Enterprise Component Comparison:
An Examination Of J2EE, CORBA, And .NET
presented by
Seth Freeman, Phil Griffith and Frank Manni
Semester Project- Final Presentation
CSE333 – Distributed Component Systems (FALL 2005)
Prof. Steven A. Demurjian
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
University of Connecticut
Enterprise Component Comparison--1
Outline Of Presentation
Project Description
CORBA Material
J2EE Material
.NET Material
Enterprise Component Comparison--2
Project Description
Compare and Contrast the 3 Technologies J2EE,
.NET, and CORBA.
Evaluate the Three in These Four Areas:
 Database Connectivity
 Security
 Web Services
 Interoperability
GOAL: To Analyze Which Areas in J2EE or .NET
is Better Suited to Be Used for Application
Development. Also to Determine in Which Areas
CORBA Can Be Beneficial.
Enterprise Component Comparison--3
Project Scope
Database Connectivity
Determine Components Involved.
Examine the Underlying Functionality of
Establishing a Connection to a Database.
In the End We Will Also Compare the Performance
of J2EE and .NET in Updating and Querying a
Real World Database.
Web Services
Analyze the Techniques to Develop and Deploy
Web Services for the Three Technologies.
Observe the Ease of Use
Determine the Support of Each for Web Services.
Enterprise Component Comparison--4
Project Scope
 The Goal Here is to Determine the Built-in
Capabilities of Authorization, Authentication,
and Encryption.
 Then Analyze the Functionality of These
Primitives Within the Framework.
 The Final Part of the Project is to Investigate
the Middleware Interoperability of .NET/J2EE
and CORBA Components.
 More Specifically the Focus Will Be on
Remoting in .NET vs. RMI (J2EE).
 And Also Observe How Components Interact
With Heterogeneous Components.
Enterprise Component Comparison--5
CORBA (In Brief)
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
Enterprise Component Comparison--6
CORBA and Databases
Enterprise Component Comparison--7
Similar Functionality
Data is in the correct format when it is
received from the ORB. This saves
time from having to parse XML.
Data cannot be read by humans alone.
Because it is in the correct/digital format.
Standard specification, which is Defined Protocol(IIOP)does not easily transport over
the internet. This limits the scope of where
by the OMG.
CORBA can be used. ORB must be present
on all machines, or elaborate coding is
required to workaround.
Readable Interface Descriptions. SOAP
wsdl files are difficult to read through.
Does not directly support .NET.
Supports various events, i.e. transaction,
notification, security services.
Cannot transport some types of documents
easily, such as .pdf or .doc files.
Enterprise Component Comparison--8
Web Services
to travel over the internet because it
uses the http protocol.
is easy to read in XML format
by IBM and Microsoft.
transport attachments without problems.
at Port 80.
competing SOAP standards.
to encode polymorphism.
standard specification.
event services.
performance—data needs to be parsed
WSDL files
are not easy to read.
Enterprise Component Comparison--9
CORBA Security
Security Within CORBA
CORBA Gives Administrators, Developers, Etc the
Ability to Add Security to the System.
Developed a Specification of What Makes a
CORBA Application Secure.
CORBA, Being Distributed, Has More Areas That
Are Vulnerable to Attacks, and Therefore Has
More Areas That Need to Be Made Secure
Not Going to Go Over All of Them--Already Went
Over Them in Class.
Focus on Security Service Protocol (SECP)—
Communication Between Objects/Clients and the
Enterprise Component Comparison--10
CORBA Security
CORBA ORBs Communicate by Using the GIOP (General
Inter-Orb Protocol). This Protocol Defines the Format of
the Messages That Are Passed Over the ORB to and From
the Client and Object. When GIOP Runs Over TCP/IP it
is a Part of IIOP. SECP Will Be Another Layer Below the
GIOP That Adds Security to Message Transportation.
SECP Will Transport GIOP Messages Security
SECP is Still in Progress. Its Status is “Approved.”
Enterprise Component Comparison--11
CORBA Security
Three Parts to SECP:
1) Circuit Establishment--Creating a Secure, Bidirectional
Connection Between a Client and Target.
2) Context Establishment -- Allowing Both a Client and
Target to Set up Security Contexts, and Based off the
Specified Security Context of the Client and the Target,
Certain Behaviors May Take Place.
3) Message Transport-- Final Phase of the SECP, and This
Phase Securely Transports the Messages and Then Destroys
the Contexts.
