Demonstrative Adjectives and
Pronouns
(Los adjetivos y pronombres demostrativos)
This, that, these, those, etc. (the
pointing-out adjectives and pronouns.)
Demonstrative
adjectives point out
people and objects
and the relative
position and distance
between the speaker
and the object or
person modified.
Demonstrative
adjectives are
usually placed
before the modified
noun and agree with
it in number and
gender.
este
Este libro que
yo tengo aquí
es una novela.
El viejo y
el mar
Este refers to a masculine singular
noun that is close to the speaker.
ese
¿De qué
materia es ese
libro que tú
tienes allí?
El viejo y
el mar
Ese refers to a masculine singular
noun that is close to the listener.
Es de
matemáticas.
aquel
Aquel libro que
está allá en la
mesa es un
diccionario, ¿no?
El viejo y
el mar
Aquel refers to a masculine singular
noun that is far from both the
speaker and the listener.
¡Exacto!
estos
Estos libros los
debo devolver a
la biblioteca.
Estos* refers to a masculine plural
noun that is close to the speaker.
El viejo y
el mar
*Notice that the plural of este is estos,
not estes.
esos
¿Esos libros son
interesantes?
Esos* refers to a masculine plural
noun that is close to the listener(s).
¡Sí, mucho!
¡Sí, estos
libros son muy
buenos!
El viejo y
el mar
*Notice that the plural of ese is esos, not
eses.
aquellos
¿Conocen Uds. a
las chicas que leen
aquellos libros?
Aquellos refers to a masculine
plural noun that is far from both
the speaker and the listener(s).
No, no las
conozco.
El viejo y
el mar
Yo
tampoco.
esta
¡Esta mochila
es muy bonita!
Esta refers to a feminine singular
noun that is close to the speaker.
esa
Esa mochila no es
tan grande como
esta mochila.
Esa refers to a feminine singular
noun that is close to the listener.
No, pero es
más barata.
aquella
Aquella mochila
es muy similar a
esta mochila.
Aquella refers to a feminine
singular noun that is far from both
the speaker and the listener.
Sí, es
idéntica.
estas
¿De quiénes son
estas mochilas,
me pregunto?
Estas refers to a feminine plural
noun that is close to the speaker.
esas
Esas mochilas
son suyas,
¿verdad?
Esas refers to a feminine plural
noun that is close to the listener(s).
Por
supuesto.
Sí, son
nuestras.
aquellas
Aquellas mochilas y
éstas deben estar
perdidas, yo creo.
Aquellas refers to a feminine plural
noun that is far from both the
speaker and the listener(s).
De
acuerdo.
No sé de
quiénes son.
Summary
•
•
•
•
•
•
Este, esta = this
Estos, estas = these
Ese, esa = that
Esos, esas = those
Aquel, aquella = that (over there)
Aquellos, aquellas = those (over there)
Here are some memory devices that may help:
This and these have t’s; that and those don’t.
If it has a t, it’s close to me.
If it has a t, then it’s touchable.
Summary
It should be pointed out that, in actual usage, ese, esa, esos and esas
(that, those) are often used instead of aquel, aquella, aquellos and
aquellas (that over there, those over there).
Esa (aquella) muchacha es mi prima, Isabel.
That girl is my cousin, Isabel.
However, if the object or person is quite far away, the aquel forms are
preferred.
Aquella casa allí en el cerro es de mi tío.
That house over there on the hill is my uncle’s.
The Demonstrative Pronouns
(Los pronombres demostrativos)
The forms that take the place of nouns.
Notice that, in this scene,
the speakers are referring to
the hats but have omitted
the word sombrero, which
now turns aquél and éste
into pronouns.
In English, the man would
say “I like that one a lot.”
and his friend would say
“Umm . . . and this one?”
When written, these
pronominal forms bear an
accent on the stressed e.
esto, eso, aquello
The neuter forms esto, eso, and aquello do not take a written accent
nor do they have plural forms. They are used to point out ideas,
actions or concepts, or to refer to unspecified objects or things.
Aquello no me gusta.
No dije eso.
Esto está mal.
I don’t like that (business, matter).
I didn’t say that.
This is wrong.
These forms are also used to ask for a definition of something.
¿Qué es eso?
Es una biblioteca.
What is that?
It’s a library.
¿Qué es esto?
Es una pulsera.
What is this?
It’s a bracelet.
Summary
• éste, ésta = this one
• éstos, éstas = these (ones)
• ése, ésa = that one
• ésos, ésas = those (ones)
• aquél, aquélla = that one (over there)
• aquéllos, aquéllas = those (ones) (over there)
FIN
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Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns