Introduction to Connectives
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Connectives vs. Conjunctions
Function vs. Translation
“The point here is to interpret each conjunction as far
as possible so that its precise function may be
clear” (Robertson, A Grammar, 1177).
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Author’s instructions on relating two things
together
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Introduction to Connectives
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Each serves a unique function, regardless of
translation to English
Indicators of authorial intent
Author’s instructions
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Asyndeton
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Simplest, unmarked connection
Joins two items of equal status
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Nouns, as in a list
Clauses
Paragraphs
Default connective in non-narrative
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Καί
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Forms the default for narrative (except John)
Joins two items of equal status
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Nouns
Clauses
Paragraphs
+ Continuity or Close connection
Adverbial Καί
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Processing discourse
ORDOYOUNOTKNOWBRETHRENFORIAM
SPEAKINGTOTHOSEWHOKNOWTHELA
WTHATTHELAWHASJURISDICTIONOVE
RAPERSONASLONGASHELIVES
FORTHE
MARRIEDWOMANISBOUNDBYLAWTOH
ERHUSBANDWHILEHEISLIVINGBUTIFH
ERHUSBANDDIESSHEISRELEASEDFRO
MTHELAWCONCERNINGTHEHUSBAND
S
OTHENIFWHILEHERHUSBANDISLIVIN
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Processing discourse
ordoyounotknowbrethrenforiamspeakingtothose
whoknowthelawthatthelawhasjurisdictionovera
personaslongashelives
forthemarriedwomanisb
oundbylawtoherhusbandwhileheislivingbutifhe
rhusbanddiessheisreleasedfromthelawconcerni
ngthehusband
sothenifwhileherhusbandisliving
sheisjoinedtoanothermansheshallbecalledanad
ulteressbutifherhusbanddiessheisfreefromthela
wsothatsheisnotanadulteressthoughsheisjoinedt
oanotherman
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Processing discourse
or do you not know brethren for i am speaking to
those who know the law that the law has
jurisdiction over a person as long as he lives
for the married woman is bound by law to her
husband while he is living but if her husband
dies she is released from the law concerning
the husband 
so then if while her husband is
living she is joined to another man she shall be
called an adulteress but if her husband dies she
is free from the law so that she is not an
Prominence
in the GNT to another man
adulteress though
sheMarking
is joined
Processing discourse
OrDoYouNotKnowBrethrenForIAmSpeakingTo
ThoseWhoKnowTheLawThatTheLawHasJuris
dictionOverAPersonAsLongAsHeLives
ForThe
MarriedWomanIsBoundByLawToHerHusband
WhileHeIsLivingButIfHerHusbandDiesSheIsR
eleasedFromTheLawConcerningTheHusband
S
oThenIfWhileHerHusbandIsLivingSheIsJoined
ToAnotherManSheShallBeCalledAnAdulteress
ButIfHerHusbandDiesSheIsFreeFromTheLaw
SoThatSheIsNotAnAdulteressThoughSheIsJoi
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Processing discourse
7:1 Or do you not know, brethren (for I am
speaking to those who know the law), that the
law has jurisdiction over a person as long as he
lives? 
2For the married woman is bound by
law to her husband while he is living; but if her
husband dies, she is released from the law
concerning the husband. 
3So then if, while her
husband is living, she is joined to another man,
she shall be called an adulteress; but if her
husband dies, she is free from the law,
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Processing discourse
Or do you not know, brethren (for I am speaking
to those who know the law), that the law has
jurisdiction over a person as long as he lives?
For the married woman is bound by law to her
husband while he is living;
but if her husband dies, she is released from the
law concerning the husband.
So then if, while her husband is living, she is
joined to another man, she shall be called an
adulteress;
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Processing discourse

Processing at higher levels
Text without Developments
I woke up early this
morning.
I read for a while.
I ate breakfast.
I showered and got dressed.
I went to the office.
I checked email.
I began working on the next
chapter of my project.
I ate lunch with a friend.
Text with Developments-I
I woke up early this
morning and read for a
while.
Then I ate breakfast,
showered and got dressed.
After that, I went to the
office and checked email.
Then I began working on
the next chapter of my
project. I ate lunch with a
friend.
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Text with Developments-II
I woke up early this
morning, read for a while,
and ate breakfast. I
showered, got dressed, and
went to the office.
At the office, I checked
email and began working on
the next chapter of my
project.
After that, I ate lunch with
a friend.
Δέ
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Joins two items of equal status
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Nouns
Clauses
Paragraphs
- Continuity or Close connection
+ Development (“Mind the gap”)
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Narrative Τότε
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Adverb
Marks development in narrative, esp. Matthew
+ Development
Specifies kind of development: temporal
Matthew 2:1-10
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Οὖν
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Joins two items of equal status
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Clauses
Paragraphs
+ Continuity or Close connection
+ Development
Inferentially drawn or concluded from
preceding
Romans 5:1
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Διά τοῦτο
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Joins two items of equal status
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Clauses
Paragraphs
+ Continuity or Close connection
+ Development
Specifies kind of development: causal relation
Luke 12:22
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Γάρ
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Joins two items of equal status
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Clauses
Paragraphs
+ Continuity or Close connection
- Development
Specifies kind of relation: strengthening or support.
Does not advance the argument
Matthew 10:19-20
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Μέν
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Joins two items of equal status
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Clauses
Paragraphs
+ Continuity or Close connection
- Development
+ Forward-pointing
Specifies kind of relation: expectation
Luke 10:2
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Ἀλλά
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Joins two items of equal status
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Phrases/Clauses
Paragraphs
- Continuity or Close connection
- Development
- Forward-pointing
Specifies kind of relation: replacing or correcting
1 Peter 3:15
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Connectives Summary-Phil 3
Ø
Καί
δὲ
Τότε
οὖν
διά
τοῦτο
Γάρ
Μέν
ἀλλὰ
Continuity
+
+
Development
+
+
+
Correlation
+
-
Forwardpointing
-
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
-
Prominence Marking in the GNT
Semantic
constraint
Causal
Support
Expectation
Correction
Temporal
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Introduction to Connectives