Enterprise Component Comparison--12
CORBA Interoperability
CORBA’s Whole Focus Is Interoperability!
We All Know What Corba is Now, So We See
How Using an IDL, We Can Create a Client in
One Software Platform That Can Access a Target
Object Through the ORB.
So, That’s it, Right? This Part is Done.
Enterprise Component Comparison--13
CORBA Interoperability
Wrong! There Are Other Types of Interoperability.
What About From One ORB to Another ORB?
What About From One System That is CORBA
Compliant to a Legacy System That isn’t CORBA
What About Security Policies on a System?
Sometime This System Can Be Accessed,
Sometimes it Can’t Be.
So, There Are Also Implementational and
Administrative Types of Interoperability.
How Can We Handle This?
Enterprise Component Comparison--14
CORBA Interoperability
With a Specification, of Course!
CORBA Interoperability Architecture
CORBA Defines a Domain—Group of Objects That Do
Not Communicate With Other Objects.
To Communicate Between Domains, There Must Be a
Some Terms:
 In-Line Bridging—All the Domains Are Within One ORB.
 Request Level Bridging—Domains Are Not Within One
ORB. (More Interesting Than In-Line Bridging)
 DII—Dynamic Invocation Interface—Can Invoke Methods
on Objects Without Knowing What the Target Interfaces
Are at Compile Time.
 DSI—Dynamic Skeleton Interface—Servers Don’t Know
the Types of the Objects They Are Going to Access Ahead
of Run Time.
Enterprise Component Comparison--15
CORBA Interoperability
Request Level Bridging:
1) The Client ORB Simulates That the Server ORB and the
Bridge Are Actually Part of Its Own Object. The Client
Requests This Object Using the Dynamic Skeletal Interface
2) The DSI, Using the Bridge, Translates the Requests.
3) The DSI Invokes the Request Through DII of the Server.
Any Results Are Passed Back.
Note: To Do This, the Bridge Must Have Access to the
Interface Repository, or Have Pre-defined Knowledge of
the Object Specifications. Also, the Standard Method for
Transferring This Information is GIOP.
Enterprise Component Comparison--16
J2EE Environment
N-tier architecture
Client Side
Middle Tiers
Enterprise Information
Web Application Servers:
JSP, Servlets, HTML, XML
Legacy Apps
EJB Server, JNDI,
JMS, JavaMail
Source: Enterprise Java Security
Enterprise Component Comparison--17
J2EE Enterprise Archive
J2EE Application code is contained within an
Enterprise Archive (EAR) that consists of
EJB Module (JAR File)
Web Module (WAR File)
Application Client Module (JAR File)
Deployment Descriptor File (XML document)
 Specifies contents of EAR, deployment instructions, security
settings to be enforced by runtime environment
 Each WAR, JAR also contain deployment descriptor
Each module is run in a container which is the
interface b/w the module and outside world
Enterprise Component Comparison--18
EJB Modules
Reside in EJB Containers
EJB can be accessed
Provide interface b/w the EJB and app server which
EJB resides
via JMS
via Web Service over SOAP
Three types of beans
Entity, Session and Message-Driven
Enterprise Component Comparison--19
Web Modules
An Application that can be accessed over the Web
Consists of Servlets, JSP Pages, HTML
Stored in WAR files
Java Servlets
platform-independent server side software
run in a servlet or Web container
Web container is responsible for servlet creation,
Java code with HTML
Java Server Pages
Used to generate and display dynamic content on the
JSP are translated into Servlets at run-time at first
HTML with Java code
Enterprise Component Comparison--20
J2EE Applications Interact With Databases
Through Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API
JDBC Supports Four Types of Drivers
 JDBC-ODBC Bridge
 Native-API Partly Java Bridge
 JDBC-NET Pure Java Driver
 Native-protocol Pure Driver Java
Drivers Return a Connection Object Which
Represents a Connection to the Database
Statement Objects Contain Methods to Pass SQL
Statements to Database and Return Results
ResultSet Objects Contain the Results of SQL
 Scrollable, Updateable, Holdable
Enterprise Component Comparison--21
J2EE Security
J2EE Provides Declarative and Programmatic Security
Declarative Security
 Security Constraints Are Specified in Deployment
 At Run-time the Container Uses Security Policy
Configured Specified in Deployment Descriptors to
Enforce Authorization
 Allows Better Application Portability
Programmatic Security
 Security Is Hard-coded Into Application Code
 Harder to Maintain
 Used to Enforce Constraints That Can’t Be Expressed
Through Declarative Security
Enterprise Component Comparison--22
Define Security Role
Definition of Security Role Defined Within the
Deployment Descriptor of an EAR
