Иновативна икономика в България?
Факти, размисли, анализи, заключения
Всеки бизнес стартира с идея, но не всяка
идея прераства в бизнес. Случва се рядко и
с академичните, и с иновативните
постижения. За да стане това е
необходимо преодоляването на много и
трудни препятствия, особено в България.
Кратък анализ на иновативния бизнес от
стартова гледна точка, какво пречи той
да се развие у нас досега и какво можем да
направим в България, за да се развият
иновациите в печеливш бизнес?
Стъпка по стъпка
• Научен потенциал
• Генериране на идеи
• Ефективната им оценка
• Технически предизвикателства?
• Финансови предизвикателства?
• Държавата – препятствие или катализатор?
• Отговорът на най-иновативната част от
българската интелигенция, капитал, бизнес и
политици?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Докладът на СБ за България
Септември 2007
Производителността на труда в България толкова изостава от тази в Европейския съюз (а за САЩ
направо да не говорим), че ако се запази на сегашните си нива, през следващите 30 години ще можем да
стигнем едва половината от средните доходи на страните в ЕС, твърди доклад на Световната банка .
На пръв поглед - нищо изненадващо, често получаваме подобни оценки. И да, и не. Наистина толкова
много пъти (включително през последния месец) и бизнесът, и неправителствени организации, и
международни институции предупреждаваха, че България
изостава в образованието,
научната дейност, конкурентоспособността и гъвкавостта на пазара
на труда (4-те фактора, от които зависи производителността), че
обществото като че ли разви имунитет към подобни сигнали.
Проблемът обаче има потенциал да се задълбочи. Ясно е, че сценарият България да е най-бедната страна
в ЕС в следващите 30 години просто не е приемлив за никого. Хубавото е, че рецептата за излизане от
ситуацията е ясна. На
първо място, трябват повече усилия от всички,
включително индивидуални. Задължителни са както работеща
стратегия за образованието и науката, така и промяна на трудовото законодателство. Все
прости и логични стъпки (и смели според Световната банка), които освен това вече са изпитани в други
страни.
Не ги ли направим, високият растеж на доходите ще си остане само добра теоретична възможност. А
българите реално ще останат бедни.
Иновативна икономика в България?
За еврокомисарят по вътрешния пазар Чарли
Макгрийви (според оценката на "Муудис“) се
смята, че е допринесъл най-много за вдигането
на крака на Ирландия и превръщането й в една
от най-успешните западни икономики, докато
беше неин финансов министър.
“Икономиката все пак не е точна наука. Така че това, което е проработило в
една страна членка, може да не бъде подходящо за друга. Определено има
неща, които България не може да изкопира. Освен това не трябва да се
забравя, че през един много дълъг период от време Ирландия
експериментираше с различни видове икономически модели - някои от тях
успешни, други - не. С времето ние комбинирахме много различни фактори.
Но основното нещо, което може да бъде взаимствано и от България, е да се научи
да използва максимално своето членство в ЕС.
Ние очакваме България да покрие много високи стандарти.”
Иновативна икономика в България?
Кристалина Георгиева, вицепрезидент и корпоративен
секретар на Световната банка(16 Март 2008)
България е малка страна и не може да проведе независима политика,
която да я откъсне от глобалните процеси и условия…
Така или иначе България е евтина дестинация, но трябва да се
запитаме дали това е образът, който искаме да си изградим.
Във възможностите на частният сектор е да създаде по-добра
инфраструктура и дестинации. Той не може да направи сам реклама
на България, това е в ръцете на държавата. Навсякъде по света
правителствата имат много важна роля в създаване на имиджа на
страната, на целенасочена политика за изпращане на правилните
сигнали към определени таргет туристи. Това не е по силите на
частния сектор, особено когато той е основно от малки и средни предприятия. Те имат нужда
от поддръжка - маркетинг проучвания, достъп до информация, решаване на визови въпроси,
застраховки, гарантиране на обективни и качествени данни на държавно ниво…
Други интересни ниши, в които България има огромни възможности са енергийната
ефективност и възобновяемите източници на енергия. Важни са и управлението на
водните ресури, икономичното потребление на водата, което е съществено за
определени точки на страната, както и производството на хранителни продукти,
включително екологичното земеделие. Това са сфери, в които частният сектор не
може сам по себе си да стигне до решение и има нужда основно от три неща - ясни
правила на играта, достъпна и надеждна информация и поддържане на инциативите
в тези сфери на държавно ниво.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Огнян Хижов е доктор на икономическите науки и
изследовател във фондация "Наука и политика" в
Берлин, която е мозъчният тръст на германското
правителство. (17 Март 2008 )
В дългосрочна перспектива си представям България
като нещо подобно на Белгия. Белгия е развита
страна с висок стандарт, но познавате ли белгийски
крайни изделия? Само шоколад и бира, но дори и
белгийската бира не се изнася в големи мащаби.
Белгия е производител на междинни продукти и
живее добре от участието си в международното
разделение на труда. Подобен шанс виждам и за
България, и за други източноевропейски страни,
особено по-малките. Те ще си намерят своите ниши,
ще имат сравнителни предимства при редица
междинни продукти и ще бъдат интегрирани с
икономиките на големите страни, а крайните
продукти може би ще се произвеждат другаде.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Лисабонската стратегия - повече цели или повече мерки
Част от предвидените мерки биха създали негативни ефекти без ясни ползи
Велико Димитров, Институт за пазарна икономика(17 Март 2008)
По отношение на инвестициите в наука трябва да се направят няколко
констатации в глобален аспект: САЩ разполагат с най-бързо развиващата се
икономика на знанието в света, Япония е напреднала, а Китай се развива много
бързо, т.е. налице е необходимост от догонване и възстановяване на позициите. В
същото време между ЕС и САЩ съществува голямата разлика - иновациите в САЩ
се разработват и финансират основно от големи корпорации (например Google),
тоест от частния сектор, а в Европа се правят опити това да остане приоритет
на правителствата. Не трябва да се подценява фактът, че иновационната дейност
на много голяма част от европейските концерни е изнесена в Северна Америка или
Азия, което означава, че без да се подобри цялостният бизнес климат, включително
и премахването на регулации като 35-часова работна седмица, дори и
предприятията от Европа ще предпочитат други места за опериране на
дейностите си с най-висока добавена стойност...
Не трябва да се говори за подпомагане на бизнеса, а за създаване или подобряване на
условията за опериране на бизнес (някои биха казали, че това е едно и също, но
разликата е съществена). Подпомагането на бизнеса означава субсидиране или
облекчаване на условията за функциониране на определени отрасли, производства,
единични компании, но не на всички, т.е. прилага се селективен подход (класове
инвеститори, приоритетни производства, стратегически отрасли и т.н.).
Иновативна икономика в България?
Светослав Гаврийски: Забавянето при имотите ще пренасочи инвестиции към
промишлеността
Изпълнителен директор на търговска банка "Алианц“ (18 Март 2008)
Забавяне неминуемо ще има в секторите, които се развиваха много бурно в
последните няколко години... Очаквам в скоро време цените да се стабилизират и
ръстът в строителството, особено на жилища да се прехвърли към офисните
площи. Вече се заговори и много активно за презастрояване и пренасищане на
курортите и ваканционните имоти и хотелите също ще усетят силно забавянето.
Пренасочването на инвестициите от тези "надути" сектори според мен ще е най-вече към промишления, който се
нуждае от инвестиции с цел повишаване на производителността и добавената стойност. Трябва да се
насочим в привличането на повече инвеститори в индустрията и за да не зависи
икономическият растеж само от строителството, недвижимите имоти и туризма.
Надявам се с подкрепата на ЕС да се развият още сектори, включително селското
стопанство.
Като цяло смятам, че резултатът от забавянето ще е здравословен, защото
освободените средства от строителството и имотите ще се насочат към
промишлеността и индустрията. Производителните сектори имат нужда от
инвестиции, от обновяване, от нови производства и обещават доходност, която е
значително по-висока от средните нива в развитите държави. Това е естественият път
на развитие, по който България трябва да мине…
- Основни са мерките, които правителствата трябва да предприемат - фискална политика, политика по доходите.
Не бива да има неоснователно повишение на доходите, трябва да се проведат структурните реформи. Зная, че
решенията са трудни, те много дълго се отлагат с цел намаляване на социалната цена, но това е пътят. Това са
сериозните стъпки, които правителствата трябва да направят, независимо от политическата цена, която
трябва да платят.
Иновативна икономика в България?
28 Март 2008
Илиан Василев е председател на
одиторската и консултантска
компания "Делойт България".
