NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT
GUARANTEE ACT 2005
Structure of the Presentation
• NREGA Coverage
• NREGA Process
• Paradigm Shift: From SGRY to NREGA
NREGA COVERAGE
Backward Districts(150)
(Most backward
Ranked by Planning
Commission)
Phase I NREGA(200)
(commenced 2.02.06)
Phase II NREGA(130)
(extended on 1.4.07)
Phase III NREGA(266)
(notified on 28.9.07)
NREGA Process
Application for Registration
Step 1: Application for Registration
• Unit of Entitlement is the Household.
• Registration application made to local Gram Panchayat.
• Application may be in a form prescribed or a plain paper
• Prescribed form is free of cost and easily available at GP
• Oral applications may also be submitted
Verification of the Registration Application
Step 2: Verification of the Registration Application
The Gram Panchayat will verify the application on the basis of:
(i) local domicile
(ii) All household members applying for registration are adult
- No discrimination is made in registration in terms of
caste, creed, gender
- Single Women living alone may register independently
- NREGA is not confined to BPL families
Registration for Job Card
Step 3: After verification, the house hold will be registered
•
•
Unit of Registration: Household (HH)
The names of adult members applying will be noted
Registration Register
Issue of Job Card
Step 4: Issue of Job Card
• Basic legal document valid for five years.
Enables registered household to demand guaranteed
employment
• Issued to a registered household as a whole
• Household Job Card will have photograph & name of
each registered adult member of the household on it
• Cost of Job Card including photograph will be borne by
the programme
• Should be issued within 15 days of application.
Format of Job Card
• Must have space for entering vital data that must be
regularly entered that includes:
-
Unique registration number
Days of employment demanded
Days worked
Amount paid
• Job Cards issued will be entered in a Job Card register in
the Gram Panchayat
Demand Process: Application for Employment
Step 5. Application for Employment
•
Household with Job Card has the right to submit a written
application for employment to the Gram Panchayat
•
Any member may apply: More than one member of a family
may apply at the same time (subject to 100 day family
entitlement)
•
Applicant may chose the time and duration when
employment is sought
•
Application must state day from which employment is
sought and duration
•
Application must be for a minimum of 15 days of
employment
Guarantee Process : Acknowledgement of
Application for Employment
Step 6: Issue of Dated Receipt
• Employment application will be entered in an Employment
Register in the Gram Panchayat
• The Gram Panchayat has to issue a Dated Receipt of the
written application for employment
Guarantee Process :Allocation of Employment
Step 7: Allocation of Employment
•
Employment within 15 days of work application or date
from which employment is sought, which ever is later
•
If applicant does not report for work no unemployment
allowance payable
•
Can reapply
•
Employment within 5 km radius of village.
10% of the wage rate as extra wages paid if distance
more than 5 km
•
Intimation of work provided has to be sent in writing &
through public notice at the Village Panchayat office
Payment of Unemployment Allowance
•
If Employment is not provided within 15 days,
daily unemployment allowance, in cash has to be
paid.
•
States will pay the Unemployment Allowance at
their own cost
Planning of Works
• Planning of works to allocate employment within
guaranteed time
• Works selected from the list of permissible works under
Schedule I of the Act
• Permissible works are as follows:
-Water Conservation
-Drought Proofing( including plantation and afforestation)
-Flood Protection
-Land Development
-Minor Irrigation, horticulture and land development on the
land of SC/ST/ -BPL/IAY and Land reform beneficiaries
-Rural connectivity
• 60:40 ratio of wages and materials to be maintained
May be maintained at the district level.
Planning Process
Decentralised, Participatory Process. PRIs principal role
• Gram Sabhas Initiate Planning process and recommend works
• Gram Panchayat consolidate recommendations of Gram Sabha into
Village Development Plans and forward to intermediate Panchayat
level
• Intermediate Panchayat: Programme Officer will consolidate Gram
Panchayat Plans into Block Plans with addition of works that cut across
gram panchayats for approval of Intermediate Panchayat
• District Panchayat: District Programme Coordinator will consolidate
Block Proposals and proposals received from other implementing
agencies for inclusion in the shelf of projects to be approved by the
District Panchayat
Execution of Work
Implementing Agencies
• No fixed percentage allocation of works as in SGRY:50GP/30 –IP/20-ZP
• At least 50 % of the works has to be allotted to Gram
Panchayats
• Other Implementing Agencies:
-Other Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)
-Line departments (PWD, Forest Dept.)