This role is for tellers
Enterprise Component Comparison--23
Role Access To EJB
EJB methods can be associated with methodpermission elements in EJB module deployment
Source:Enterprise Java Security
Enterprise Component Comparison--24
Role Access To Web Resources
Access to web resource URI’s can be specified by
security-constraint elements in web module deployment
Account servlet protected area
<description>Teller can access the URIs</description>
Source:Enterprise Java Security
Enterprise Component Comparison--25
Mapping Principals To Roles
Mapping of Principals to Security Roles is done by
the Deployer
If calling principal is in one of the security roles
authorized to access method, then calling Principal
is allowed access
To the URI for Web Resources
To the EJB method for EJB
Enterprise Component Comparison--26
Declarative Security Policies
Security Policies associated with URI’s and EJB
Login-configurations associated with URI
 Form-based logins
Authorization policies associated with URIs and EJB
based on security roles
Principal-delegation policies that apply to Web Apps
and EJB
Connection policies associated with JCA connectors
that dictate how apps access EIS in a secure manner
Enterprise Component Comparison--27
Login Configurations
J2EE security authenticates a principal based on
the authentication policy of the resource the
principal has requested
J2EE Application Server is responsible for
authenticating users
The authentication method is specified through the
auth-method element in the login-config
Three types of authentication
HTTP authentication
Form-based authentication
Certificate-based authentication
Enterprise Component Comparison--28
HTTP Authentication
User must provide userID and password pair,
typically as part of HTTP header
Done as follows
WAS issues HTTP unauthorized client error (401) and a
WWW_Authenticate HTTP header
Web browser pops up dialog window
User enters id and password
Information is sent to Web Server
WAS extracts info, authenticates user
Enterprise Component Comparison--29
HTTP Authentication (Cont)
With HTTP authentication a Realm must be
Determines scope of security data
Used in HTTP 401 challenge to inform user of the
name of the application domain
Two types
Basic: userID and password passed as cleartext
Digest: userID and hash value of password are sent
Enterprise Component Comparison--30
Form-based Authentication
When client requests protected resource, server
redirects the client to an HTML form to obtain
userID and password
If authentication fails, user is redirected to error
Enterprise Component Comparison--31
Certificate-based (X.509)
Web Server must be configured to perform mutual
authentication over SSL
Client must make request over HTTPS
 Otherwise server will redirect the client over HTTPS
Client must present certificate to establish a connection
If SSL connection is made, server knows the client has
presented it’s own certificate and no one else
Client certificate is then mapped to a principal that has
been assigned 0 or more security roles
Enterprise Component Comparison--32
Creating Secure Channel
Specifies the request to a URI resource should be
initiated over HTTPS
Enterprise Component Comparison--33
User-Data Constraints
There are times we want to specify communication must be
done over SSL
This can be done by setting the <transport-guarantee>
element in the <user-data-constraint> descriptor
Enterprise Component Comparison--34
Programmatic Security
How to obtain Subject and Principal information
EJB methods in interface javax.ejb.EJBContext
isCallerInRole( )
 Test whether current caller has been assigned security role
getCallerPrincipal( )
 Obtain Principal object representing the current caller
Servlet/JSP methods in interface
isUserInRole( )
 Returns true if current caller is assigned security role
getUserPrincipal( )
 return Principal object representing the current authenticated
getRemoteUser( )
 Return the name of the authenticated user, null otherwise
Enterprise Component Comparison--35
Programmatic Security with JAAS
Java Authentication and Authorization Service
 Provided in javax.security.auth package
 Developed to provide role-based
authentication, to supplement code-based
 Uses Pluggable Authentication Modules
 Requires authentication and authorization
routines to be explicitly called
Enterprise Component Comparison--36
JAAS Authentication
Determines the Subject of the user (or service)
making the request
Each Subject is associated with identities or principals
Each Subject can have attributes or credentials
Joe Smith
Enterprise Component Comparison--37
JAAS Architecture
LDAP Server
Kerberos Authentication
NT Authentication
