www.unido.org
How to Integrate
SMEs into the
Global Value Chain Networks:
The Challenge of UNIDO SPX Centres
Patrick J. Gilabert
SPX Programme Manager
UNIDO Headquarters, Vienna, Austria
www.unido.org
UNIDO GLOBAL NETWORK
UNIDO Field Representation: UNIDO is represented in 36 countries
UNIDO field representation comprises
• Regional Offices (11) in: Colombia; Egypt; Ethiopia; China; India;
Lebanon; Mexico; Nigeria; South Africa; Thailand; and Uruguay,
• Country Offices (19) in Algeria, Bolivia; Cameroon; Cote d'Ivoire;
Ghana; Guinea; Indonesia; Iran; Kenya; Madagascar; Morocco;
Pakistan; Philippines; Senegal; Sudan; Tanzania; Tunisia; Vietnam;
and Zimbabwe, and
• Focal Points (6) in: Mali, Burkina Faso, Mozambique; Sri Lanka;
Togo; Uganda
UNIDO Liaison Offices in New York, Geneva and Brussels maintain onthe-spot contacts with Member States and the other United Nations
organizations / European Commission based there
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UNIDO GLOBAL NETWORK
Other Field Offices
UNIDO has a number of offices worldwide:
• 21 Investment and Technology Promotion Offices (ITPOs), four
Investment Promotion Units (IPUs)
• 30 National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPCs), established by
UNIDO and UNEP
• 10 International Technology Centres and
• 44 Subcontracting and Partnership eXchanges (SPXs) at various
stages of development, that work closely with the Investment and
Technology Promotion Offices
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44 SPXs in 32 countries
Industrial Subcontracting and
Partnership eXchanges (SPXs)
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Global Outsourcing Trends
Extracted from Raj Blogs
http://rgarg.blogspot.com/2005/10/humor-outsource-to-india.html
Setting up….
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Global Outsourcing Trends
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Issues and Risks
Costs:
Total Costs = Planned outsourcing Costs + Hidden Costs
Search and contract
Restructuring
Communication
Process Changes
Cultural Differences
Loss of Productivity
Travel
Governance
1 to 2%
3 to 5%
1 to 3%
0 to 10%
2 to 3%
3 to 27%
2 to 3%
1 to 2%
Total (including extras):
17 to 80%
Table data: Levina, N. IT Outsourcing, IOMS, Stern School of Business, NYU, 2006
Data combines Meta
group and CIO magazine
estimates
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Issues and Risks
Potential Risks
2005: Premature termination of outsourcing relationship: 51%.
1
60% of organisations that outsource will encounter defects and
hidden costs. 1
Yet….
Forecasted 20% annual growth of outsourcing through 2008. 1
1.
RTTS Services: Outsourcing Statistics, 2005 – http://www.rttsweb.com/services/outsourcing/stats.cfm
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UNIDO SPX Programme
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What is an Industrial Subcontracting
and Partnership eXchanges (SPX) ?
“An SPX is a centre for technical information,
promotion and the matching of capacities, processes
and production or industrial service specialities, in the
form of an autonomous structure whose basic purpose is
to help bring together enquiries for and offers of
subcontracting work and outsourcing.”