Той е първият шеф на
Българския икономически
форум, оглавявал е Агенцията за
чужди инвестиции и
работодателската организация
БИБА.
Трябва да се съсредоточим върху качеството на
растежа...
Професионализмът и качеството на управление, в това
число рисковият мениджмънт, се капитализират
особено в трудни времена...
Добрите проекти и добрите управленци се открояват
на фона на всяка криза...
Българската икономика преживява най-трудния си
период след 1997 г. Тогавашната криза беше родно
производство. Сега осъзнаваме последствията на
членството в глобално интегрирана икономика. С
манталитета и структурите на прехода не можем да
водим успешна политика в ЕС...
Трябва ни смяна на хоризонта на мислене и управление.
Реформите изостават...Нищо стратегически значимо
не може да се постигне с едногодишно планиране и
бюджетен хоризонт.
И най-голямата гордост на нацията се крепи върху
постиженията на отделния индивид или група.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Малко статистика
•
•
•
•
Около 0,1% иновациите достигат
грандиозен успех, като осигуряват
възвръщаемост от порядъка на
10÷100 пъти на вложените
инвестиции за 5÷7 години!
По-малко от 1% успяват да
осигурят цялостно финансиране,
4% получават някакво финансиране,
20% от бизнесидеите стигат до
бизнесплан.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Долината на смъртта в развитието на иновациите
Иновативна икономика в България?
‘The Nearly Men: A Chronicle of Scientific Failure' examines some of the most important inventions and scientific
discoveries of the last four hundred years, and attempts to uncover the stories of deceit and ill fortune behind each of them. It
looks beyond what the common reference sources tend to tell us, and aims to identify the individuals who were truly
responsible for the technological advances that have defined the modern age.
The back shelves of the annals of time are strewn with little-read tales of those destined to remain unsung heroes. A number
of individuals were to find themselves deprived of their place in the who's who of science and technology. The money, the
kudos, the girls, all passed these poor, unfortunate souls by. As a result each has become part of a very exclusive club, though
its membership may not be a highly-coveted one. The name of this collection of the disgraced and discarded is the ‘Nearly
Men'. Not the most respectful, or tactile of nomenclatures it must be said, but one that seems to sum up the nature of their
association quite well. The ‘Nearly Men' include:
Antonio Meucci - Who despite developing the first telephone spent his whole life in poverty, while Alexander Graham Bell
got all the glory.
Alan Turing - Whose huge strides in the conception of the first generation of computers were destined to never to be fully
attributed to him, due to his untimely death.
Robert Hooke - Who postulated, amongst other things, the true nature of planetary motion, only to witness his rival
Isaac Newton take all the praise for it.
Nikola Tesla - Who died almost totally penniless, while the ideas he had put forward for radio communication made
Guglielmo Marconi a fortune.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck - Who correctly surmised that living things evolved, over sixty years before Charles Darwin
publicised the fact, but was to die in ignominy with his ideas not appreciated.
Geoffrey Dummer - Whose musings on the development of the integrated circuit preceded those of Bob Noyce and
Jack Kilby by almost a decade, but due to lack of vision by the British Government his plans were never to make it off
the drawing board.
Joseph Swan - Who despite having the technical expertise that allowed him to design the first workable electric light
bulb, was no match for the commercial machinations of adversary Thomas Edison.
There are a number of reasons why fame and fortune did not choose to look favourably upon these guys, and each of
them is analysed in turn. For some it was a lack of time, resources, or business acumen. Others were hindered by a
language barrier, a tendency to be too trusting, class distinction, or simply that they could not convince people that
their ideas were worth listening to. One or possibly more of these proved to be fatal flaws in their character, and thus
meant they would forever be assigned a second-tier rating in the chronicles of human endeavour, mere C-list
celebrities.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Tales From The Marketing Wars
Mispredicting The Future (Jack Trout 03.03.08, Forbes )
Some of the most costly mistakes in business can be attributed to companies trying to
predict the future
History is littered with bad predictions in all aspects of life.
Thirty years ago, one business magazine reported that "with over 50 foreign cars already on sale here,
the Japanese auto industry isn't likely to carve out a big slice of the U.S. market." John Foster Dulles,
in 1954, said "The Japanese don't make anything the people in the U.S. would want."
In 1974, the U.S. Forest Service published a study on "Future Leisure Environments." It predicted that, by 1989, private
aircraft would be banned from metropolitan airports and only non-polluting vehicles would be allowed on the streets.
In 1964, Harvard professor George Baku predicted in an article in New Scientist that "The more dramatic changes in
products (in the next 20 years) will include such innovations as plastic houses, ultrasonic dishwashers, electronic
highways and automated trains."
Roger Smith, then chairman of General Motors, predicted in 1986 that "by the turn of this century, we will live in a
paperless society."
Alfred L. Malabre of The Wall Street Journal predicted in 1966 that "the highly productive employee of 2000 will work
only 37 hours or three-quarters the length of today's workweek."
You cannot predict the future, and if you try, chances are you will be very wrong. So your search for that obvious strategy
should be based on what is happening today.
Three things make predicting so difficult, if not impossible. First is technology. Unforeseen inventions can
quickly change the status quo: Two weeks before their historical flight, Wilbur Wright said to his brother Orville, "Man
will not fly for 50 years." Next is the human condition. People's habits change very slowly, which is one reason the future
often looks like the past. Finally, competition can rear its ugly head with new ideas that disrupt old ideas.
Unfortunately, many powerful, obvious ideas founder on the future.
Finding success today is what you must first worry about. If you do that, your chances will be
greatly enhanced that you'll have some money to spend on tomorrow.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Из "Предсказания за ХХI век"
Какво ще се случи?
20 Март 2008
Никой не може да предскаже бъдещето. Но
мен отдавна са ме нарочили за пророк,
въпреки че ми се нрави повече званието
екстраполатор. Опитвам се да отделя
възможните варианти на бъдещето, като
едновременно посоча, че съвършено
неочаквани открития или събития могат
само за няколко години да превърнат всякакви
прогнози в абсурд...
Пожелавам на всички да проверят точността на моите предсказания в новогодишната нощ срещу 1 януари
2101 г.!
2010 г. - Разработени са първите квантови генератори, които улавят космическа енергия. В своите домашни и
портативни варианти те са с мощност няколко киловата и могат да произвеждат неограничено
количество енергия. Централните електростанции се закриват. Националните енергетични мрежи се
демонтират. Електронният мониторинг изтласква от обществото професионалната престъпност.
2014 г.- Започва строителството на хотел "Орбитален Хилтън". На совалките се монтират огромни
резервоари за гориво, които по-рано оставяха да паднат на Земята.
2016 г. - Всички съществуващи валути са отменени. Обменната единица става мегаватчас.
2040 г. - Усъвършенстван е "Универсалният репликатор", основан на нанотехнологиите: може да бъде
създаден обект с всякаква сложност при наличие на суровини и информационна матрица... Изчезват
промишлеността и селското стопанство, а заедно с тях и неотдавнашно изобретение на човешката
цивилизация - работата! Взривно се развиват изкуствата, развлеченията, образованието.
2051 г. - Hа Луната започва строителството на самоосигуряващи се роботизирани колонии, където
възрастни хора могат да живеят по-дълго благодарение на по-слабата лунна гравитация.
Иновативна икономика в България?
A very English approach to technology
David Manners, Electronic News Today, 24 May 2007
“We will not be doing production but we will be understanding the cost basis and designing for production”, says the
projects director of science and technology, Raymond Oliver.
This is the very English approach to technology of saying: ‘Let’s understand it first before we get into doing it.”
But if you look at the history of emerging technologies, this is not how the most successful technologies got
implemented.
“At the time I experimented on the incandescent lamp (the light bulb), I did not understand Ohm’s Law,” said Thomas
Edison.
If you look at the way the silicon industry got started, the greatest successes were in the US, where the pioneers flew by
the seat of their pants, trying to see what worked and what did not work, while the British laboured over
understanding the science.
In his 1971 book, International Diffusion of Technology, John Tilton wrote of the emerging semiconductor industry:
“The real failure of the British, and the Europeans, has been a failure in the technology, not the science”.
If you take two of the greatest silicon entrepreneurs, Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore, who founded two out of the three
greatest semiconductor companies in the industry’s history, Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel, it is clear that, although
they were among the most formidable scientists of their generation, they took a technologist’s approach to developing
the technology.
When he was running Fairchild lab in the 60s, Moore made a visit to Plessey’s laboratories “They had technology as
good as anything we had in the US”, said Moore, “but it was totally disconnected from the factory.”
