TOP MAN VOCABULARY PROJECT By: Alyssa B. TABLE OF CONTENTS Slide Slide Slide Slide Slide Slide Slide Slide Slide Slide 1- Title Page 2- Table of Contents 3- About my project 4- Characterization 5- Setting 6- Plot 7- Conflict 8- Foreshadowing 9- Inference 10- Suspense Slide 11- Symbolism Slide 12- Irony Slide 13- Connotation Slide 14- Denotation Slide 15- Simile Slide 16- Metaphor Slide 17- Conclusion Slide 18- Pictures Slide 19- Bibliography Slide 20- Bibliography Continued ABOUT MY PROJECT In this project, I will be talking about the story, Top Man. Top Man, by James Ramsey Ullman, is a very good story in which a group of men are out to conquer the fourth tallest mountain in the world, K3. Along with the harsh weather conditions of the Himalayan mountains, the men learn that they have to work together in order to survive. Even when they try their hardest, some things don’t always turn out the way they planned. Within the story, there are a variety of examples of literary terms to help make the story more interesting. I will be talking about the definitions of each term, along with an example from the story. CHARACTERIZATION Definition: the presentation or telling of a character in a stor y For the five types of characterization, the writer may: •Give a physical description of the character •Show its actions •Let it speak •Reveal the characters thoughts and reveal what other characters think of them •Comment directly on the character E xa m ple: “ H i s l e a n Bri t i s h fa c e , u n d e r i t s m a s k o f s t u b b l e a n d wi n d b u rn , wa s ex p re s s i o n l e s s . H i s l i p s we re a t h i n l i n e , a n d h i s eye s s e e m e d a l m o s t shut.” Th i s i s a phy s i c al de s c ri pt ion g i ven o f N a c e duri n g t h e s to r y. “ I n c o n tr as t, N a c e wa s s l ow, m et h o d ical , u n s p e ctacul ar. ” Th i s i s t h e n a rra to r di re c t l y c o m m ent ing o n N a c e duri n g t h e s to r y. “ We ’ l l h ave to go d own to m orrow,” he s a i d q u i et l y. Th i s i s a n exa m ple o f a c h a ra c ter di re c t l y s pe a kin g. N a c e s a i d t h i s a f te r t h ey we re a l m ost to t h e to p o f t h e m o un t ain , h e di dn ’ t t h i n k t h ey c o ul d m a ke i t . Th i s pe r fe c t l y de s c ribe s N a c e be c a us e h e i s a l ways s o m ew hat n e g a tive, h e do e s n’ t h ave a ny fa i t h . SETTING Definition: the time and place in which the events of a story occur. The setting usually establishes a simple background of a story or it can be used to create an atmosphere. The setting of Top Man was in the Himalayan mountains. The men in this story were set to conquer K3, the fourth tallest mountain in the world. PLOT Definition: sequence of events that take place in a story. Some stories can have multiple plots. The main event in the plot is the conflict. T h e s et t i n g o f To p M a n i s i n t h e H i m al aya n m o un t ai n s o f I n d i a , t h e m e n a r e t r y i n g to c o n q u e r K 3 , t h e f o u r t h t a l l e s t m o un t a i n i n t h e w o r l d . A s t h i n g s c a r r y o n i n t h e s to r y, t h e m e n r u n i n to t r o ub l e s s u c h a s w e a t h e r, e q u i p m e n t p r o b l em s , a n d ev e n s o m e o f t h e m g et t i n g h u r t a n d h av i n g to d e s c e n d b a c k d o w n t h e m o u n t ai n . T h e m a i n ev e n t i n t h e s to r y o c c ur s w h e n O s b o r n t r i e s to c l i mb t h e m o un t a i n b y h i m s e l f . N a c e a n d Fr a n k , w h o i s t h e n a r r a to r o f t h e s to r y, g o to s to p h i m , b u t r u n i n to t r o ub l e . W h e n O s b o r n h a s h i s l i fe a t r i s k , N a c e t r i e s to s av e h i m , b u t a c c i d e n t a l ly f a l l s to h i s d e a t h i n t h e p r o c e s s . A s t h e s to r y c o n t i n ue s , O s b o r n , who still hasn’t learned his lesson, c o n t i n ue s to c l i m b t h e m o un t a i n b y h i m s el f . W h e n h e c o m e s b a c k d o w n , h e s a i d h e n ev e r m a d e i t to t h e to p . B u t , a t t h e e n d o f t h e s to r y, i t s ay s t h a t N a c e ’ s a x w a s f o u n d a t t h e to p o f t h e m o un t ai n , b u t s i n c e N a c e d i e d b e f o r e h e m a d e i t to t h e to p , i t o n l y c o ul d h av e been Osborn who put Nace’s ax there. S i n c e N a c e d i e d to s av e O s b o r n , O s b o r n repaid him by giving him the credit of m a k i n g i t to t h e to p . CONFLICT Definition: the struggle occurring between two opposing forces. Conflict can occur as person vs. person, person vs. self, person vs. society, or person vs. nature. Example: Person vs. person: Osborn and Nace fighting would be a good example of conflict. They were two very different people and could never agree on anything. Person vs. nature: All of the Englishman were battling the K3 mountain along with the harsh weather so they could make it to the top of the unconquered mountain. FORESHADOWING Definition: hints or clues that suggest