The Public Health Knowledge Base
Friday, May 25th, 2001
MLA Continuing Education Class
MLA Annual Conference
Orlando, Florida
10/4/2015
1
Welcome

Introduction to Instructors

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Nancy Allee
Kris Alpi
Ron Bialek
Karyn Pomerantz
Neil Rambo
Virginia (Ginny) Tanji
10/4/2015
2
Agenda

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Session 1, 8:00a – 10:00a
Break, 10:00a – 10:30a
Session 2, 10:30a – 12:00p
Lunch, 12:00p – 1:00p
Session 3, 1:00p – 3:00p
Break, 3:00p – 3:30p
Session 4, 3:30p – 5:00p
Class Evaluation; Class Ends at 5:00p
10/4/2015
3
Learning Modules

Session 1: Introduction to Public Health


Session 2: PubMed and Public Health Search
Strategies


Kris Alpi
Session 3: Using Public Health Data


Nancy Allee & Neil Rambo
Ron Bialek
Session 4: Public Health Resources on the
Internet

Karyn Pomerantz & Virginia (Ginny) Tanji
10/4/2015
4
Objectives of Class
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Participants will be able to describe the nature, content,
and purpose of public health research.
Participants will be able to identify major achievements in
public health history and current research trends.
Participants will be able to apply search strategies for
locating public health information.
Participants will be able to explain how public health data
is used in research.
Participants will be able to effectively search the Internet
for public health information and resources.
10/4/2015
5
Introduction of Participants

Please take a few minutes to introduce
yourself to the person sitting on your right.
Suggested information to find out about your
neighbor:
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
Name
Work Affiliation
Interest in Course
Favorite Disney Character
Please introduce your neighbor to the class.
10/4/2015
6
Introduction to Public Health
Section 1, Part 1
Public Health from an Academic
Perspective
Nancy Allee, MLS, MPH
Director, Public Health Information Services & Access
University of Michigan
[email protected]
10/4/2015
7
Quiz: Test Your Public Health
Knowledge

Test your Public Health Knowledge by taking
the online test created by the Association of
Schools of Public Health

10/4/2015
http://www.asph.org/get_section.cfm/67/124
8
Definition:
Knowledge Base

What is a Knowledge Base?

Knowledge base [COMPUTER SCIENCE] A collection of
facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in
combination with a database to achieve desired results, such
as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem.
{'nälij bs }

10/4/2015
AccessScience @ McGraw-Hill: The Online Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology.
9
Definition:
Health

What is Health?

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social
well-being and not merely the absence of disease or
infirmity.

10/4/2015
Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization.
http://www.who.int/m/topicgroups/who_organization/en/index.html
10
Definition:
Public Health

What is Public Health?

The Mission of Public Health
The fulfillment of society’s interest in assuring the conditions in which
people can be healthy.

The Substance of Public Health
Organized community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and
promotion of health.

The Organizational Framework of Public Health
Encompasses both activities undertaken within the formal structure of
government and the associated efforts of private and voluntary
organizations and individuals.

10/4/2015
The Future of Public Health, 1988.
11
Similarities and Differences between
Public Health & Medicine

Class Discussion
10/4/2015
12
Public Health & Medicine
Public Health Medicine
Patient
Entire Populations
Individuals
Intervention
Assessment,
Policy development,
Assurance
Medical,
Surgical treatment
Process
System management
Patient management
Outcome
Healthy community
Healing
10/4/2015
13
Core Disciplines

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Behavioral sciences/health education
Biostatistics
Environmental health
Epidemiology
Health services administration
10/4/2015
14
Related Disciplines

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Biomedical and laboratory practice
Dental public health
International public health
Maternal and child health
Occupational health and safety
Public health program management/practice
Preventive medicine
Public health nursing
10/4/2015
15
Historical Highlights in
Public Health
Selected Highlights from the Department of Health and Human Services
http://www.hhs.gov/about/hhshist.html

1798: The first Marine Hospital, a forerunner of today's Public Health Service, was
established to care for seafarers.

1887: The federal government opened a one-room laboratory on Staten Island for
research on disease, thereby planting the seed that was to grow into the National
Institutes of Health.

1964: Release of the first Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health.

1965: The Medicare and Medicaid programs were created, making comprehensive
health care available to millions of Americans.
 Continued…
10/4/2015
16
Historical Highlights in
Public Health

1966: International Smallpox Eradication program established. Led by the U.S.
Public Health Service, the worldwide eradication of smallpox was accomplished in
1977.