-NGOs
-SHGs
• Private contractors are banned
Payment of Wages
• Statutory minimum wage for agricultural labourers in the
state, unless the Central Government “notifies” a minimum
wage not less than Rs. 60/day
• Wages paid weekly, or in any case not later than a fortnight
• Only Cash
Mandatory Worksite Facilities
•
•
•
•
Drinking water
Shade
Medical aid
Creche if more than five children below age 6 are present
Note: These facilities are to be provided by the implementing
agency
Public Accountability
• GS will conduct social audits of all works taken up within GP
• All accounts and records relating to the Scheme are to be
made available for public scrutiny and any person desirous
of obtaining a copy of such records may be provided such
copies on demand and after paying specified fee
•
A copy of muster rolls of each work has to be made
available at Gram Panchayat & to Programme Officer [at the
Block level] for inspection by any person interested after
paying specified fee
• DPCs, Pos and GPs to Prepare Annual Report
EGS: Cost sharing
• Central Government to pay for:
– wage costs,
– 75% of material costs, and
– some administrative costs.
• State governments to pay for:
– 25% of material costs
– other administrative costs,
– unemployment allowance.
Paradigm Shift: From SGRY to
NREGA
Issue
Other Wage
Employment
Programmes(SGRY)
NREGA
Status
Programme
Statute
Focus
Infrastructure
Employment generation
Supply led. Works
opened by implementing
agencies & then labour
is engaged
Demand-based. Application by
Wage seekers for employment
and then works are opened
Process
Labour
Any one can be engaged Only Job Cards holders that apply
as labour
for employment
Time frames
None
Employment within 15 days of
demand,
Payment within 15 days of work
Duration of
Employment
Dependent on duration
of work by implementing
agency
Legal Guarantee of as many days
of employment as a job card
holder applies for, subject to
maximum 100 days
Issue
Other Wage
Employment
Programmes(SGRY)
NREGA
Nature of
works
Any work
60:40 ratio of wages and material
No 60:40 ratio of wage - Permissible works:
material
Financial
Support
-25% State share
-75% Centre share
-Fixed Allocation to
State
-Fixed share to
each PRI tier:
20%-ZP
30%-IP
50%-GP
-Demand Based.
-No fixed allocation to State
-No fixed allocation to PRI.
Incentive structure in the release of Central
share
Central Funds are released on the basis of
Demand for employment received in a
district and the districts provision of
guaranteed employment within 15 days.
90% assistance from Centre if employment
is provided within 15 days of demand.
If not, then State will pay unemployment
allowance at its own cost.
Thematic Discussion
Roles, functions and responsibilities
of key agencies
Agencies with Critical Functions
• Gram Sabha:
• Panchayats: Principal agencies for planning
and implementation
• Gram Panchayat : basic unit of
implementation.