By contrast, the silicon pioneers in the US focussed their R&D on producing working, useful products. Noyce reckoned:
“Research that was motivated by getting to a given end result was far more
productive than research that was carried on for the sake of research.”
Иновативна икономика в България?
The complexity for minimum
component costs has
increased at a rate of roughly
a factor of two per year ...
Certainly over the short term
this rate can be expected to
continue, if not to increase.
Over the longer term, the rate
of increase is a bit more
uncertain, although there is
no reason to believe it will
not remain nearly constant for at least 10 years. That means by 1975, the number of components per integrated circuit
for minimum cost will be 65,000. I believe that such a large circuit can be built on a single wafer.
"Cramming more components onto integrated circuits", Electronics Magazine 19 April 1965
As the size of transistors has decreased, the cost per transistor has decreased as well, the speed at which they operate
increases. On this basis, the performance of computers per unit cost. A similar law has held for hard disk storage cost
per unit of information. Produced in San Jose, California, IBM's first hard disk stored about 2,000 bits of data per
square inch and had a purchase price of about $10,000 per megabyte. By 1997, the cost of storing a megabyte had
dropped to around ten cents.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Although Moore's Law was initially made in the form of an observation and forecast, the more widely
it became accepted, the more it served as a goal for an entire industry. This drove both marketing and
engineering departments of semiconductor manufacturers to focus enormous energy aiming for the
specified increase in processing power that it was presumed one or more of their competitors would
soon actually attain. In this regard, it can be viewed as a self-fulfilling prophecy.
The implications of Moore's Law for computer component suppliers are very significant. A typical
major design project (such as an all-new CPU or hard drive) takes between two and five years to
reach production-ready status. In consequence, component manufacturers face enormous timescale
pressures—just a few weeks of delay in a major project can spell the difference between great success
and massive losses, even bankruptcy. Expressed (incorrectly) as "a doubling every 18 months",
Moore's Law suggests phenomenal progress for technology over the span of a few years. Expressed on
a shorter timescale, however, this equates to an average performance improvement in the industry as
a whole of close to 1% per week. Thus, for a manufacturer in the competitive CPU market, a new
product that is expected to take three years to develop and turns out just three or four months late is
10 to 15% slower, bulkier, or lower in capacity than the directly competing products, and is close to
unsellable. If instead we accept that performance will double every 24 months, rather than every 18, a
three to four month delay would translate to 8–11% lower performance.
As the cost of computer power to the consumer falls, the cost for producers to fulfill Moore's Law
follows an opposite trend: R&D, manufacturing, and test costs have increased steadily with each new
generation of chips. As the cost of semiconductor equipment is expected to continue increasing,
manufacturers must sell larger and larger quantities of chips to remain profitable.
Иновативна икономика в България?
The story begins with that great American inventor, Thomas Edison. In 1883,
he probed inside an incandescent light bulb, first with a wire and then with a
metal plate. He found that if this electrode was connected to the positive end
of the filament via a galvanometer then a current was detected. If it was
connected to the negative end, no current flowed. A little later, using a
separate battery in the plate or anode circuit, J Elster and H Geitel showed
the unidirectional nature of the current flow.
Thomas Edison's first
light bulb used to
demonstrate his
invention at Menlo
Park.
This 'Edison effect' was studied by many people over the following 20 years,
particulary to examine thermionic emission. Fleming studied it 'carefully' in
1883 and again in 1896, and he may have discussed it with Edison when he
met the 'Wizard' during his trip to the USA in 1884.
Fleming's real invention was the use he found for the
established Edison effect as a rectifier of high-frequency
oscillations. Edison kicked himself when he realised the opportunity he
had missed, even though he held what is now seen as the first patent in
electronics - the effect used as a voltage indicator (1884).
Ambrose Fleming did radio detector from a light bulb in 1904. The
result was what he called the 'oscillation valve', now better known as
the thermionic diode. It was only two years later when Lee De Forest
added a third electrode to make the first primative triode. These two
classic inventions led to a fight between the two inventors, but
they also led to the now-vast, worldwide industry we call
electronics.
Иновативна икономика в България?
John Fleming's Diode 'Valve' in operation - Diagram
Иновативна икономика в България?
At the time of the transistor's birth 60
years ago, this was the state of the art in
computer technology. The 28-ton ENIAC
machine, one of the world's first
computers, required several operators,
consumed 170,000 watts of power, and
conducted 5,000 operations a second.
Inside were more than 17,000 vacuum
tubes.
Credit: University of Pennsylvania
Иновативна икономика в България?
Vacuum tubes were prone to failure and used a lot of power.
The power was dissipated as heat which required even more
power to generate cooling. AT&T wanted to keep its business
monopoly. To do this, a new technology was desperately
needed.
Fortunately at the time, AT&T had visionary person named
Mervin Kelly, the Director of Research at Bell Labs. Kelly
knew vacuum tubes would not be way of the future. World War
II had shown promise in the use of something called a
semiconductor. Kelly was interested in Bell Laboratories inventing and owning the patent
to new technology, rather than having to pay royalties. Kelly is probably little known today.
However, he had the vision for telephone communications growth and the requisite
technology requirements. He is the person that got the "ball rolling" on semiconductor
development. Also, he knew that Bell Labs had a bright physicist called William Shockley
that would be a ideal person to head up new research. Once appointed, Shockley brought to
his team Bell Lab's Walter Brattain, an experimental physicist who was a real "hands on
guy" in building projects. The complete the first tier of researchers, Shockley hired
theoretical physicist John Bardeen who came from the University of Minnesota.
Иновативна икономика в България?
On December 16, 1947, after two
years work, Walter Brattain and
John Bardeen demonstrated solidstate amplification. Shockley was
at home on that historic day. Even
though William Shockley
technically did not conduct first
successful transistor experiment,
shortly, he invented and patented
the junction transistor which
would become the most popular
transistor type.
After this historic event, relationships among Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain began to sour. In 1955, Shockley left Bell
Labs to form Shockley Semiconductor in Palo Alto, California. One of Shockley's strongest capabilities was
recognizing excellent employees. Once in California, he hired some best talent available for his startup company. Two
years later in 1957, primarily because of Shockley's inflexible personality, 8 of Shockley’s employees know as the
“traitorous 8” left to form Fairchild Semiconductors. The climate at Fairchild was no longer dictatorial and solidstate development flourished. On April 25, 1961, Fairchild edged out T.I. to receive a patent for the first solid state
integrated circuit. The inventor Bob Noyce credited with this development.
Two of Shockley's original hires, Gordon Moore and Bob Noyce would become the cofounders of Intel Corporation !!!!
©. Some historians feel Shockley could have been the "first Bill Gates" if he had not been such a poor
manager.
Back at Bell Labs, they encountered tremendous engineering production problems in the manufacturing of early
transistors. It wasn’t until October, 1952, that the first transistorized telephone equipment was installed at Englewood,
NJ. What would be a "buy of the 20th century," in 1952, Bell Labs licensed their technology to GE, IBM,
Raytheon, Texas Inst. and “then-to-be” Sony Corporation for $25,000 each!
Иновативна икономика в България?
The transistor
turns 60
December 14, 2007
It's not much to look at--the
overriding impression is of
several mangled paper clips
clumsily soldered onto
some chunky scrap metal-but really, the whole of
modern digital life stems
from it.
This was the very first
transistor, invented at Bell
Labs in December 1947.
Known as a point contact
transistor, it was first
manufactured
commercially a few years
later, ironically enough, in a
textbook example of a Rust
Belt locale: Allentown, Pa.
From this first transistor
arose, eventually, Intel and
Advanced Micro Devices,
Silicon Valley and
Massachusetts' Route 128
corridor, countless brands
of desktop and laptop PCs,
the PlayStation 3 and the
iPhone...
Credit: LSI and the Computer
History Museum
Иновативна икономика в България?
Here's the early history of Silicon Valley in a nutshell. In this photo from 1956, the guy sitting down at the end of the
table in the patterned, open-collared shirt is William Shockley.
Encouraged by Stanford provost Fred Terman to come to California, he started Shockley Semiconductor in the Bay Area
and recruited some of the top engineers in the field. The employees included that guy in the middle of the row standing
with the big smile and the martini glass: Robert Noyce, who went on to found Intel.
Although a recognized
scientist and Nobel
winner, Shockley
alienated his employees.
Noyce, Gordon Moore,
Eugene Kleiner, and five
other employees one day
bolted to Fairchild
Semiconductor. The
individuals that
comprised the so-called
Traitorous Eight
ultimately went on to
found Intel, Kleiner
Perkins, job hopping, and
venture capital. (Arthur
Rock's investment in
the Traitorous Eight
is considered the
birth of the VC
industry.)