1981: Identification of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, AIDS. In 1984, the
HIV virus was identified by PHS and French scientists. In 1985, a blood test to
detect HIV was licensed.

1998: The Initiative to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health is
launched. The initiative focuses on six key areas of health: infant
mortality, cancer screening and management, cardiovascular disease, diabetes,
HIV/AIDS, and immunizations.

2000: Scientists complete the map of the human genome.
10/4/2015
17
Historical Overview of Public
Health

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Historical
Highlights


Web site designed to help people learn more about public health
and about the Public Health Service


http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/phs_history/contents.html
Historical List of Surgeon Generals of the Public Health Service


http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/phs200/
Images From the History of the Public Health Service


http://www.hhs.gov/about/hhshist.html
http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/historical-data/surgeons.html
Continued…
10/4/2015
18
Historical Overview of Public
Health

Timeline from the CDC

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WHO’s Fifty Years of International Public Health


http://www.who.int/archives/who50/en/50years.htm
Profiles in Public Health by Johns Hopkins SPH


http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/timeline.htm
http://support.jhsph.edu/sph/sphheros.cfm?list=yes
A History of Public Health from Virginia Commonwealth
University

10/4/2015
http://views.vcu.edu/commed/IntroPH/Introduction/Phhx97.html
19
Achievements in Public
Health

Class Discussion
10/4/2015
20
The CDC’s 10 Great Public Health
Achievements (1900 – 1999)
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Vaccination
Motor-vehicle Safety
Safer Workplaces
Control of Infectious
Diseases
Decline in Deaths from
Coronary Heart Disease
& Stroke

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
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
Safer & Healthier Foods
Healthier Mothers &
Babies
Family Planning
Fluoridation of Drinking
Water
Recognition of Tobacco
Use as a Health Hazard
http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/tengpha.htm
10/4/2015
21
Notable Figures from the
History of Public Health
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Baker, S. Josephine, 1873-1945 (Physician, Public Health & Child Welfare)

http://www.britannica.com/seo/s/sara-josephine-baker/
Biggs, Hermann M., 1859-1923 (Physician, Health Administrator)

http://156.145.78.54/htm/decades/1880.htm
Frank, Johann Peter, 1745-1821 (Pioneer in Public Health & Social Medicine)

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=266&tocid=0
Graunt, John, 1620-1674 (Statistician, Began Statistical Methods of Analysis)

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=38539
Hamilton, Alice, 1869-1970 (Pathologist, Founder of Occupational Medicine)

http://www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/hamilton-a.html
Jenner, Edward, 1749-1823 (Surgeon, Discovered Vaccination of Smallpox)

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=44512&tocid=0
10/4/2015
22
Notable Figures from the
History of Public Health
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Park, William H., 1963-1939 (Physician, Worked on Treatment of Diphtheria)

http://www.phri.nyu.edu/history.htm
Pasteur, Louis, 1822-1895 (Chemist, Microbiologist)

http://www.louisville.edu/library/ekstrom/special/pasteur/cohn.html
Salk, Jonas E., 1914-1995 (Physician, Medical Researcher, Virologist)

http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/salk.html
Snow, John, 1813-1858 (Epidemiologist, Anesthesiologist)

http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow.html
Wald, Lillian D., 1867-1940 (Public Health Nurse, Social Worker)

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=77909&tocid=0
Discover more about notable Public Health figures in George Rosen’s A History of
Public Health and Dorothy Porter’s Health, Civilization and the State.
10/4/2015
23
Public Health from the Past
to the Present
10/4/2015
24
Accrediting Agencies &
Professional Organizations

American Public Health Association (APHA)

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Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH)

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http://www.chapinc.org/
Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH)


http://www.asph.org/
Community Health Accreditation Program (CHAP)


http://www.apha.org/
http://www.ceph.org/
Public Health/Health Admin, MLA (MLA PH/HA)

http://www.phha.mlanet.org/phha.html
10/4/2015
25
Who Provides Leadership in
Public Health?

A short list of key individuals:
Tommy G. Thompson, JD

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David Satcher, MD, PhD

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Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Elizabeth M. Duke, PhD (Acting)

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Surgeon General & Assistant Secretary for Health
Jeffrey P. Koplan, MD MPH


Secretary, DHHS
Administrator, Health Resources & Services Admin. (HRSA)
Mohammad N. Akhter, MD, MPH

Executive Director, American Public Health Association (APHA)
10/4/2015
26
Who Provides Leadership in
Public Health?

