Chapter 9 Regional Atlas of Latin America Section1: Landforms and Resources • Latin: because the major Languages of the region, Spanish & Portuguese, are derived from the Latin language. • 1. Mountains & Highland: Latin America part of North America, all of Central and South America, and the Caribbean Islands. • A. Mexico is often called a country of Mountains. Two major mts. Ranges that shapes Northern Mexico. • Sierra Madre Oriental on the east. • Sierra Madre Occidental: west • Sierra Madre del Sur: both mts. Connect in the south. • The Andes Mts. Of the South America • 2. Other ranges in Latin America include the Guiana Highlands and Brazilian Highlands. Highlands are make up of the mountainous or hilly sections of a country. The include parts of Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, and Brazil. II. Plains for Grain and Livestock: South America has wide plains that offer rich soil for growing crops and grasses for grazing Livestock. • 3. Colombia and Venezuela contain vast plains called llanos, which are grassy, treeless areas used for livestock grazing and farming. • 4. Brazil also contains expansive plains in the interior of the country. These are the cerrado, savannas with flat terrain and moderate rainfall that make them suitable for farming. • 5. In parts of South America, the plains are known as pampas, area of grasslands and rich soil. Pampas are found in northern Argentina and Uruguay. The main products are cattle and wheat grain. III. The countries of Central America & the Caribbean do not have the extensive river systems that are found in South America. South America has three major river systems. • 6. Farther south, the Amazon River flows about 4,000 miles from west to east, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean. • 7. The Orinoco River winds though the northern part of the continent, mainly in Venezuela. It flows more than 1,500 miles, partly along the Colombia-Venezuela border, to the Atlantic. • The Parana River has its origins in the highlands of southern Brazil. It travels about 3,000 miles south and west through Paraguay and Argentina, where it is fed by several rivers, and then turns eastward. IV. The Caribbean Island consist of three major groups: the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, & the Lesser Antilles. Together they sometimes called the West Indies. • 8. The Greater Antilles are made up of the larger islands in the Caribbean. These include Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, & Puerto Rico. • The Lesser Antilles are the smaller islands in the region southeast of Puerto Rico. They are divided into the Windward islands and the Leeward islands. Located between the Gulf Mexico & the Atlantic Ocean which were created by volcanic activity or rocklike skeletons of tiny sea animals. V. Latin America is a treasure house of natural resources. They include gold, silver, oil, natural gas, agricultural & forest resources. • 1. Gold, silver, iron, copper, bauxite (aluminum), tin, lead, and nickel—all these minerals are abundant in Latin America. Many of these minerals are mined and then exported to other parts of the world, where they are made into valuable goods. • 2. Oil, coal, natural gas , uranium, and hydroelectric power are all plentiful in Latin America. Mexico and Venezuela have major oil reserves. Brazil is rich in hydroelectric. Trinidad has discovered vast reserves of natural gas. 1. How have the Andes Mountains affected the settlement of South America? • The Andes are a barrier to movement between the Pacific coast in the interior of the continent. Countries on the eastern and northern coasts are easier to reach and to travel in. These countries are more heavily settled. Section 2 Climate and Vegetation I. A Varied Climate and Vegetation • The Climate of Latin America ranges from the hot and humid Amazon River basin to the dry and desert-like conditions of northern Mexico and southern Chile. Rain Forest, desert, and savanna are all found in the region. Chapter 9 Section 2 The tropical zones of the region produce both rain forests and the tree-dotted grasslands known as Savannas. • 1. Tropical wet • 2. Central America, the Caribbean • 3. Hot & rainy year-round • 4. Tropical wet & dry • 5.Brazil, Colombia, Argentina • 6. Hot with seasonal rain • 7. Semiarid • 8. Mexico, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina Dry climate zones: Dry climate are found in Mexico & different countries of South America, but neither Central America or the Caribbean have dry climate. • 9. Dry with some rain • 10. Desert • 11. Parts of northern Mexico, the coast of Peru, northern Chile, southern Argentina. • 12. Dry • 13. Humid subtropical • 14. Parts of Paraguay, Uruguay, southern Brazil, southern Bolivia, and Northern Argentina • 15. Rainy winters & hot, humid summers • 16Mediterranean The mid-latitude, moderate climate zones in the region are located south of the equator. • 17. Part of Chile along the west coast • 18. Hot, dry summers & cool, moist winters. • 19. Marine west