Credit: Courtesy of Intel
Иновативна икономика в България?
The world's first integrated circuit. ICs consist of thousands or millions of transistors orchestrated into
a component dedicated to a specific purpose. All the components are made out of a single piece of
silicon, rather than assembled transistor by transistor. It was a huge step.
As with transistors, the invention came in two phases. TI's Jack Kilby made this first one in 1958.
Credit: Texas Instruments
Иновативна икономика в България?
1890 - The U.S. Census Bureau adopts the Hollerith Punch
Card, Tabulating Machine and Sorter to compile results of
the 1890 census, reducing an almost 10-year process to 2 Ѕ
years, saving the government a whopping $5 million.
Inventor Herman Hollerith, a Census Bureau statistician,
forms the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896.
1945 - IBM'S FIRST RESEARCH LAB. IBM's first
research facility, the Watson Scientific Computing
Laboratory, opens in a renovated fraternity house near
Columbia University in Manhattan. In 1961, IBM moves its
research headquarters to the T.J. Watson Research Center in
Yorktown Heights, New York. Today, IBM Research operates
Laboratories in the United States, Switzerland, Israel, Japan,
China and India.
1952 - FIRST CALIFORNIA RESEARCH LAB. IBM
opens its first West Coast lab in San Jose, California - the
area that decades later will come to be known as "Silicon
Valley." Within four years, the lab begins to make its mark by
inventing magnetic storage systems.
1964 - SYSTEM/360. The world of computing is forever
changed when IBM debuts the first compatible family of
computers in which software and peripherals work
seamlessly. When introduced, the System/360 offers
customers live processors and a variety of configurations for
power, speed and memory.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Intel's first microprocessor, the
4004, appeared in 1971 and
powered calculators. It featured
2,300 transistors.
Credit: Intel
Иновативна икономика в България?
Woz liked the challenge of doing more with
less," says Damer. Wozniak pored over integrated-circuit specifications and engineered
the Apple I so that different processes could
share the same chips, reducing the overall part
count. This, plus the use of cheaper items such
as a $20 MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor
rather than the more common $175 Motorola
6800, enabled him and Steve Jobs to offer the
Apple I for the somewhat affordable price of
$666.66 ("Woz liked repeating numbers," says
Damer), about $2,400 in today's dollars.
According to Damer, "Woz was a total idealist-he wanted everyone to have access to
computers." Loop, who is also the director of
the History of Computing in Learning and
Education Project, agrees: "Woz wanted this
simple, low-cost design so that the Apple would
be affordable for students and teachers."
Иновативна икономика в България?
Fast forward a few decades. Dunnington, which will be available in the second half of
2008. Dunnington is based on the 45nm high-k process technology and is composed of 1.9
billion transistors. It contains a 16MB L3 cache, is socket compatible with the Caneland
platform, and is made for virtualization.
Credit: Intel
Иновативна икономика в България?
The two advantages of a high-k gate material over the
silicon dielectric and silicon oxynitrides now used are
reduced gate leakage and increased drive current. It
also
enables future scaling, since conventional
dielectrics are already critically thin,
measuring only ~5 atoms thick. It’s estimated
that almost half of a chip’s power consumption is
due to current leakage through this thin dielectric.
Intel's 45 nm transistor
includes a high-k metal gate
(HKMG) stack.
Иновативна икономика в България?
TI's 45 nm NMOS (left) and PMOS transistors use abrupt junctions and 38 nm gate lengths,
while keeping leakage at a minimum.
Although TI used immersion lithography for selected critical layers, it avoided costly
embedded silicon germanium (eSiGe) stressors or high-k gate dielectrics; those
technologies will be introduced at the next node for wireless ICs.
The 45 nm transistors support a 55% performance increase, along with a 63% reduction in
power consumption.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Logic CMOS device categories.
(Courtesy: K. Imai)
Transistors for three different
types of logic are specified in
the ITRS: high-performance
(HP), low standby power
(LSTP), and low operating
power (LOP). Figure shows
the types of applications, as
well as the performance and
leakage range for each
transistor type. LSTP is
generally used for mobile
consumer applications, and is
driven by meeting very low
leakage current requirements to
preserve battery life
As illustrated, it requires transistors with the lowest leakage current of the three types, and consequently the
transistors have the lowest performance (i.e., highest CV/I). The resulting LSTP chip operation frequency is the lowest
of all three types. In contrast, HP is used for high-performance stationary systems such as desktop PCs, servers, and
routers, where system operating frequency is high and allowable leakage current is relatively high. Hence, it requires
transistors with the highest performance (lowest CV/I), and as a consequence the transistors also have the highest
leakage. LOP is used for mobile but higher-performance applications, such as notebook PCs, so these transistors are
intermediate in performance and leakage. Since HP and LSTP transistors bracket LOP, this article will concentrate on
HP and LSTP.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Projected timeline for key transistor innovations.
Figure lists other key technological innovations that are needed to meet the transistor scaling goals. The ITRS
projects 2008 implementation of high-k gate dielectric and metal gate electrode. The high-k reduces the gate
leakage current and hence allows increased scaling of the gate dielectric thickness, while the metal gate reduces
polysilicon depletion. As a result, the overall transistor scaling-and in particular the SCEs-can be significantly
improved. Two new types of transistors, the ultra-thin body fully depleted SOI (UTB FDSOI) and the multiple-gate
transistor (of which the finFET is the prime example), are projected for implementation in 2010 and 2011,
respectively. Both of these transistor types typically have undoped, fully depleted channels. Because of their
structure, the electrostatic integrity and hence the ability to control SCEs are generally superior to planar bulk
transistors. Furthermore, the mobility should be superior because of the lack of doping. Finally, because Vt is set
by the work function of the metal gate electrode, random dopant fluctuations do not impact the statistical variability
of Vt for these transistor types. Because of all these advantages, the UTB FDSOI and the multiple-gate transistor
will significantly improve scaling.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Intel's Mike Goldstein holds a 450 mm wafer.
IF innovation has a heart, it’s probably a semiconductor, beating to the pace of Moore’s Law.
Making chips is an improbable blend of farming, photography and baking: think of your standard 300-millimeter silicon wafer as a field
where mostly metallic substances are “grown” according to patterns put in place by photolithography, and then “baked” at extremely
high temperatures.
It costs $3 billion to $5 billion to build a single semiconductor fabrication plant, or “fab.” In the near future, that figure is likely to rise
to $12 billion, according to Synopsys, a chip design company. In the boom-and-bust cycle of the chip industry, it has become harder and
harder to get a return on fab investments.
The remarkable progression of Moore’s Law, meanwhile, involves continually shrinking almost everything to do with the chips.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Until now, as chips became smaller,
they also became faster in about
the same proportion. It’s still true
for transistors, but it’s no longer
true for the wires used to connect
transistors — and that slows
performance gains.
I.B.M. in developing a new way to
solve the problem: using “self
assembling” nanotechnology to
make better insulators, raising
performance. In this case, selfassembly involves creating socalled airgaps, vacuums a few
nanometers wide that keep the
billions of tiny copper wires in a
chip from touching one another,
instead of putting down a layer of
insulating material and trying to
align it effectively at the nanoscale.
The brownish material is copper
wire. The empty spaces are the
vacuums. Usually, wires are
insulated with a material like glass.
Credit: IBM
With the self-assembling nanotechnology, he also had to go beyond I.B.M.’s walls, in part because I.B.M. in the 1990s decided for a number
of reasons — including costs and the desire to help create a Ph.D. feeder program — to work with a public-private consortium to develop a
modern research fab run by the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the State University of New York at Albany. This fab
features one-of-a-kind equipment, and it is where Mr. Edelstein’s team developed its techniques before moving it to I.B.M.’s fab in East
Fishkill.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Tiny Tunes
A nanoradio is a carbon
nanotube anchored to an
electrode, with a second
electrode just beyond its free
end. When a voltage is
applied between the
electrodes, electrons flow
from a battery through the
nanotube, jumping off its tip
to the positive electrode. A
radio wave alternately
attracts and repels the
nanotube tip, causing it to
vibrate in sync. When the tip
is farther from the electrode,
fewer electrons bridge the
gap; the varying electrical
signal recovers the audio
signal encoded by the radio
wave.
Credit: John Hersey
Иновативна икономика в България?