A short list of key organizations:
International
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World Health Organization (WHO)
http://www.who.int/
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
http://www.paho.org/
National

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Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
http://www.os.dhhs.gov/
Public Health Service (PHS)
http://www.os.dhhs.gov/phs/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
http://www.cdc.gov/
Continued…
10/4/2015
27
Who Provides Leadership in
Public Health?
A short list of key organizations:

National
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State
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Public Health Foundation (PHF)
http://www.phf.org/
Partners in Information Access for Public Health Professionals
http://nnlm.gov/partners/
Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO)
http://www.astho.org/
Local

10/4/2015
National Association of City and County Health Officials (NACCHO)
http://www.naccho.org/
28
Who Funds Public Health
Research?

American Public Health Association (APHA)


Centers for Control and Prevention (CDC)


http://www.cos.com/services/
National Institutes of Health (NIH)


http://www.cdc.gov/funding.htm
Community of Science (COS)


http://www.apha.org/legislative/budget2001.htm
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/index.cfm
National Science Foundation (NSF)
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10/4/2015
http://www.nsf.gov/home/grants.htm
29
Current Research Issues &
Trends
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Health Disparities
International/Global Health
Genetic Epidemiology/Statistical Genetics
Genetically Modified Food
Discover more from The Nation’s Health, The American Journal of
Public Health, and other resources to be mentioned in class.
10/4/2015
30
Academic Settings

Schools of Public Health

List of Schools of Public Health From the American Public
Health Association

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Rankings of Schools of Public Health from US News & World
Report


http://www.apha.org/public_health/schools.htm
http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/beyond/gradrank/gbpubhea.htm
Association of Schools of Public Health in the European
Region

10/4/2015
http://www.ensp.fr/aspher/Aspher.htm
31
Career Opportunities in
Public Health
The Association of Schools of Public Health has identified 12 fields in
which most public health careers are found:
http://www.ascd.org/health_in_education/career_ph.html
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Behavioral sciences and health
education
Biomedical and laboratory
practice
Biostatistics
Environmental health sciences
Epidemiology
Health services administration
10/4/2015
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International public health
Maternal and child health
Nutrition
Occupational safety and
health
Public health dentistry
Public health practice and
program management
32
Locating Career Opportunities
in Public Health

Selected Web Sites

American Public Health Association

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Association of Schools of Public Health
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
http://www.apha.org/career/
http://www.asph.org/aa_section.cfm/12
Selected Publications

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10/4/2015
The Nation’s Health (Newspaper)
American Journal of Public Health
33
Public Health Libraries
A short list of academic collections and resources in designated
Public Health Libraries:

Berkeley

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Johns Hopkins


http://www.sph.umich.edu/phisa/
University of Texas, Houston


http://www.welch.jhu.edu/about/lil.html
University of Michigan


http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/PUBL/
http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu:8054/library/default.htm
Yale

http://info.med.yale.edu/eph/library/
10/4/2015
34
Academic Libraries with Public
Health Collections & Resources

A short list of Academic Health Sciences Libraries with
Public Health resources:
Columbia University

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George Washington University


http://www.hawaii.edu/sphlib/
University of North Carolina

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http://www.countway.harvard.edu/
University of Hawaii, Manoa

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http://www.gwumc.edu/library/
Harvard University


http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/library/
http://www.hsl.unc.edu/
University of Washington

10/4/2015
http://healthlinks.washington.edu/hsl/
35
Public Health Libraries, Frequently Asked
Reference Questions, and Corresponding
Internet Resources
Based on Information Provided by Reference Librarians at the
University of Michigan.

Career Information


Chemical Properties/Structures


ToxNet (NLM)
http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/
Citation Information



Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)
http://www.ascd.org/health_in_education/career_ph.html
Web of Science (ISI Citation Database) (Subscription Based)
http://proxy.lib.umich.edu:2048/login?url=http://www.webofscience.com/
General Public Health Research

MEDLINEplus (NLM)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi
10/4/2015
For additional information, please refer to handout.
36
Public Health Libraries, Frequently
Asked Reference Questions, and
Corresponding Internet Resources
Based on Information Provided by Reference Librarians at the
University of Michigan.

