanted
Nace to get credit for it. Nace’s
ax was found at the top of the
mountain, but since Nace had
died before making it to the
top, we assume that Osborn
was the one who made it to
the top but left Nace’s ax there
so he would get credit. This
would be considered an
inference because it is not
directly stated in the story that
Osborn was the one who made
it to the top.
SUSPENSE
Definition: something that
happens in a stor y that may
make the reader ner vous or
tense
Occurs when the reader knows
something is about to happen
but the author leaves you
guessing.
It can also occur if the reader
already knows what's going to
happen.
One example of suspense in Top
Man would be when Osborn went
to climb the mountain on his
own. Nace and the narrator,
Frank , went to stop him.
Unfor tunately, when they found
him, he was stuck on a ledge.
Nace then went out to tr y to
help Osborn. The reader may
have gotten ner vous Nace was
tr ying to save Osborn because
Osborn was in trouble. But af ter
Osborn makes the big jump and
Nace falls to his death because
the rope snaps, the reader has
many new emotions as
something ver y unexpected has
happened.
SYMBOLISM
Definition: Anything that
has its own meaning but
also represents
something else
A symbol could be an
object, person, place,
action, or situation.
One symbol in Top Man
would be Nace’s ax. His
ax symbolizes achieving
your dreams. Although
Nace didn’t get to the top
of the mountain before
he died, it was almost
like he did. Osborn put
his ax there when Osborn
made it to the top. So in
a way, Nace was his ax
and by his ax making it
to the top, Nace made it
to the top.
IRONY
Definition: a difference
between what is stated
and what is really meant
Three types of irony:
Verbal Irony: Sarcasm
Dramatic Irony: You know
something in a story that
a character doesn’t
Situational Irony: when
something happens that
the reader doesn’t expect
One example of situational
irony would be when Nace
falls to his death. The
reader didn’t expect him to
die because Nace was
attached to a rope, unlike
Osborn. Therefore the
reader may think Osborn is
the only one at risk.
Although Nace did have a
rope on him, he didn’t
check its security before he
left camp, and the rope
was weak and snapped
when he fell.
CONNOTATION
Definition: the emotions or
associations of a word or
phrase
In other words, what you
think about when you see a
word, not the dictionary
definition.
“It was very cold, but the
wind had fallen and the
mountain seemed to hang
suspended in a vast
stillness.”
When I think of suspended,
I think of being temporarily
out of something, or stuck
in a situation, such as if we
were suspended from
school. I think of
suspended as being a bad
thing, being locked up, like
being in jail.
DENOTATION
Definition: the literal
meaning or definition
of a word
The dictionary
definition of the word
suspended is: to hang
by attachment to
something above.
As you can see, the
connotation and
denotation of the
word suspended are
very different.
SIMILE
Definition: a
comparison of two
different things using
like or as
Similes are figures of
speech and can be
used in everyday
language.
Examples:
“It was a flawlessly
clear Himalayan night,
and K3 tiered up into
the blackness like a
monstrous beacon
lighted from within.”
“My throat dried and
contracted until it felt
as if it were lined with
brass.”
METAPHOR
Definition: a
comparison made of
two different things
A metaphor doesn’t
use like or as.
Example:
“The mountain, to all
of us, was no longer a
mere of giant rock
and ice; it had
become a living thing,
an enemy, watching
us, waiting for us,
hostile, relentless,
and aware.”
As you can see, there are a variety of literary terms in Top
Man, there are probably even more than I discussed. Even
though Top Man was a short story, it proved you can find
literary terms such as these in almost any type of story.
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