Fujitsu Achieves Breakthrough with World's First
New Carbon Nanotube Composite; Features Selforganizing Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene
(JCN Newswire) - Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd. today announced
the successful formation of a new nano-scale carbon composite
featuring a self-organizing structure[1], by combining carbon
nanotubes and graphene[2] which are both nano-scale carbon
structures. The newly-discovered composite structure is
synthesized at a temperature of 510º C, cooler than for
conventional graphene formed at temperatures too high for
electronic device applications, thereby paving the way for the
feasible use of graphene as a material suitable for future
practical use in electronic devices which are vulnerable to heat.
Carbon nanotubes have properties including high thermal
conductivity and high current-density tolerance[3], while
graphene is known for its high electron mobility. Carbon
nanostructures combining these two materials hold the promise
of creating new potential for material research and applications.
Details of this technology are presented at the 34th Fullerene
Nanotubes General Symposium held from March 3 to March 5
in Nagoya, Japan.
---------------------[1] Self-organizing structure: Refers to a desired structure that self-forms naturally,
without the need for complex controls.
[2] Graphene: A hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms. Graphite consists of layers of
graphene stacked on top of each other.
[3] Current-density tolerance: The limit of high-density current that can flow through a
material without changing its physical structure.
Иновативна икономика в България?
There’s been a lot of conjecture that graphene could be the next step in electronics after silicon can no longer support
Moore’s Law, an eventuality now predicted to be 10-15 years in the future. Naysayers state that the demise of Moore’s
Law has been often predicted and never realized. Even Gordon Moore finds it hard to believe how long his own "law"
has endured. However, with oxide thicknesses now hovering around five to eight atomic layers, even low-k dielectrics
can’t save a silicon-centric Moore's Law in the long term.
One big problem has been obtaining single graphene sheets. Though thought to be difficult, physicist Andre Geim at the
University of Manchester accomplished the trick with a very advanced tool: a strip of adhesive tape. The Science News
article on graphene continues with a description of some pretty unique electrical properties, but what really caught my
eye was a lengthy discussion of using graphene to make integrated circuits in the same way that we now use silicon.
Unlike carbon nanotubes, you can use nanolithography to make true FETs in graphene—which rely solely on electric
fields for operation, no dopants needed—and this is critical in the nanoworld where there just aren’t that many atoms
involved in the first place so each dopant atom has a disproportionately big effect.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Technical impact of nanomaterials for nanophotonic applications
MONA_v14_final.pdf (http://www.ist-mona.org/pdf/MONA_v14_final.pdf)
Иновативна икономика в България?
Processes and types of equipment with high technical impact for nanophotonics
MONA_v14_final.pdf (http://www.ist-mona.org/pdf/MONA_v14_final.pdf)
Иновативна икономика в България?
Synthesis for the application: photovoltaics
MONA_v14_final.pdf (http://www.ist-mona.org/pdf/MONA_v14_final.pdf)
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Сегашният Бил Гейтс е бледа сянка на
технологичния визионер от началото на 80-те
години
[Reuters]
Всеобщото усещане е, че на тазгодишния CES
създателят на Microsoft вече не е технологичен
мечтател. Той вече е един пораснал, спокоен и
улегнал Бил Гейтс.
32 години по-рано...
Ако обаче върнем лентата назад, ще си дадем
сметка, че в зората на дигиталната епоха Бил
Гейтс до голяма степен е бил като
идеалистичните хлапаци, създали Google Лари Пейдж и Сергей Брин. Когато
регистрира търговската марка Microsoft през
ноември 1976 г. заедно с Пол Алън, бъдещият
мултимилиардер е само 21-годишен и готов да
завладее технологичния свят. Първият проект
на компанията е създаването на компилатор за
програмния език BASIC за микрокомпютъра
Altair 8800. През ранния период на
Microsoft Бил Гейтс лично е
контролирал и при нужда
редактирал целия програмен код,
създаван от фирмата.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Gates: US needs H-1B visa, education reform to stay competitive
By Suzanne Deffree, Managing Editor, News -- Electronic News, 3/12/2008
“I am optimistic about the potential for technology to help us find new ways to improve people’s lives and tackle
important challenges. I am less optimistic, however, that the United States will continue to remain a global leader in
technology innovation,” Gates said. “While America’s innovation heritage is unparalleled, the evidence is mounting
that we are failing to make the investments in our young people, our workers, our scientific research infrastructure, and
our economy that will enable us to retain our global innovation leadership.”
Gates focused his testimony on two points: First, what he called “a critical shortfall of skilled scientists and engineers”
that can develop breakthrough technologies; and second, on the public and private sectors lack of investment in R&D
at the levels needed to drive long-term innovation.
To remedy the “dangerous” situation, Gates called for a serious commitment from and partnership between both the
public and private sectors to strengthen America’s educational opportunities, revamp immigration rules for highly
skilled workers, increase federal funding for basic scientific research, and provide incentives for private-sector R&D.
These efforts, Gates said, will allow the US to train, attract, and maintain top scientific talent while encouraging
technology innovations from US-based companies.
“The United States will find it far more difficult to maintain its competitive edge over the next 50 years if it excludes
those who are able and willing to help us compete,” Gates said. “Other nations are benefiting from our misguided
policies. They are revising their immigration policies to attract highly talented students and professionals who would
otherwise study, live, and work in the United States for at least part of their careers.”
Gates further called on Congress to create a streamlined path to permanent resident status for highly skilled workers.
“Rather than allowing highly skilled, well-trained innovators to remain for only a very limited period, we should
encourage a greater number to become permanent US residents so that they can help drive innovation and economic
growth alongside America’s native-born talent.… The current [H-1B visa] cap is so low that it virtually assures that
highly skilled foreign graduates will leave the United States and work elsewhere after graduation,” he said.
Иновативна икономика в България?
On the need for education reform, Gates called for full funding of the America COMPETES Act, which,
among other things, would authorize increases in the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Graduate
Fellowship Program and the Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship program. The
act, said Gates, would provide funding for about 1,000 more science, technology, engineering, and math
(STEM) graduate students than were funded in 2007, allowing the NSF to support more than 35,000
STEM graduate students during 2008 and approximately 41,000 during 2009.
“I want to emphasize that the shortage of scientists and engineers is so acute that we must
do both: reform our education system and reform our immigration policies,” Gates said.
“This is not an either-or proposition. If we do not do both, US companies simply will not
have the talent they need to innovate and compete.”
Gates further testified that funding for basic scientific research should increase by 10%
annually over the next seven years. “We also need to ensure that the private sector has greater
visibility into the status and progress of federally funded research projects so that companies can
collaborate more effectively with universities and other publicly funded researchers,” he said.
Summarizing, Gates said: “I believe this country stands at a crossroads. For decades,
innovation has been the engine of prosperity in this country. Now, economic progress
depends more than ever on innovation. And the potential for technology innovation to
improve lives has never been greater. If we do not implement policies like those I have
outlined today, the center of progress will shift to other nations that are more committed to
the pursuit of technical excellence. If we make the right choices, the United States can
remain the global innovation leader that it is today.”
Иновативна икономика в България?
One of the outstanding innovators under the age
of 35 according Massachusetts Institute of
Technology for 2007.
Neil Renninger knows what it means to make big, calculated risks and
see them pay off. Three years ago, he took just such a risk, -
cofounding synthetic-biology startup Amyris while a
postdoc at the University of California, Berkeley. The
company's new approach to biofuels is now generating serious buzz
among investors and interest from corporations such as Virgin, which
recently opened a fuel division.
Amyris started by commercializing a microbial approach to producing a precursor of artemisinin, a
potent malaria drug. Artemisinin is currently derived from sweet wormwood, but Renninger outlined a
way that it could be made more cheaply in bacteria--helping land a share of a $42 million
grant from the Gates Foundation. He is also playing a key role in Amyris's biofuels venture.
He began by identifying molecules that would work well as fuels and were compatible with existing
engines and delivery infrastructures; then he found a way to combine biological and chemical
processes to manufacture them. So far, Amyris has created microbes that can produce candidate
replacements for biodiesel, jet fuel, and gasoline. "Now we need to tinker with the bug to squeeze out
the last bit of metabolic flux that turns something from interesting to cheap enough to burn," he says.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Copyright 2007 Technology Review, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Иновативна икономика в България?
TECHNOLOGY
Nanomaterial Synthesis
Nanoexa has developed a variety of synthesis routes to
manufacture nanomaterials for wide range of applications.
Nanoexa’s core technology focus is on developing nanotechnology
software design tools that enable modeling and simulation of nano
materials. We have assembled a world class modeling team with
the objective of improving materials in every product of every
business unit.
In the long run, the basic properties of new materials will be
evaluated before they are synthesized, drastically reducing the
development time for successful candidate materials.