Government Related Information


Grant Information


National Institute of Health (NIH)
http://grants.nih.gov/grants/index.cfm
Health/Environmental Standards


Federal Register (NARA)
http://www.nara.gov/fedreg/
NIH’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
http://www.niehs.nih.gov/
International Health

World Health Organization (WHO)
http://www.who.int/home-page/
10/4/2015
For additional information, please refer to handout.
37
Public Health Libraries, Frequently Asked
Reference Questions, and Corresponding
Internet Resources

Based on Information Provided by Reference Librarians at the
University of Michigan.
Minority Health


Measurement Instruments


Nutrition.gov
http://www.nutrition.gov/
Personal Health/Medical Advice


Health and Psychosocial Instruments (HAPI)
http://medsearch.lib.umich.edu (Subscription Based)
Nutrition


Office of Minority Health (OMH)
http://www.omhrc.gov/
HealthWeb
http://www.healthweb.org
Statistics
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)
http:/www.cdc.gov/nchs
10/4/2015
For additional information, please refer to handout.

38
Challenges Facing Public
Health

Produced by the World Federation of Public Health
Associations this call to action addresses Challenges for Public
Health at the Dawn of the 21st Century


http://www.apha.org/wfpha/call_to_action.htm
A list of major Public Health problems from The Nation’s
Health, 5th Edition.

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10/4/2015
Tobacco Use
HIV/AIDS
Dietary Patterns & Sedentary Lifestyles
Alcohol & Drug Abuse
Chronic Diseases (Heart Disease, Cancer, Cerebrovascular Disease,
Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity)
And a growing list of environmental hazards
39
Challenges Facing Public
Health

Public Health Work Force Declining in
Numbers. The Nation’s Health. March 2001,
page 1.


1970: 500,000
2000: 448,254 + 2.5 million volunteers

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10/4/2015
Technical Support 14% of work force
Administrative Support 11%
Public Health Nurses 11%
Public Health Physicians 1.3%
Epidemiologists/Biostatisticians < 1%
40
Public Health Training &
Credentialing

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)


HRSA Establishes a Nationwide Network of Training Centers


http://www.hrsa.gov/
http://www.hrsa.gov/Newsroom/NewsBriefs/2001/Phcenter.htm
American Public Health Association (APHA) and American
Schools of Public Health (ASPH) Develop a Coalition of Public
Health Organizations & Agencies on Credentialing the Public
Health Workforce.

Credentialing Project Gains Momentum. The Nation’s Health. April
2001, page 5.
10/4/2015
41
Public Health Communication
and Awareness


National Public Health Week, April 2-8, 2001.
This national celebration provides an opportunity to recognize
the contributions of public health to the nation's well-being as
well as help focus public attention on major health issues in
our communities (APHA Web Site).
For more information :


10/4/2015
American Public Health Association
 http://www.apha.org/news/press/nphw.htm
Maryland’s Recognition of National Public Health Week
 http://mdpublichealth.org/ohp/html/phw.html
42
Public Health Communication
and Awareness

APHA Annual Conferences

2001, Atlanta


2002, Philadelphia

10/4/2015
Theme: Global Health
Theme: Putting the Public Back in Public Health
43
Introduction to Public Health
Section 1, Part 2
Public Health from a Community-Based &
Public Health Practice Perspective.
Neil Rambo, MLS
Associate Director, Health Sciences Libraries
University of Washington
[email protected]
10/4/2015
44
Public Health Practice
Objectives are to understand:

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

10/4/2015
Practice environment
Information needs
Implications for information support
45
Practice Settings

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Community-wide
Prevention-oriented
Partnership-driven
Core functions


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10/4/2015
Assessment
Policy development
Assurance
46
10 Essential Public Health
Services






Monitor health status
Diagnose & investigate health problems
Inform, educate, and empower
Mobilize community partnerships
Develop policies and plans
Continued…
10/4/2015
47
10 Essential Public Health
Services





Enforce laws & regulations
Link people to services
Assure competent workforce
Evaluate services
Research solutions to health problems
10/4/2015
48
Core Functions
10/4/2015
49
HP2010 Objectives

Ch. 23—Infrastructure





10/4/2015
Data and information systems
Workforce
Public health organizations
Resources
Prevention research
50
HP2010 Objectives

23-1 Data and Information Systems

10/4/2015
Increase the proportion of Tribal, State, and local
public health agencies that provide Internet and email access for at least 75 percent of their
employees and that teach employees to use the
Internet and other electronic information systems
to apply data and information to public health
practice.
51
HP2010 Objectives

Ch. 11—Health Communication






10/4/2015
Households with Internet access
Health literacy
Research and evaluation of communication programs
Quality of Internet health information sources
Centers for excellence
Satisfaction with health care providers’ communication
skills
52
HP2010 Objectives

11-4 Health Communication

10/4/2015
Increase the proportion of health-related World
Wide Web sites that disclose information that can
be used to assess the quality of the site.
53
Who Provides Public Health?