Biometric Authentication
Enterprise Component Comparison--38
Authentication Steps
App Creates LoginContext object and passes
 Reads JAAS configuration file to determine which
LoginModules to load
App Calls LoginContext login( ) method
 Calls the login( ) methods of each LoginModule
 Each login( ) method performs authentication,
possibly using the CallBackHandler to get input from
 Each LoginModule is specified as Required or Optional
 Overall authentication succeeds only if all Required
LoginModules succeed
App obtains the Subject by calling LoginContext
getSubject( )
App obtains the Principals by calling Subject
getPrinciples( )
Enterprise Component Comparison--39
JAAS Authorization
By default, all J2EE resources within a WAS are
accessible unless they are explicitly protected
JAAS Enforces Principal-Based Authorization
access to resources are based on the current Principal
Steps include:
 Associate a Subject (and Principals) with a
thread of execution
Use the Subject.doAs( ) or
Subject.doAsPrivileged( ) methods that execute
some privileged code
Update Security Policy Files
Specify grant entries that describe codeSources
and/or Principals authorized to perform Privileged
Enterprise Component Comparison--40
Benefits/Limitations Of JAAS
JAAS compliments the security features of J2SE
Multiple authentication mechanisms can be
“stacked” upon each other and easily configured
through configuration file
Supports vendor-neutral authentication
JAAS is not equally supported by J2EE
Application Servers
Enterprise Component Comparison--41
Web Service Clients
Three ways for a client to invoke a Web Services
methods are
 Static stubs
 Dynamic proxy
 Dynamic invocation interface (DII)
Static Stubs (Generated Stubs) are created at
development time
Dynamic Proxy – stub classes are created at
Dynamic Invocation Interface – Client can call
web services which it has no Service Definition
Interface or stubs
Enterprise Component Comparison--42
J2EE Interoperability
Interoperability is primarily achieved through RMI
and Java IDL
RMI allows J2EE Applications to communicate
with remote Java Applications
uses the Java Remote Messaging Protocol (JRMP)
Allows for Objects to be call-by-value since objects
can be serialized and sent across network
Java IDL Allows J2EE Apps to communicate with
objects in other languages
uses the CORBA-standard Internet Inter-Orb
Protocol (IIOP)
Only supports call-by-reference
Enterprise Component Comparison--43
Best of Both Worlds: RMI-IIOP
RMI over IIOP (RMI-IIOP) combines RMI’s ease
of use with CORBA’s interoperability
Jointly developed by IBM and Sun
Uses IIOP as the communication protocol
Allows developers to write remote interfaces in
Java, that can be implemented in Java, or any other
CORBA compliant language
Supports call-by-reference and call-by-value
Enterprise Component Comparison--44
ADO.NET is the New Database Technology of
the .NET Platform.
ADO is a Language Independent Model That is the
Major Benefit of Microsoft's Universal Data Access
.NET Includes Data Providers for Several Types of
Databases Including Oracle, OLE, and SQL Server.
The Underlying Technique of ADO.NET is the Dataset
Which Promotes a Disconnected Technique Where
Data Will be Represented in Local Memory.
Enterprise Component Comparison--45
The DataAdapter is
Responsible for Filling in the
Data Set Object With Data and
Schema Information. The
DataAdapter Works in
Conjunction With the
DataReader Class to Fill the
DataSet Object.
The DataReader Class Can
Only Read From a Database.
The Object Contains One Row
of Data. Must Reconnect to
Get the Subsequent Rows.
The DataSet Is Broken Down
Into 2 Subcomponents the
DataTable Class and a
Collection of Relationships for
the Corresponding Tables.
Enterprise Component Comparison--46
.NET Web Services
Microsoft Makes Use of XML (Over the SOAP and HTTP
Protocols) in its .NET Framework for Implementing Web
Services. The Main Reason is That With XML the Client
Does Not Need to Know the Language the Web Services
Are Implemented in.
.NET has a command line tool to generate source code
from a WSDL into a specified language (VB.NET or C#).
The source code can be added to a project and instantiating
an object will enable the use of the web service.
There Are 4 Components in the .Net Infrastructure That
Allow Clients to Find and Use Web Services.
 Directory
 Discovery
 Description
 Wire format
Enterprise Component Comparison--47
.NET Security
There Are 5 Security Facets in .NET
 Code-Based Access Control - Giving Permission
at the Code Level to Access Resources
 Role-Based Access Control – Security Enforcing
a User’s Permissions for an Application, Based on
the User’s Role.