Innovation cannot succeed if there is not a quick transition to
product development. Nanoexa's business model revolves around a
marriage of quick technology development and manufacturing
expertise. The technology will be developed and prototyped in
house and shipped to our Asian manufacturing site for production.
Nanoexa will leverage the assets in each of our business units to accelerate the product development
cycle, particularly through the ability to rapidly insert our technology into current products.
Computational modeling will be used to understand the electrochemistry of materials at the quantum
level. For example, computational modeling will be applied to rapidly screen new cathode, anode and
electrolyte materials and select only those with promise. This will enable synthesis of novel materials
with higher capacity and better stability.
Иновативна икономика в България?
CAREERS
Nanoexa seeks the brightest and the best individuals in the fields of nanotechnology,
computational modeling, chemistry, bioinformatics, and material science. You
must be
creative, forward thinking, approach challenges with an innovative
attitude, and enjoy being part of a highly interdisciplinary team. If this
is you, we would like to hear from you!
We offer full benefits. If you are interested, please send your resume (.doc or .pdf preferred)
to: [email protected]
TECHNOLOGY
Partnership Program
In an effort to bring innovative products to market quickly, Nanoexa welcomes opportunities
to work with corporate, academic, and national laboratories in licensing and developing
new technology. Nanoexa recognizes the wealth of knowledge and expertise that exists in
these laboratories and seeks ways in which long term collaborations may be established.
One of Nanoexa's key partnerships is with Argonne National Laboratory in developing
commercial lithium battery technology.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Milton Chang has an exceptional investment track record, and founded
Incubic to institutionalize this approach in a venture capital firm. Milton
has personally built two businesses from zero to successful IPO, as CEO.
The proven ability to build true business from zero is distinct from
operating experience, and is critical to the start-up process and success.
As one measure of his investment experience, Milton has provided the first
capital to nearly 20 successful companies, which may be an unparalleled
record. Having been on both sides of the entrepreneur/investor
relationship for many years, this experience very practically helps
entrepreneurs lower the risks of starting their businesses, and supports
sound investment decisions for Incubic.
A few of Milton's successes include Newport Corporation, which he took
public a its CEO in 1971, Uniphase (later JDS-Uniphase), where he
provided the original seed capital and was on its Board of Directors, and
New Focus (acquired by Bookham), which he founded in 1990 and took
public in 2000.
Milton currently sits on the Boards of AviaraDx, OpVista, and Rockwell
Scientific.
Milton earned a B.S. in EE with highest honors from the University of Illinois, and M.S. and Ph.D.
degrees in EE from the California Institute of Technology and attended the Harvard OPM Program. He
has received the Distinguished Alumni Award from both the University of Illinois and Caltech and was
recently elected a member of the Board of Trustees of Caltech and an Overseer of the Huntington
Library.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Bill has placed hundreds of millions of dollars of high technology
products in the field. The insights developed from leading fifty
product developments and consistently launching the right product
at the right time are not things you can pick up in a book. Bill's
intuition about the potential success of a new team's proposal for a
new product supports Incubic's investment rationale, and the
availability of this experience to start-ups and entrepreneurs can
greatly enhance their likelihood of success.
Bill presently serves as the interim CEO of Nellix Endovascular, a medical device company
with a groundbreaking platform for aneurysm repair. Prior to this, he was interim CEO for
Grandis, the pioneer in spintronics-based semiconductor memory technology. He also
served as the interim CEO of Greystripe, a leader in advertising-supported content
distribution for mobile phones, where continues to serve on its Board of Directors. He also
serves as a Director on the Boards of GigaFin, Knowlent, Spectragenics, Nellix, and
Precision Photonics. He was on LIGHTCONNECT's Board until its June 2006 acquisition
by Neophotonics, and was also a Director on the Board of Lightwave Electronics until its
April 2005 acquisition by JDS Uniphase.
From 1990 to 1993 at the Carl Zeiss Laser Technology Center, a Zeiss-funded US-based start-up
business, he managed development and gained FDA clearance for medical devices including new
surgical laser products and handpieces. Bill graduated from Brown University with a Sc.B. from the EE
Honors Program and earned his Ph.D. degree from Princeton University in the EE Electronic Materials
and Devices Program. He has had over twenty U.S. patents issued, with their foreign counterparts either
issued or pending. Earlier in his career he authored many technical papers and conference presentations,
including top-ranked papers at the CLEO conferences.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Nicholas J. Colella, Ph.D. joined Incubic (www.incubic.com) as a Venture Partner in January, 2007.
He serves on the Science Advisory Board of Zyvex Corporation (www.zyvex.com), a
nanotechnologies company. He also serves on the board of Ultracell Corporation
(www.ultracellpower.com), a privately-funded company manufacturing reformed methanol fuel cell.
From August 2001 through December 2006, he served on the senior executive team of Tessera, Inc.
(www.tessera.com). He was a key contributor to executing a turn-around of the company, taking it
public in 2003, and subsequently growing its value to over $2B. During his nearly five-year tenure at
Tessera, in roles of Senior Vice President, Dr. Colella built and led the company’s Product
Miniaturization Division and contributed to corporate strategy. From April 2000 through July 2001,
Dr. Colella was the Chief Technical Officer and Vice President of R&D at PolyStor Corporation, a
lithium-ion battery company in the cell phone and hybrid electric vehicle market segments. In 1995,
Dr. Colella co-founded Angel Technologies Corporation (www.angelcorp.com), a broadband,
wireless communications company and, until March 2000, served as that company’s CTO and
Executive Vice President. From May 1986 to October 1996, Dr. Colella held senior positions at the
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where he led strategic and theater missile defense
programs. Dr. Colella co-founded nChip, Inc. in 1987, a multi-chip module electronics company later
sold to Flextronics International in 1995. Dr. Colella contributed to forming and founding the
National Robotics Engineering Consortium (www.rec.ri.cmu.edu) at Carnegie Mellon, during 19941995, and served for several years thereafter on its original Advisory Board. Dr. Colella received a
B.A. in honors physics from Temple University and a M.S. and a Ph.D. in physics from Carnegie
Mellon University. He was raised in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, and maintains an active interest in
the economic future of Western Pennsylvania.
Иновативна икономика в България?
E - Икономика
T - Технологии
Sc - Наука
Appl – Приложна наука
Ent - Предприемачество
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Състоянието в България:
Финансиране в България на нови идеи е в зародишен
стадий:
Няма пазар за нововъведения.
Конкурентност се постига главно с ниско платена
работна ръка и експлоатация на природни ресурси.
Само един действащ бизнесинкубатор – във Варна.
Бизнесангели – практически не съществуват. Български фирми, сполучили да убедят
чуждестранни бизнесангели да инвестират в тях, като Netage Solutions, Eastisoft са
по-скоро изключение от правилото и плод на случайност!
Има няколко рискови фонда, които не финансират стартиращи фирми и проекти:
Global Finance, SEAF, SEEF и други.
Някои са стартирали преди години и са изчерпали фондовете си (Caresback, SEAF).
Националният иновационен фонд е с ограничени финансови възможности и
започва да финансира на късен етап от развитието на идеята. Покрива незначителна
част от потребностите на този вид бизнес. Освен това правилата му са като на
консервативна финансова институция, странно съчетана с грантова част. За
разлика от САЩ, Израел, Естония и др.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Проекти тип Манахатън
Scientists Who Invented the Atomic Bomb under the Manhattan Project: Robert
Oppenheimer, David Bohm, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, Otto Frisch, Rudolf
Peierls, Felix Bloch, Niels Bohr, Emilio Segre, James Franck, Enrico Fermi, Klaus
Fuchs and Edward Teller.
An industry is always more than the sum of its parts,
but considering the major players can give a convincing
insight into both the state of individual companies and, by
implication, the performance for the market as a whole.
This discovery was a turning point for Los Alamos, the
Manhattan Project, and eventually for the practice of large
scale science after the war. The planned plutonium gun had
to be abandoned, and Oppenheimer was forced to make
implosion research a top priority, using all available
resources to attack it. A complete reorganization of Los
Alamos Laboratory was required. With just 12 months to go
before expected weapon delivery a new fundamental
technology, explosive wave shaping, had to be invented,
made reliable, and a enormous array of engineering
problems had to be solved. During this crisis many
foundations for post-war science were laid. Scientistadministrators (as opposed to academic or research
scientists) came to the forefront for running large scale
research efforts. Automated numerical techniques (as
opposed to manual analytical ones) were applied to solve
important scientific problems, not just engineering
applications. The dispersal of key individuals after the end
of the war later carried these insights, as well as the earlier
organizational principles developed at Los Alamos
throughout American academia and industry.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Иновативна икономика в България?