coast • 20. Parts of southern Chile & Argentina • 21. Cool, rainy winters and mild, rainy summers • 22. Highlands • 23. Mts. Of Mexico and South America • 24. Varies with altitude, from moderate to cold Region of Mexico Central Mexico: Mexican Plateau, valley of Mexico, tectonic Activity, dry rain Shadow; cool high land climates East Coast:Coastal Plain east of Sierra Madre Oriental, much rainfall near mts., in S.E., Occasional Hurricanes, oil & gas Fields in Gulf of Mexico Southern Mexico: small mts., Ranges, narrow valley, Volcanoes pleasant Subtropical Climates in coastal valley West Coast: Coastal Plain West of sierra madre Occidental, arid,& semiarid Climates, desert & Scrub vegetation Chapter 9: Section 3 Human-Environment interaction I. Native people were the first to change environment to grow food. The burn the forest to clear land, diverted streams to irrigate crops, & they raised field in swampy areas plus carved terraces on hillsides. 1. Slash-and-Burn: Method of clearing a field by cutting & burning trees, grasses, & brush. • 2. Effects: creates fertile soil it will exhausted, and farmers have to move on. • 3. Terraced Farming: The cutting of step-like horizontal fields into hillsides. • 4. Effects: great for farming in hills & reduces soil erosion. • Argentina, Chile, & Uruguay are the most highly urbanized countries in South America. Here more then 85% of the people live in cities. People move to the cities in the hope of improving their lives. Many struggle to feed their families by subsistence farming. Both push and pull factors are at work in moving peasants & farmers off the land & drawing them to the cities. II. Throughout Latin America, people are moving from rural areas into the cities. They leave farms and villages in search of jobs and a better life. 5. Push Factors: Factors that push people to leave rural areas.( poor medical care, poor education, low-paying jobs, no ownership of land. • 6. Effects: That cities are growing rapidly causing pollution, overcrowding, etc. • 5. Pull Factors: factors that pull people toward cities. • 6. Effects: reasons are higher-paying jobs, better schools, & better medical care 7. Rapidly Growing Cities: Mexico City, Sao Paolo, Rio De Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Lima, Bogota, Santiago. • 8. Effects: Slums, unemployment, crime, high levels of air pollution, shortages of drinkable water, & poor infrastructure. III. Tourism is a growing industry throughout Latin America. But despite the money, tourism is a mixed blessing. • Tourist spends money and helps to create jobs. New hotels, restaurants, boutiques, and other businesses. Luxurious cruise ships anchor in the port of a region and travelers spend money on souvenirs and trips around the islands. Local people profit from the visitors. • Jobs for local resident: local guides, rafting, sailing, snorkeling expeditions. Informal economy. • Tourism play a part in reducing the income gap. • Jobs in hotels, restaurants, and resorts. 1. Describe the advantage and the disadvantage of the growing tourist industry in Latin America? • 1. Advantages of tourism: Creates businesses and jobs; brings money into the economy; can help reduce income gap. • Resources would help the economy by bringing in more industry. A better standard of living. • 2. Disadvantages of tourism: cars congestion & pollution; resentment among locals; local govt. get into debt because of infrastructure, & profits will sometimes not stay in the country. • Rain forest development might cause some natural resources to be lost. Cutting of large number of trees could change the climate. Erosion would be a problem during the rainy seasons. • Infrastructure. Questions • • • • • • • • • • 1. How might landforms affect the way people in Latin America live? They protect & isolated communities 2. Where are the Sierra Madre & Andes mountains locates? Mexico & South America 3. What are llanos & where are they located? Grassy & treeless plains & are located in Colombia & Venezuela 4. Name the two other plains of South America? Cerrado & Pampas 5. What are the three major river system in South America? Orinoco, Amazon, & Parana • 6. What are the three major island groups in the Caribbean Island? • The Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, & the Lesser Antilles • 7.What country generates the most hydroelectric power & why? • Brazil, because of its many rivers • 8. To grow food in the mountains, what technique is used? • Terraced farming • 9. Where is the slash-and-burn technique of farming used today? • Amazon River Basin • 10. Name 3 of most urbanized countries in Latin America? • Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Bogata, Mexico city, Lima • • • • 11. Why do people move to cities? Better jobs, schools, medical care 12. What are two advantages of tourism? Increased in employment & more money to local economy • 13. Why is there resentment between the local population and tourists? • The gap between rich tourists & less well-off residents causes resentment.