Using Sources
What to Cite, Harris
Danielle M. Kwasnik, EdD
[email protected]
Using Sources
 “If the information came from outside your
own head, cite the source” (p. 16).
 “If in doubt, cite it” (p. 19).
 Choosing sources to Cite (Harris, 2005, pp.
16-19)
Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism
(3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers.
Using Sources
Selecting Sources
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Select sources based on level of scholarship.
Avoid selecting sources based on your level of
agreement.
Carefully select Internet sources; avoid if possible.
“The expertise test: Is there evidence that the source
knows the subject?”
“The accuracy test: Is the information correct today?”
“The reliability test: Is the information supported by
other sources?”
(Harris, 2005, pp. 34-43)
Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism
(3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers.
Using Sources
Quotes
Cautions for Quoting
 Too often
 Too heavy reliance on one source, and quoting
that source too often
 Lengthy quotations
(Harris, 2005, pp. 50-51)
Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism
(3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers.
Using Sources
Paraphrases
 What is a paraphrase?
“A paraphrase converts a source’s
words into about the same number of
your own words” (p. 52).
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When to paraphrase
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How to paraphrase
(Harris, 2005, pp. 52-58)
Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism
(3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers.
Using Sources
Paraphrases
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6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing
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Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later
how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card,
write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your
paraphrase.
Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your
version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new
form.
Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology
you have borrowed exactly from the source.
Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that
you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material
into your paper.
Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/01/
Using Sources
Introducing Sources
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Introductory strategies
Introductory verbs
Punctuation
Table of Quotation Verbs
“Always quote exactly” (p. 81).
(Harris, 2005, pp. 74-81)
Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively: Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism
(3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers.
Evaluating Research
Guidelines
 No research provides “proof.”
 Use hedging language –
“suggests,” or “provides strong
evidence” or “appears to
indicate.”
(Pyrczak, 2005, pp. 7-8)

Pyrczak, F. (2005). Evaluating research in academic journals: A practical guide to
realistic evaluation (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers.
Sample reference list in APA
References
Anderson, L., Adelman, N., Finnigan, K., Cotton, L., Donnelly, M. B., & Price, T. (2002). A
decade of public charter schools: Evaluation of the public charter school program 20002001 evaluation report. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from the SRI International Web
site: http://www.sri.com/policy/cep/choice/yr2.pdf. (Online source – no doi
available)
Best, J. W., & Kahn, J. V. (1998). Research in education (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and
Bacon. (Edited book)
Bolman, L. & Deal, T. (1997). Reframing organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
(Book)
Dressler, B. (2001). Charter school leadership. Education and Urban Society, 33(4), 170-185.
(Journal article)
Edwards, B. (2005). How are California’s charter schools performing? Retrieved from
http://www.edsource.org/pub_abs_charters05.cfm (online journal article) – no doi
available
References continued
Opfer, V. D. (2001). Charter schools and the panoptic effect of accountability. Education and
Urban Society, 33(2), 201-215. doi:10.1177/0013124501332008 (Journal article
w/doi)
Sanders, M. G., Allen-Jones, G. L., & Abel, Y. (2002). Involving families and communities in
the education of children and youth placed at risk. In S. Stringfield & D. Land (Eds.),
Educating at-risk students (pp. 171-188). Chicago: National Society for the Study of
Education, University of Chicago Press. (Book chapter)
Spillane, J. P., & Seashore Louis, K. (2002). School improvement processes and practices:
Professional learning for building instructional capacity. In J. Murphy (Ed.), The
educational leadership challenge: Redefining leadership for the 21st century (pp. 83104). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Book chapter)
United States Government Accountability Office. (2005, January). Charter schools: To
enhance educations monitoring research, more charter school level data are needed.
Retrieved August 26, 2005 from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d055.pdf (Online
source – no doi available)
Wells, A., & Research Associates. (1998). Charter school reform in California: Does it meet
expectations? Phi Delta Kappan, 80(4), 305-312. (Online source)
Electronic Sources - Locator Information
(APA manual – p. 187-189)
 DOI: Digital Object Identifiers. An
alphanumeric string assignment by a
registration agency to identify content and
provide a link to its location on the Internet.
 THE DOI System provides citation-linking
services for the scientific publishing sector.
 The purpose of the DOI is to direct readers to
content.
 The DOI is a linking mechanism embedded in
the reference lists of electronic sources.
 www.crossref.org
References and Suggested Texts
 American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication
manual of the American Psychological Association
(6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological
Association.
 Galvan, J. L. (2006). Writing literature reviews: A guide
for students of the social and behavioral sciences
(3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers.
 Harris, R. A. (2005). Using sources effectively:
Strengthening your writing and avoiding plagiarism
(3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers.
 Pyrczak, F. (2005). Evaluating research in academic
journals: A practical guide to realistic evaluation (3rd
ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishers.
 Strunk, W., White, E. B., & Angell, R. (2000). The
elements of style (4th ed.). New York, NY: Longman.
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Using Sources