Цикълът започва отначало! Дори да стигнеш донякъде, се оказва, че всеки ден
трябва да се доказваш. Трябва да си иновативен, актуален и креативен, за да
останеш в икономическото пространство.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Quotes About the National Competitiveness Investment Act
America COMPETES Act (H.R. 2272) conference report was passed by the House and Senate in early August, and signed into Public Law by
the President on August 9, 2007 The act, and law, is the result of a conference between the House and Senate on H.H. 2272 and S. 761,
respectively (see below). The law focuses primarily on basic research funding for physical sciences and on science, technology, engineering
and math education priorities (improving K-12 science and math teaching capabilities and attracting more students to STEM
programs/careers).
Senator Edward Kennedy (D-MA):
"Federal investment in research and development has been shrinking as a share of the economy, and government
research programs at the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy
all have less funding this year than they did three years ago.
"At the same time, fast-growing countries like China, Ireland and South Korea are realizing
the potential for economic growth that comes with investing in innovation. For example,
China's total research and development investments rose from $12.4 billion in 1991 to $84.6
billion in 2003, an average increase of 17 percent a year. Over the same period, the increase
in U.S. investment averaged only 4 to 5 percent annually.
"Study after study tells us that we need major new investments in education and research and development to stay ahead. We cannot just
tinker at the margins and expect to master our own destiny in the global economy. We have a responsibility to make the investments that are
necessary to our progress - a responsibility to our families, to our economy, to our Nation, and to our national security."
"Americans know how to rise to challenges and come out ahead. We've done it before and we can do it
again. When we were called into action in 1957 with the Soviet Sputnik launch, we rose to the challenge
by passing the National Defense Education Act and inspiring the nation to ensure that the first footprint
on the moon was by an American. We doubled the federal investment in education.
"We need the same bold commitment to help the current generation meet and master the global challenges
of today and tomorrow. The National Competitiveness Investment Act will start to put America back on track. I look
forward to working with my colleagues to improve upon the bill as it moves forward and to expand on these efforts in the
months to come.“
Иновативна икономика в България?
Sustaining the innovation agenda
Phil LoPiccolo, Solid State Technology April, 2007
Despite the compelling agendas put forth in the current adminsitration’s
American Competitiveness Initiative, as well as in the National
Academies’ Rising Above the Gathering Storm report and the Council on
Competitiveness’s Innovate America report, Congress adjourned last year
without passing the widely acclaimed National Competitiveness
Investment Act of 2006 (NCIA).
Among its many provisions for enhancing US competitiveness through innovation, the NCIA
would have doubled the NSF budget from $5.6 billion to $11.2 billion over the next five years.
The good news is that a Continuing Appropriations Resolution was passed in February that
covers government spending for fiscal year 2007 and includes, for example, an increase of
more than $330 million for NSF funding beyond 2006 levels. Because the package to increase
research funding was among only a handful of programs to receive budget increases, the move
sends a strong signal of support for the concept that innovation is, indeed, the key to nation’s
competitiveness. “There’s a certain voltage behind the innovation agenda right now,” says
Alan Hurd, director of the Materials Research Society and a leading advocate of increasing
federal funding for basic research.
The bad news, however, is that the recent increases are approved only for the rest of the year.
And, as Hurd contends, the physical science community is at risk of losing traction, as it has
in the past, after a year or two of budget upticks, especially as defending the budget is likely
to be difficult every year for the foreseeable future.
Иновативна икономика в България?
To avoid that, he stresses, it will be critical for researchers to keep the pressure on.
Indeed, the US desperately needs to reverse a decades-long trend of reduced federal funding for
science, which, sadly, has occurred at the same time the nation’s economic competitiveness has
relied on the kind of innovation that only basic research can bring. In fact, since the IT
revolution of the 1990s, the US has depended on disruptive technologies to drive growth. This
approach was a radical departure from the corporate-based economic model that had been in
place since WWII. Back then, corporations’ research labs focused on productivity
improvements, not on radical technologies that would disrupt their economic models.
Unfortunately, science funding priorities failed to change with the times. Over the past several
decades, the US has spent progressively less on the basic research that leads to revolutionary
technologies and increasingly more on corporate development aimed at evolutionary gains. In
fact, 40 years ago, federally funded basic research was responsible for nearly 70% of total US
R&D expenditures, while corporate-funded development totaled 30%, notes William Bonvillian,
director of MIT’s Washington Office and a spokesperson for federally funded university
research. But now those figures have reversed, as industry accounts for two-thirds of total R&D
spending.
Moreover, the gap has been widening. During the same 40-year period, federal investment in
basic research, measured as a share of total GDP, has fallen from 2% to 0.5%. Conversely,
corporate development spending grew 2% annually between 1994 and 2000, and is still rising
at about 0.3% per year. “In an innovation-based economy, this is not what you want,” warns
Bonvillian. “The curves are going in the wrong direction.”
Иновативна икономика в България?
The problem for the US has been compounded by increased global competition for
technological innovation. Currently, the US accounts for 34% of world R&D, which includes
both federal and corporate spending. But both China and India are on track to continue
increasing their basic research budgets by 10% annually and to surpass the US by the end of
the decade.
The recent spending increase for basic research is clearly a step in the right direction. But the
solution to sustaining momentum over the long term will be to engage and equip technologists
to become more effective advocates of the benefits of basic research. As Bonvillian asserts, we
need to build new business and public-policy courses into technical education programs to give
scientists and engineers the tools they will need to better understand the political forces from
which they will increasingly need support.
It will also be essential in the near term for US scientists and engineers to play a more active
role on Capital Hill. Grassroots efforts are particularly effective, especially when researchers
can demonstrate to government representatives that new technologies can provide solutions
to pressing problems as well as create jobs and economic growth, notes Hurd. Given the
confluence of so many factors-the globalization of science, the National Academy reports on
competitiveness, the bipartisan political support-means that this is a once-in-a-career
opportunity that we in the physical sciences just can’t afford to fumble.
Иновативна икономика в България?
The “America COMPETES Act” is a bipartisan legislative response to recommendations contained in the National Academies’ “Rising
Above the Gathering Storm” report and the Council on Competitiveness’ “Innovate America” report. The bill is similar to the “National
Competitiveness Investment Act” that Senators Frist, Reid, Stevens, Inouye, Domenici, Bingaman, Enzi, Kennedy, Ensign, Lieberman,
Alexander, Mikulski, Hutchison, and others introduced in September 2006. Several sections of the bill are derived from proposals contained
in the “American Innovation and Competitiveness Act of 2006” (S.2802), approved without opposition by the Senate Commerce Committee,
and the “Protecting America’s Competitive Edge Through Energy Act of 2006” (S.2197) approved without opposition by the Senate Energy
Committee last year. Accordingly, the America COMPETES Act focuses on three primary areas of importance to maintaining and improving
United States’ innovation in the 21st Century: (1) increasing research investment, (2) strengthening educational opportunities in science,
technology, engineering, and mathematics from elementary through graduate school, and (3) developing an innovation infrastructure. More
specifically, the America COMPETES Act would:
Increase Research Investment by:
• Doubling funding for the National Science Foundation (NSF) from approximately $5.6 billion in
Fiscal Year 2006 to $11.2 billion in Fiscal Year 2011.
• Setting the Department of Energy’s Office of Science on track to double in funding over ten years,
increasing from $3.6 billion in Fiscal Year 2006 to over $5.2 billion in Fiscal Year 2011.
• Establishing the Innovation Acceleration Research Program to direct federal agencies funding
research in science and technology to set as a goal dedicating approximately 8% of their Research and
Development (R&D) budgets toward high-risk frontier research.
• Authorizing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) from approximately $703
million in Fiscal Year 2008 to approximately $937 million in Fiscal Year 2011 and requiring NIST
to set aside no less than 8 percent of its annual funding for high-risk, high-reward innovation
acceleration research.
• Directing NASA to increase funding for basic research and fully participate in interagency
activities to foster competitiveness and innovation, using the full extent of existing budget
authority.
• Coordinating ocean and atmospheric research and education at the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration and other agencies to promote U.S. leadership in these important
fields.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Strengthen Educational Opportunities in Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Critical Foreign Languages by:
• Authorizing competitive grants to States to promote better alignment of elementary and secondary education with the knowledge
and skills needed for success in postsecondary education, the 21st century workforce, and the Armed Forces, and grants to support
the establishment or improvement of statewide P-16 education longitudinal data systems.
• Strengthening the skills of thousands of math and science teachers by establishing training and education programs at summer
institutes hosted at the National Laboratories and by increasing support for the Teacher Institutes for the 21st Century program at
NSF.