 Secure Code Verification and Execution Analyzing the MSIL and Insuring the Executing
Code Is Behaving.
 Secure Communication – Insuring That Data Is
Being Passed in a Secure Manner Both Locally or
Remotely to Avoid Message Tampering.
 Secure Code and Data Protection - Insuring That
Code Has Been No Unauthorized Changes by
Utilizing Cryptographic Solutions and Signatures.
The Focus Will Be on Authorization, Authentication,
and Cryptography in RBAC and Secure Code
Enterprise Component Comparison--48
.NET Security
Authentication- .NET supports several different methods
for authentication to determine credentials.
 Windows based- Use of Principal and Identity Objects
in conjunction with technologies like IIS pr Certificates
to verify identity.
 Identity- similar to a user account contains Name,
IsAuthenticated, and AuthenticatedType.
 Principal – is associated with an identity and is a list of roles
for the identity.
Form based- Using web based HTML form to verify
identity. Then using cookies in ASP.NET the
information can be used in the future.
Passport- Microsoft specific technology and supported
directly in ASP.NET. Similar to form based
authentication. Uses a central server to check a user’s
Enterprise Component Comparison--49
.NET Security
Authorization- There are two ways to use
authorization in .NET using Security demands or
 Security demands: Places a restriction on an
entire class or methods within a class. Limits
the use of class based on full trust or partial
trust users.
 Principals: They are very similar to security
demands as you can place restrictions on
classes or methods. After defining roles for
them the principal object can use the IsInRole()
method to see the status of the current user.
Enterprise Component Comparison--50
.NET Security
Encryption- .NET does encryption through via
streaming objects (file stream).
 .NET uses the Windows CryptoAPI.
 Algorithms
 Hashing
 Signatures
Streaming objects can simply be sent to
encryption objects to be encrypted.
The encrypted object can be streamed
elsewhere to a network socket for example.
Enterprise Component Comparison--51
.NET Interoperability
Interoperability can be achieved through remote
communication in .NET.
CORBA protocols are not innately supported in the
.NET Framework.
However third party products and open source
projects are available / are in development:
 Janeva (Borland product)
 IIOP.NET (open source -available)
 Remoting.NET (open source - never finished)
 Microsoft .NET and J2EE interoperability tool
kit (Microsoft product)
Enterprise Component Comparison--52
.NET Remote Communication
.NET can achieve interoperability between objects in
different application domains through remote
communication. The goal of remoting is to allow the ability
to enable communication between objects regardless of the
protocols or formats being used on both side.
To accomplish inter process communication there needs to
A remote object on the server side that will listen for
There are 2 proxies created on the client side the
TransparentProxy and the RealProxy that make
The RealProxy is the object that transmits the method call to
the server machine.
The TransparentProxy is an object that contains a list of all
classes and methods.
Enterprise Component Comparison--53
.NET Remote Communication
There are two ways to access a remote object:
 Copy the remote object onto the client machine
 Able to access private Data
 Waste of bandwidth and memory for large classes
when not all of the methods are needed.
Use object references on the client side
 Limits the class exposure
 Only the method call, arguments, return values, and
exceptions are sent making efficient use of
Both ways are supported in .NET but the second
one is preferred.
Enterprise Component Comparison--54
.NET Remote Communication
Remote Communication is done through Channels.
Two Serialization formats supported by .NET
HTTP Channel – More interoperable better for Internet
TCP Channel – Better performance better for LAN
Custom Channel - mix and match properties.
Binary- converts data to binary (faster, default in TCP)
SOAP- converts data into XML string (more
interoperable, default in HTTP)
Each channel had a default formatter but .NET allows
for either formatter to be used in either channel.
Remote Object
Needs to inherit MarshalByRefObject class.
Designer Selects Lifetime of Object Single Call
(stateless), Singleton (maintains state), and Client
Activated (client invokes and destroys object).
Enterprise Component Comparison--55
Database Connectivity
Web Services
Enterprise Component Comparison--56
Database- Small Result Set
Query: SELECT Lic_License_Number,
,Lic_License_Date,Org_TIN,Org_Status FROM
csg.Organization, csg.License WHERE
Org_Tin=Lic_Tin and Lic_Tin_Type = 'O' and
lower(Org_Name) like '%aetna%'
Java time averaged over 10 trials: 453 ms
.NET time averaged over 10 trials: 843ms
Result Set Size is 4
After testing a similar query in an Access database
the query time averaged 63ms for .NET. The
average time for the Java program was 16ms.