Local, state, federal govt. & tribal agencies
Private, not-for-profit organizations
Health care organizations


Prevention information/education
Large businesses


10/4/2015
Industrial hygiene
Occupational health & safety
54
Who Depends on Public
Health?





Those exposed to disease/injury
New mothers
International travelers
Food handlers
Businesses




Restaurants
Developers
Septic/well contractors
Continued…
10/4/2015
55
Who Depends on Public
Health?

Everyone who expects to




Breathe clean air
Drink pure water
Eat safe, unadulterated food
Be immunized against diseases
10/4/2015
56
Partner Organizations




Hospitals
HMOs
Community agencies/organizations
Health associations
10/4/2015
57
Workforce



Diverse segments & functions
Lack of uniform education & level of training
Diverse information needs
10/4/2015
58
Workforce - Segments &
Functions





Health officers
Public health nurses
Environmental health specialists
Social workers
Outreach workers/Case managers
10/4/2015
59
Workforce – Education &
Training

Professional/graduate education



Undergraduate education
Certification


MD, MSN, MPH, MS, MSW
RS, RD
Continuing education opportunities

10/4/2015
Institutes, etc.
60
Workforce – Information
Needs




As diverse as the workforce
Clinical information only one aspect
Not well understood
Preliminary study to identify/characterize
information needs …
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61
Study Components



5 workforce subgroups
8 facilitated discussion sessions
70 participants in study
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62
Information Needs



7 information needs identified by all
subgroups
5 more needs identified by > 1 subgroup
15 more needs identified only by 1 subgroup


10/4/2015
25% are common across subgroups
> 50% are unique to 1 subgroup
63
Information Needs in
Common





Better tools and resources for contacting experts
Timely updates on pertinent legislative issues and
events
Structured information (“metadata”) characterizing
the contents of data sets
Outcome measures and “best practice” resources
Continued…
10/4/2015
64
Information Needs in
Common



Better scheduling tools and calendar
information
Standard templates for often-used applications
Knowledge-based information from external
databases
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65
Implications





Good news: knowledge-based information is a need
in common among many groups
Sobering news: it’s one of many other needs, and it’s
not the highest priority
Traditional tools of health science librarians are
research oriented
Need: structure knowledge-based information to be
practitioner-friendly
Continued…
10/4/2015
66
Implications



Need: librarian familiarity with public health
data sources & uses
Need: integration of librarian role as part of
public health practice team
Public health librarians and informaticians


10/4/2015
Overlapping but distinct
Need to work for synergy rather than stalemate
67
Core Resources
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68
Core Resources

Annual Review of Public Health


Education for More Synergistic Practice of Medicine and Public Health


Institute of Medicine. (1988). The Future of Public Health. Washington D.C.:
National Academy Press.
A History of Public Health: Expanded Edition


Hager, Mary (Ed.). (1999). Education for More Synergistic Practice of Medicine and
Public Health. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.
The Future of Public Health


Fielding, Jonathan E, Lave, Lester B., Starfield, Barbara (Eds). (2000).
Annual Review of Public Health. Palo Alto, California: Annual Reviews.
Rosen, George. (1993). A History of Public Health. Baltimore: The Johns
Hopkins University Press.
Continued…
10/4/2015
69
Core Resources

Local Public Health Practice: Trends & Models


The Nation’s Health



Mays, Glen P, Miller, C. Arden, Halverson, Paul K. (2000). Local Public
Health Practice: Trends & Models.Washington D.C. American Public Health
Association.
Lee, Philip R. & Estes Carroll L (Eds). (1997) The Nation’s Health (5th
Edition). Dudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Note: 6th Edition is also available.
Workforce information needs and online resource use implications.

O’Carroll P., Rambo N. Workforce information needs and online resource use
implications. Washington, 1997-98. MMWR Weekly Report. 2000 Feb
18;49(6):118-120.
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70
Class Assignment
Working in groups of 3-4, design the curriculum for
a course entitled “Public Health 101: An Introduction
to Public Health.”
 Features you may want to include:






10/4/2015
Describe key concepts & themes;
Describe course objectives;
Describe the scope and coverage, delivery methods, timeframe, and
prerequisites for the class;
Plan a Web site about the class & describe its content & design;
Plan a video to accompany the class & describe its content & design.
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