• Expanding the Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program at NSF to recruit and train individuals to become math and science
teachers in high- need local educational agencies.
• Assisting States in establishing or expanding statewide specialty schools in math and science that students from across the state
would be eligible to attend and providing expert assistance in teaching from National Laboratories’ staff at those schools.
• Facilitating the expansion of Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) programs by increasing the number
of teachers prepared to teach AP/IB and pre-AP/IB math, science, and foreign language courses in high need schools, thereby
increasing the number of courses available and students who take and pass AP and IB exams.
• Developing and implementing programs for bachelor’s degrees in math, science, engineering, and critical foreign languages with
concurrent teaching credentials and part-time master’s in education programs for math, science, and critical foreign language
teachers to enhance both content knowledge and teaching skills.
• Creating partnerships between National Laboratories and local high-need high schools to establish centers of excellence in math
and science education.
• Expanding existing NSF graduate research fellowship and traineeship programs, requiring NSF to work with institutions of higher
education to facilitate the development of professional science master’s degree programs, and expanding NSF’s science,
mathematics, engineering and technology talent program.
• Providing Math Now grants to improve math instruction in the elementary and middle grades and provide targeted help to
struggling students so that all students can master grade-level mathematics standards.
• Expanding programs to increase the number of students from elementary school through postsecondary education who study
critical foreign languages and become proficient.
Develop an Innovation Infrastructure by:
• Establishing a President’s Council on Innovation and Competitiveness to develop a comprehensive agenda to promote innovation
and competitiveness in the public and private sectors.
• Requiring the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study to identify forms of risk that create barriers to innovation.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Липсващото звено между пазара,
индустрията, капитала и науката
Клъстерът катализира и
организира комерсиализацията на
научно-технически постижения и
се превръща в реален икономически
субект. Той всъщност преодолява
състоянието на икономиката ни в
момента.
Новата структура може да
осъществи оптимален процес на
комерсиализация, както по
отношение на науката и
технологиите, така и за
финансирането. Тя преодолява
голямата разлика между малката
степен на готовност за
практическа реализация на научнотехническите постижения у нас в
момента и липсата на
инструменти на капитала да
прецени техния пазарен
потенциал.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Механичен модел на действие на предлаганата структура.
Най-консервативните и неподготвени за включване в процеса на комерсиализация
звена ще могат да бъдат адаптирани без големи сътресения за самите тях, запазва
се тяхната работоспособност, а предлаганата структура ще буде обезпечена от
възможно най-компетентните специалисти, най-уникалната апаратура и
технологии, за да се осигури максимална ефективност на всяка започната операция.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Защо клъстер, а не само бизнесинкубатори, бизнесцентрове за
трансфер на технологии, бизнес иновационни центрове и т.н?
1. Голямата пропаст между нивото на научните разработки и технологиите, използвани от
индустрията;
2. Липсата на предприемачи сред научните среди;
3. Липсата на стартов и рисков капитал;
4. Държавата не решава иновативно проблемите си, като така да създаде иновативна среда
и пазар в страната и стартира превръщането на иновациите в капитал;
5. Индустрията също не е иновативна;
6. Тази ситуация изисква организация от комплексен и мащабен характер, за да бъде в
състояние да извърши оптимално целия процес на комерсиализацията!
7. Тази организация реално създава оптимална иновативна среда, извършва съответния анализ
(due diligence), осигурява оптимално моделиране и тестване... Това води до намаляване на
разходите и сроковете за комерсиализацията на научно-техническите продукти, както и
риска за финансовия капитал;
8. Организацията може да: изгради собствена философия за постигане на горепоставената
цел; анализира иновативните възможности за развитие на националната икономика, наука,
образование, експорт; както и да оценява стратегически насоки в развитието на
страната!
9. Икономическата наука е все още “сляпа” за иновативния потенциал на научните
постижения! Засега теорията на иновативната икономика е всъщност практиката и
философията на водещите иновативни предприемачи.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Is Finnish innovation policy utilising 4 or 96 per cent of Finnish innovation potential?
According to the Innovation in Europe survey, only some four percent of innovations are
based on academic research. The survey also shows that the most significant sources of
innovation are customer contacts, company networks and the like. These produce 96% of
innovations.
So, if scientific research is the initiator for only a fraction of innovations, there is reason
thoroughly to consider the birth mechanisms of innovations and what methods would work
best in their promotion. Innovations usually evolve from a practical need, and they are
developed in a context that is far removed from the environment where scientific innovations
are produced.
Innovations – where and how?
Recent innovation research has focused on innovation environments and systems. An
innovation system comprises innovative networks, which in turn involve various social
networks. The structure of these social networks has an impact on the financial outcome,
since the viability of the networks modify the fluency and quality of information.
What is key is the concept of strong and weak links? Strong links are marked by shared norms and close involvement in the
network’s activities. People
engaged in strong networks usually have a common knowledge base,
and these networks also tend to be quite conservative.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Is Finnish innovation policy utilising 4 or 96 per cent of Finnish innovation potential?
Weak links in particular are needed for introducing new ideas.
Innovations are most likely to emerge where there are structural gaps in an
otherwise close-knit network. Those able to traverse a structural gap in the
social network are more likely to come up with a workable idea: new ideas are
born out of the new connections made at the gaps – that is, when groups and
people with different backgrounds encounter each other.
By definition, innovation systems have to subsystems: (i) the system creating and distributing
new information, formed by universities, research institutes, technology centres etc., and (ii) the
system applying and utilising knowledge that is formed by company networks.
A dialogue based on praxis is a prerequisite for the shared and open
innovation processes between the two subsystems. This dialogue is not easy to
establish, however, since, even within one technological field, those engaged in
basic research and those focusing on the practical applications may speak a
very different language.
The same is true for dialogue between disciplines. A research-focused party from one
field and a praxis-oriented actor from another may still want to cross a
structural gap for mutual benefit. A case in point is the relationship and interaction between
basic research in nanotechnology and the practical innovation processes in the metal industry.
Иновативна икономика в България?
Защо сега, а не след няколко години?
1. Голямата и увеличаващата се пропаст между нивото на развитите в иновативно
отношение страни и България (Следващото десетилетие ще донесе на
човечеството много повече иновации, отколкото настоящото );
2. Увеличаващата се финансова цена за стартиране на този вид политики;
3. Увеличаващата се технологична сложност на иновациите;
4. Нарастващият натиск на вътрешните проблеми в страната;
5. Глобализацията и технологичните нововъведения променят промишлеността в
цяла Европа и света, водят до западане на традиционните индустрии и бърз
растеж на високотехнологичните производства, банкирането и финансите,
научните изследвания и бизнес услугите. Компаниите в тези сектори печелят от
работата си близо едни до други!
6. Възможността, която дава членствотото ни в Европейската общност!
7. България е част от световната икономика и искаме или не искаме трябва да
започнем да завоюваме своето място под слънцето!
Иновативна икономика в България?
07 March 2008
Strong clusters needed to boost economy in the Baltic Sea Region
Competitive regional economic development in the Baltic Sea Region requires strong clusters based on
a solid industrial base and with strong links to academic research and regional authorities.
This was the conclusion of a round table discussion held 7 March in Riga, Latvia. Participants were
regional and national authorities, the Nordic Council of Ministers, industries, universities and clusters
within life sciences and biotechnology.
The round table was organized by the Latvian Association of Biotechnology and ScanBalt as part of
an EU funded project “Bridge-BSR” which over the next three years shall strengthen bridges
between academic research and SME´s in order to promote commercialisation and job creation.
Other partners are Steinbeis Team Northeast, Medicon Valley Alliance, Estonian Biotech Association,
IPPT-Pan, BioForum Oulu and BioCon Valley.
According to the coordinator of Bridge-BSR, General secretary Peter Frank, ScanBalt, the aim is to
establish cross-border support structures for SME´s in the Baltic Sea Region.
"They need easier access to private-public financing and they need support to participate in EUprograms. We hope to initiate successfully the necessary structures and intend to create a widely
accepted joint innovation plan."
The plan will focus on SME´s within life sciences in the Baltic Sea Region – ScanBalt BioRegion.
"In addition we will reinforce our efforts to integrate management of Intellectual Properties in
academic research in order to promote exploitation. However to be successful requires strong
regional clusters throughout the region, this is a prerequisite. We work to promote this development,”
Frank says.
Energy& Enviro Finland – a NEW INTERNET JOURNAL for dissemination of information on energy and environmental technologies
Благодаря за вниманието
Георги Гушлеков
[email protected]
0889522546
Descargar

Slide 1