Enterprise Component Comparison--57
Database- Large Result Set
Query: SELECT Lic_License_Number,
,Lic_License_Date,Org_TIN,Org_Status FROM
csg.Organization, csg.License WHERE
Org_Tin=Lic_Tin and Lic_Tin_Type = 'O' and
lower(Org_Name) like '%a%'
Java time averaged over 10 trials: 5834 ms
.NET time averaged over 10 trials: 6653ms
Result Size is 17113
The time discrepancy is less severe. Wasn’t able to
duplicate the query in access due to replicating
17,000 entries.
Enterprise Component Comparison--58
.NET Security Example
Security Application Tests Authentication and
Authorization Using Windows Based Authentication
 Uses the Identity Object Which Stored My Windows
Account Information.
After Authentication I Used the Principal Object to Define
the Permissions for a Method.
The Principal Object Contained Only the Role
If the Current User Is Not the Admin the Method Could
Not Be Executed. This Means That the Current User Does
Not Have Authorization to Invoke the Secure Method.
This Is Tested With the Executing Thread's Current
Principal Property.
Enterprise Component Comparison--59
.NET Remoting / J2EE RMI
Steps in .NET
Make a remote object that inherits the
MarshalRefObject class and create a .dll file of the
remote object by creating a class library project.
Then create two applications a Client and Server.
Used a TCP Channel which by default uses binary
Steps in RMI
Create interface that extends java.rmi.Remote
Create implementation class
Run rmic tool to generate stubs and skeletons
Create Server app that binds remote object
Run Client app
Enterprise Component Comparison--60
RMI in J2EE and Remoting in .NET Are Both
Simple to Implement
Both Allow For Customization of the Transport
 Remoting Can Be Done Over TCP/HTTP, or
Over Custom Channels
 RMI Can Be Configured Using
SocketFactories and CustomSockets
Advantage of RMI in J2EE
 Multiple Language Support Through CORBA
Advantages of Remoting in .NET
 Highly Customizable- Can Customize the Way
Data is Marshalled
Enterprise Component Comparison--61
CORBA Interoperability
After Four Hours in the Computer Lab yesterday
with Visibroker…
Created an IDL (Yes)
Created Java Classes from IDL (Yes)
Added Functionality to those classes (Yes)
Got the Object Running on an ORB (No)
Successfully invoked the Object (No)
Problem: Lack of Example Documentation
Switching to TAO, another CORBA ORB with clear
Enterprise Component Comparison--62
module com {
module wiley {
module compbooks {
module brose {
module chapter4 {
module simple {
module helloWorld {
interface GoodDay {
string hello();
Enterprise Component Comparison--63
Create J2EE Web Service
Perform the following tasks:
 Develop web service endpoint Interface
 Must extend java.remote.Remote interface
 Methods must throw
java.rmi.RemoteException (or a subclass)
 Implement the Web Service Interface
 Write the configuration file “config.xml”
 Run wscompile tool to generate .wsdl file and
mapping.xml file
 Package the service in a WAR and deploy it in a
J2EE Web Server
Enterprise Component Comparison--64
Create .NET Web Service
Used the built in WSDL tool (WSDL.exe) provided by
Microsoft .NET.
Command: WSDL /l:cs /o:StockQuotes.cs /n:Stock
Output : StockQuotes.cs – a C# source code file.
 \l language CS, VB, JS, or VJS
 \o output file name
 \n namespace of output class
 Others: Protocol (SOAP or HTTP), Server- generate
an abstract class, and other proxy infromation.
The next step is to add the source code to the project to
allow the web service to be consumed.
Instantiated an object and was able to use methods like
getMarketIndex and getStockQuote(String sq).
Enterprise Component Comparison--65
Database Connectivity
J2EE and .NET Offer Similar Functionality
CORBA is a Metamodel
From Our Analysis J2EE Outperformed .NET
Applications Heavily Reliant on DB Should Use J2EE
RMI and Remoting Both Have Advantages
CORBA Is Necessary for Distributed or Heterogeneous
Web Services
J2EE and .NET Offer the Same Support
CORBA Is Better for Large-scale Business Apps
Web Services Better for Small Internet Apps
Enterprise Component Comparison--66
Any Questions?
Enterprise Component Comparison--67

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