Supplier
SPX
Subcontractor
subcontracting
Main
contractor
Warehouse
Distributor
Client
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Institutional Set-up of SPX
PRIVATE (CHAMBERS/ASSOC./FED) 50%
MIXTE (PRIVATE & PUBLIC)
38%
EXCLUSIVELY PUBLIC
12%
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44 SPXs in 32 countries
Industrial Subcontracting and
Partnership eXchanges (SPXs)
www.unido.org
UNIDO Global Outsourcing Network
In America:
18 SPXs in 15 countries
BOLIVIA:
- BSA-Fundacion, La Paz
- BOLSICRUZ-CCI, Santa Cruz
BRAZIL:
- BSI&N-SEBRAE, Sao Paolo
MEXICO:
- Red Mexicano de BSA, BEPIQ, Queretaro
- BSPI&DP-CAINTRA de Nueva Leon,
Monterrey
(Mexican SPX Network also include: BSIMCIMEG de Jalisco, Guadelajara, CEPED,
Chihuahua, MOLTRO, Queretaro)
-Etc…
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UNIDO Global Outsourcing Network
In AMEA Countries:
17 SPXs in 13 countries
MAURITIUS:
ALGERIA:
- SUBEX-M, Port Louis
- BASTP-Centre, Alger
MAROCCO:
- BSTPE- Est, Constantine
- BNSTP-M, Casablanca
- BSTPO-Ouest, Oran
- BSTPS-Sud, Ghardaia
SENEGAL:
COTE d’IVOIRE:
- BNSTP-S, Dakar
- BSTP-CI, Abidjan
TUNISIA:
-BNSTP-T, Tunis
GHANA:
LEBANON:
- SPX-AGI, Accra
- BSTP/SPX-L, Beirut
MADAGASCAR:
QATAR:
- BSTP-M, Antanarivo
- SPX GOIC
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UNIDO Global Outsourcing Network
In AMEA Countries:
17 SPXs in 13 countries
FRANCE:
- COSTEP, Auxerre
- BSTE, Nancy
SLOVAKIA:
- SPX-SES, Bratislava
TURKEY:
- Turkish SPX, Istanbul
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UNIDO Global Outsourcing Network
In Asia and Russian Fed.:
9 SPXs in 4 countries
CHINA:
-SPX Chongqing, - SPX Beijing,
-SPX Shanghai
INDIA:
- National SPX Network, New Delhi
- SPX-CII, New Delhi
- SPX-CII, Pune
- SPX-CII, Hyderabad
- SPX-KASSIA, Bengalore
(members of the Indian SPX network
also include - SPX-SISI, Chennai,
SPX-IAT, Ludhiana, SPX-ESC, New
Delhi)
SRI LANKA:
RUSSIAN Fed.:
-SPX-SL, Colombo
-International Center for Subcontracting and Partnership,
ICS, Moscow
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UNIDO Global Outsourcing Network
SPX-Turkey
Winner of the
Best Small Business Project Award 2003
3rd World Chambers of Commerce Congress,
Quebec, Canada
Most innovative project undertaken by
chambers of commerce around the world
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SPX sector distribution
More than 10,000 suppliers audited and
registered following UNIDO’s methodology
M e ta l
56%
O th e rs
7%
S e rv ic e s
10%
T e x tile
E le c tro
P la s tic
10%
7%
10%
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http://www.unido.org/spx
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The way forward 2007 - 2010
Building-up the Supply
&
Supply Chain Upgrading Programmes
Supplier
Subcontractor
Main
contractor
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Building-up the Supply
Strong demand for New SPXs Centres:
• Russia (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk)
• Kazakhstan
• China (Harbin, Xi’an, Guangzhou)
• France (Marseille)
• Africa: Burkina Faso, Mali, Madagascar, Cameroon, Congo,
Nigeria, Uganda, South Africa, Mauritius
• Iran, Colombia, Haiti
Existing SPXs in Beijing, Chongqing (China)
and Doha (Qatar) have also requested UNIDO’s
technical assistance for a project phase II.
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Building-up the Supply
SPX Networks development 2007
• Algeria – Tunisia SPX Network, (Algiers, Oran, Constantine,
Ghardia and Tunis)
•Gulf Countries SPX Network (6 GCC countries)
• India SPX Network
• All China SPX Network
• West Africa SPX Network
• Latin America SPX Network
• “UNIDO SPX World-Wide Network”
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UNIDO SPX NETWORK IN CHINA
Six SPX centres strategically located on dynamic regions in the country
1. SPX Chongqing, at Chongqing Technology Exhibition Centre
2. SPX Beijing, at Beijing Productivity Centre
2
3. SPX Shanghai, at Shanghai Industrial Inv. Corp. (SIIC)
4. SPX Harbin, at China Harbin Fair for Trade and Economic
Cooperation
List of UNIDO SPXs, as of 25 January 2006
5. SPX Guangzhou, counterpart to be selected by the Economic
and Trade Commission of Guangzhou Municipality
6. SPX Xi´an, at the Xi´an Productivity Center
3
5
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Building-up the Supply
UNIDO Global Outsourcing Network
1) similar nodes
=
UNIDO SPXs
2) same software
=
new OUTSOURCING 2007
3) same language
=
Industrial Nomenclature
4) communication
=
UNIDO 2007 SPX WEB PORTAL
5) information flow
=
Inquiries + Opportunities
6) synergies
=
ITPOs, NCPCs, privileged partners
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SPXs Centers are part of the
UNIDO
“Supply Chain Upgrading Programme”
UNIDO´s Corporate Strategy, Services and priorities for the medium term 2004 – 2007, February 2004
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Supply Chain Partnerships
Organizing, jointly with SPXs, which act as facilitators or
brokers, “Supply Development and Upgrading
Programmes” to provide assistance to clusters of smallscale suppliers and subcontractors,
in order to upgrade their technical and commercial skills
and their capability to meet quality requirements of the
international buyers and main contractors.