• In each Block, a Programme Officer is to
coordinate the implementation of EGS
• District Programme Coordinator at district
level:Collector /CEO
• State Employment Guarantee Council
Functions related to Demand for Employment
Functions
DPC
Building Awareness among
community
***
Receiving applications for
registration
Verifying
applications for registration
Issue of Job Card
Receipt of employment application
Issue of dated receipt
ZP
PO
IP
GP
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*
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*
***
*
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*
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Functions related to Planning of Works
Functions
DPC
ZP
PO
IP
GP
****
Recommending
works(Village)
***
*
****
Forwarding Village
Plan to Block
Consolidating GP
recommendations
into Block Plan
Gram
Sabha
****
Convening Gram
Sabha for Planning
works
Consolidating Gram
Sabha
recommendations
into Village Plan
Other
implementing
agencies
****
***
Functions related to Record, Report, Review, Redressal
Functions
DPC
ZP
PO
Village Registers
MPR
Data consolidation
computerisation,
reporting
Annual Report
Quality monitoring
&Control
Social audit
Grievance redressal
IP
GP
Other
Gram
Implement Sabha
ing
agencies
**
***
***
***
***
***
***
***
**
*** ** **
***
***
**
**
***
**
**
****
****
***
Functions related to Planning of Works
Functions
DPC
ZP
PO
IP
Recommending
works(Inter GP)
**
Approving Block
Plan
**
Forwarding Block
Plan to District
**
Including works
proposals from
other implementing
agencies
***
Consolidating IP
recommendations
into District Plan
***
GP Other
Gram
implementing Sabha
agencies
Functions related to Planning& execution of Works
Functions
DPC
Muster roll issue
PO
**
Wage Payment
Job Card entries
GP
***
Other
Gram
implementi Sabha
ng agencies
****
***
Muster roll
maintenance
Measurement
IP
****
Approving District
Plan
Getting Technical
estimates made
for approved
works
ZP
**
**
**
**
****
***
***
Functions related to Capacity development &Fund
Management
Functions
State
Govt
DPC
Training
***
****
*****
****
***
Provision
& release
of State
Share
Release of
funds to
PO/IA
Accounts
Fund
Release
to
implemen
ting
agencies/
Accounts
Personnel
Placement
Fund
manageme
nt
ZP
PO
IP
GP
Other
imple
menti
ng
agen
cies
Paymen
ts/
Accoun
ts
Paym
ents/
Acco
unts
Deployment and Training of
Personnel
Positioning key personnel
• District Programme Coordinator( DPC )
• Programme Officer (P.O.)
• A Gram Rozgar Sewak at the GP level (local, 12th pass)
- Registration
-Verification of registration applications
- Issue of Job Cards
- Receiving applications for employment
- Issue of dated receipts for employment applications
-Reporting Demand to the Programme Officer so that
work may be allotted to the implementing agency
- Informing the applicants to report for work
- Ensuring payments are made on time to the workers.
- Reporting work progress and all other matters to the
Programme Officer on a regular weekly basis.
Key Functional Areas for deployment of additional full
time dedicated personnel
Level Key Functional Areas
Personnel to be deployed
GP
1 Gram Rozgar Sewak for each
GP
Block Programme
management
1 Programme Officer for each
Block
Works
Technical assistants pooled to
service GPs
IT , MIS
Computer Assistants
Finance
Accountant.
Distt
Works
Manager, Technical assistants
IT , MIS
Manager, Computer Assistants
Level Key Functional Areas
Distt
Finance
Training
Social Audit,
Grievance redresssal
Personnel to be deployed
Accounts Manager with
Accounts assistants
Training Coordinator
Coordinator
All personnel to be:
Full time & dedicated to NREGS
Contract/Deputation
No permanent posts
Administrative expenses permissible under
the 4% financial limit
•
•
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Information Education Communication (IEC)
Training
MIS
Quality supervision: This includes monitoring and
verification (specially muster roll verification)
evaluation, Social Audit. Quality Monitors at the State,
District and Block levels.
Setting up grievance redressal systems
Engaging professional services
Operational Expenses: Office expenses related to the
implementation of NREGS
Stationery related to computational processes/MIS.
Additional Staffing dedicated to NREGS in key
functional areas of the Scheme at the Gram
Panchayat/Block/District levels
Expenditure not permissible under the 4%
administrative limit
• Salaries/ remunerations/honoraria of
functionaries already engaged by the
Government/ PRIs / any other implementing
agency.
• Personnel, other than indicated by the Ministry.
• Purchase of new vehicles and repair of old
vehicles.
• Civil works
Administrative expenses apart from 4% limit
• Expenditure on workers engaged to look after crèche on
site/carry water
- To be separately charged to unskilled wage cost
-Not to be included as part of the work – measurement.
• One time expenses: Separate from the 4% permissible
limit.
-Preparation of Perspective Plan
- Printing of job cards, photography
-Augmentation of computational facilities at the Block and
district level.
-Almirahs for record-keeping and functional furniture at
GP, Block and District-levels
Administrative expense as function of total
expenditure
•
4% administrative expense: a function of
the total expenditure under NREGA
resulting into creation of person days in a
financial year
• Need for a Management Plan to monitor
total programme expenditure and
outcomes to leverage appropriate
management support to it
GP
Training Key Functionaries for their Roles and
Responsibilities
Block
District
GP members
Panchayat Secy
Gram Rozgar
Sewak
Mate
IP members
ZP members
Programme Officer
Line Depts
Engineers
Engineers
Computer personnel
Computer personnel
Accounts personnel.