events that do actually happen later in the story Foreshadowing builds suspense in a story which leads the reader to the main event. In Top Man, Osborn says that he didn’t make it to the top of K3 mountain when the narrator, Frank, asks him. This sounded very suspicious and foreshadows that later in the story, we will learn something else. At the end of the story, it said Nace’s ax was at the top of the mountain, but since Nace had died before he made it to the top, it only could have been Osborn because he was the only one who tried to climb it by himself. INFERENCE Definition: a conclusion made about something based on context clues or facts The author may not tell all parts of the story so we have to assume them on our own. At the end of Top Man, we assume that Osborn did make it to the top but didn’t tell anybody because he wanted Nace to get credit for it. Nace’s ax was found at the top of the mountain, but since Nace had died before making it to the top, we assume that Osborn was the one who made it to the top but left Nace’s ax there so he would get credit. This would be considered an inference because it is not directly stated in the story that Osborn was the one who made it to the top. SUSPENSE Definition: something that happens in a stor y that may make the reader ner vous or tense Occurs when the reader knows something is about to happen but the author leaves you guessing. It can also occur if the reader already knows what's going to happen. One example of suspense in Top Man would be when Osborn went to climb the mountain on his own. Nace and the narrator, Frank , went to stop him. Unfor tunately, when they found him, he was stuck on a ledge. Nace then went out to tr y to help Osborn. The reader may have gotten ner vous Nace was tr ying to save Osborn because Osborn was in trouble. But af ter Osborn makes the big jump and Nace falls to his death because the rope snaps, the reader has many new emotions as something ver y unexpected has happened. SYMBOLISM Definition: Anything that has its own meaning but also represents something else A symbol could be an object, person, place, action, or situation. One symbol in Top Man would be Nace’s ax. His ax symbolizes achieving your dreams. Although Nace didn’t get to the top of the mountain before he died, it was almost like he did. Osborn put his ax there when Osborn made it to the top. So in a way, Nace was his ax and by his ax making it to the top, Nace made it to the top. IRONY Definition: a difference between what is stated and what is really meant Three types of irony: Verbal Irony: Sarcasm Dramatic Irony: You know something in a story that a character doesn’t Situational Irony: when something happens that the reader doesn’t expect One example of situational irony would be when Nace falls to his death. The reader didn’t expect him to die because Nace was attached to a rope, unlike Osborn. Therefore the reader may think Osborn is the only one at risk. Although Nace did have a rope on him, he didn’t check its security before he left camp, and the rope was weak and snapped when he fell. CONNOTATION Definition: the emotions or associations of a word or phrase In other words, what you think about when you see a word, not the dictionary definition. “It was very cold, but the wind had fallen and the mountain seemed to hang suspended in a vast stillness.” When I think of suspended, I think of being temporarily out of something, or stuck in a situation, such as if we were suspended from school. I think of suspended as being a bad thing, being locked up, like being in jail. DENOTATION Definition: the literal meaning or definition of a word The dictionary definition of the word suspended is: to hang by attachment to something above. As you can see, the connotation and denotation of the word suspended are very different. SIMILE Definition: a comparison of two different things using like or as Similes are figures of speech and can be used in everyday language. Examples: “It was a flawlessly clear Himalayan night, and K3 tiered up into the blackness like a monstrous beacon lighted from within.” “My throat dried and contracted until it felt as if it were lined with brass.” METAPHOR Definition: a comparison made of two different things A metaphor doesn’t use like or as. Example: “The mountain, to all of us, was no longer a mere of giant rock and ice; it had become a living thing, an enemy, watching us, waiting for us, hostile, relentless, and aware.” As you can see, there are a variety of literary terms in Top Man, there are probably even more than I discussed. Even though Top Man was a short story, it proved you can find literary terms such as these in almost any type of story. BIBLIOGRAPHY "All about Val d'Isere..." Val d'Isere: Destination Guide. 02 Dec. 2013 <http://www.valdinet.com/>. "Andrewcouncellmountainguide." Andrewcouncellmountainguide. 02 Dec. 2013 <http://andrewcouncellmountainguide.wordpr ess.com/>. "Ane Enderud." 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