UNIDO´s Corporate Strategy, Services and priorities for the medium term 2004 – 2007, February 2004
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Introduction to Supply Chain
Management
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Supply Chain
A Supply Chain is a network of suppliers, factories, storage facilities,
distributors, transporters and clients that participate in the sale, delivery
and production of a specific product.
Supplier
Factory
Warehouse
Distributor
Client
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Supply Chain Management
Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the practice of coordinating the
flow of goods, funds and information as they move along the supply
chain.
Supplier
Factory
Warehouse
Material flow
Financial flow
Information flow
Source: INSEAD Supply Chain Management Programme 2004
Distributor
Client
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Example of a Supply Chain:
Dell Computer
Monitors by SONY (Mexico)
Keyboards by Acer (Taiwan)
CPU by Intel
(USA)
Dell
Assembly
Plant
Customers order
computers on-line
Factory
Client
Other components
Supplier
Source: INSEAD Supply Chain Management Programme 2004
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Bad Supply Chain Management
costs a lot!
Boeing aircraft, one of America's leading capital goods producers,
was forced to announce write downs of $2.6 billion in October
1997, due to “Raw material shortages, internal and supplier parts
shortages…”.
Source: Levina, N. IT Outsourcing, IOMS, Stern School of Business, NYU, 2006
www.unido.org
Bad Supply Chain Management
costs a lot!
• Sony PlayStation 2 could ship only half the consoles Palm, Inc.
This has generated a revenue loss of 10-40%
• Compaq had 600,000-700,000 unfilled orders
• Arrow Electronics $3Bn of inventory (6 MOS) and Solectron
$4.7Bn of inventory
Source: Levina, N. IT Outsourcing, IOMS, Stern School of Business, NYU, 2006
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Supply Chain: The Potential
It is estimated that the grocery industry could save $30 billion (10% of
operating cost) by using effective logistics strategies
A typical box of cereal spends more
than three months getting from
factory to supermarket
Source: Levina, N. IT Outsourcing, IOMS, Stern School of Business, NYU, 2006
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Supply Chain: The Potential
Supply Chain and Financial performance
SCM
improvements
Reduce out-ofstock situations
Value levers
Value drivers
Increase
revenue
Profit increase
Increase labor
productivity
Effective supply chain
management
practices can improve
the financial
performance of a
company.
Reduce costs
Decrease
distribution costs
Reduce inventory
Increase
utilization of fixed
assets
Value creation
Reduce
working capital
Reduce fixed
capital
Invested
capital
reduction
Examples of SCM practices that can impact financial performance
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Supply Chain: The Potential
To improve sourcing efficiency, UNIDO SPX develop
partnerships with local suppliers to develop a strong
supplier base
Partnership
Certification
Traditional
Supplier assessment programs
Supplier development programs
Long-term contracts
No inspection
Quality
On-time delivery
Technology transfers
Trading agreements
Price emphasis
Multiple sources
Inspections
Many transactions
Time
The evolution of the customer-supplier relationship
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Supply Chain: The Potential
UNIDO Supply Chain Upgrading Programmes
Objectives to be achieved by local suppliers
1.
2.
3.
4.
Cost control
Pricing policy
Technological improvements
Use of main contractors’ production
facilities by subcontractors (instruments,
moulds, prototypes, patterns, quality
control equipment)
5. Total quality (zero defects) management
6. Client certification procedure
7. Organization of work within the enterprise
8. Logistics (just-in-time practices)
9. Environment
10. Supply Chain Management and Design
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CONTACT
Patrick J. Gilabert
SPX Programme Manager
UNIDO
E-mail: [email protected]
Tel: 43 - 1 - 26026 6414
Fax: 43 1 - 26026 6806
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