Accounts personnel.
Activities under Training
• Training calendar to be drawn up: Training load/Time
• Training modules to be calibrated in content and
process according to different stakeholders
• Training materials:
- Act & National NREGA Guidelines in local language
- Manuals/ Hand books with FAQs
* on different components
*for different target groups
-Films
• Osmosis Process for Training.
-District Resource Group
-Block Resource Group
-Village resource group
• Integrated Groups of different stake holders for core
components( Programme Processes)
• Separate Groups for specific skill sets(IT/Works/Accnts)
Components of Training
• Enabling Local Communities to know their
Rights under the Act
• Procedures for registration and issue of Job
Card
• Procedures for employment application
• Procedures for Planning and Executing Works
• Maintenance of Muster rolls
• Norms of Measurement
• Wage Payment
• Update of Job Cards
• Maintenance of Records, data, Reports
• Maintenance of Accounts
• Unemployment Allowance
• Social Audit
Impact Assessment of training
• Concurrent assessment of the impact of the training
programme to ensure that all key responsible agencies
- Understand the provisions of the Act,
- Their respective roles in it
- Have the skills to implement it.
• Reiterative Cycles of training using the feedback
Social Mobilization Building Awareness
and Involving Stakeholders
Building Awareness:Information, Education
and Communication ( IEC)
Key Target Groups:
• Local work force engaged in manual
labour
• Poor rural households
• SC/ST/women/ minorities
• Remote habitations
Drawing up an IEC Plan
Preparation of Communication material on
NREGA processes in simple local language
Information Dissemination
 An intensive One day orientation of all
Sarpanches at the Block level
 A Gram Sabha in every village to acquaint local
people with the key provisions of the Act.
Participation of beneficiaries be ensured
 One day be fixed & publicised as Rozgar Diwas
 Use of multi media;
• TV and radio where ever possible.
• Print media –local vernacular newspapers.
• Pamphlets and brochures in simple local
language with Graphics.
• Local cultural forms, like puppetry, folk theatre
and music may be used at the village level
Information Dissemination
 District personnel teams mobilised to camp and
night halt in villages
 Information counters in the local Market days using
audio-video material
 Village Information Wall
 NGOs to facilitate awareness generation
 Help Line
- Telephone numbers of key officials publicized
Important aspects of NREGA for
Communication
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Guarantee of 100 days of employment upon Demand
Application Process for registration and Job Card.
Written application for demanding employment
Dated receipt of the application for employment by the
Gram Panchayat.
Unskilled manual Work to be provided within 15 days of
demand.
If employment is not provided within fifteen days of
application, unemployment allowance will be paid by the
State Government
Minimum wages for agricultural labour to be paid within 15
days of work completion
Workers have the right to check their muster rolls.
Feed back on IEC
• Every Gram Panchayat must give a certificate
that it has convened a Gram Sabha in each
village and acquainted the local community with
NREGA provisions
• Concurrent assessment of the effectiveness of
IEC activities must be done and any
deficiencies that come to light, must be removed
Outcome Indicators of effective IEC
Local community aware of NREGA and its key processes:
• How and where to apply for registration
• Use of job card for demanding employment and
recording entitlements, job card with photographs are
free of cost.
• After receipt of job card, local community has chosen to
apply for employment according to its own choice of time
& days
• Dated receipt for application for employment is issued
• Authentic Muster rolls
Planning and Execution
Perspective Plan
• A 5 Year District Perspective Pan that must
-be village based
-Map Physical Resources available:
-Map social infrastructure available
-Identify Gaps
-Identify works that can be taken up as per
NREGA permissible list
-Identify resources available for them under
existing programmes
-Identify works and resources proposed to be
budgeted under NREGA
-Assess labour demand
-Estimate employment likely to be generated from
these works
Perspective Plan
• Need to match:
-What local people want
&
-What will build their livelihood base
-Participation of local communities and PRIs
&
Professional expertise
• Districts may engage professional
agencies
• Separate Guidelines for Perspective Plans
will be issued
• Separate funds for making Perspective
Preparing a Shelf of Projects
• The Perspective Plan will take some time to prepare.
• In order to start work upon Demand, the District
administration will ensure that each village has a shelf
of projects.
• NREGA is open to all households in a village. But
experience has shown that mainly the poor households
come for employment under NREGA.
• Therefore, the number of works in a year in a village
may be estimated by taking the village average of BPL
families and deriving the total person days that will be
generated by providing 100 days of employment to all
these families.
• Shelf of projects in a village must be adequate to meet
twice the times of estimated demand for employment for
a year
Preparing a Shelf of Projects
• Each village must have a shelf of projects of at least five
works with technical and administrative approvals, ready
to be drawn upon when demand for employment comes
• The plot numbers of the sites where works are to be
executed should be mentioned, so that each work has a
unique location code.
• The shelf of projects at the village level will comprise
small projects that can be quickly executed within one
working season
• Priority will be given to works that can be executed by the
Gram Panchayat.
• Only such works that involve more than one GP may be
taken up at the Intermediate Panchayat level.
• Outcomes expected from the works should indicate :
-Estimated benefits in terms of person days
- Physical improvement envisaged ( land/water
conservation etc)
- Benefits to the community
Executing Works
• List of approved works to be displayed at the GP.
• Technical estimates to be displayed at all worksites in simple local language.
• Mate for managing works: from among the Job
Card holders.
• Progress report by Implementing Agency to local
vigilance committee.
• Pre-Mid-Post Project condition to be recorded
• Asset register at GP with unique number to each
work to prevent duplication
Muster Rolls
• Numbered Muster rolls will be issued for each sanctioned
work by Programme Officer (this is a check on false muster
rolls).
• Muster rolls will be maintained on the work site by the
executing agency.
• Muster roll must mention Job Card numbers of workers
(this is a check on false names and contractors).
• Muster roll will mention: days worked, quantum of work
done, amount paid
• Muster rolls should be read out on the work site during
measurement and wage payment to prevent bogus records
• Entries of the muster roll must be correspondingly recorded
in the job cards of the workers
• If Line departments are identified as implementing
agencies, they will have to be trained in undertaking labour
intensive works and the maintenance of muster rolls for
each work.
Measurement and Payment of wages
• Schedule of rural rates based on work time and motion
studies for labour intensive works should be formulated
for measurement of work out turn.
• Regular measurement and supervision of works to be
done by qualified technical personnel on time.
• Measurement to be recorded in authenticated
measurement books.
• Measurement details should be read out to workers
• Wages may be paid in cash. Wages must be paid in
front of the community.
• Wages may also be paid through Post/ Bank accounts
of wage earners.
• Wages paid must be entered in the Job Cards.
Tracking number of days of employment
• The number of days worked by all the members
of a household whose names are on the job card
person should have been entered on the
muster rolls and the job card
• The total number of days actually worked by all
the members of the household and recorded in
muster rolls and the household Job Card is
counted as Person days
• Do not divide total expenditure by wage rate to
derive persondays
• Total number of person days of a household
cannot exceed 100
Key Document, Records and
Reports
Key Documents and Records
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Principal Documents:
Application forms for registration
Job Cards
Application Form for employment
Muster Rolls with unique number
Key Registers
Registration
Issue of Job Cards
Demand and provision of employment
Assets
Finance
Complaints.
Printed documents must be distributed to the GP, Block and District
levels
 All printed documents under NREGA will have the words
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, on top, followed
by the name of the state
 These documents are the basis of NREGA Data Base and Reports
 Their Formats are compatible with electronic processing
Review & Reports
 Regular Review
• Once a Fortnight on a fixed day at Block by PO
with Gram Rozgar sewaks
• Once a month on a fixed day at District by DPC
with POs
• Once a month on a fixed day at State with DPCs
 Collect and discuss information on NREGA.
Problem solving
 Monthly Progress Reports:
- Employment demanded and provided
- Persondays
- Financial status
- Works
 Reports: on line MIS
Management Information System
Operationalising MIS
• Priority to operationalising Web-based MIS www.nrega.nic.in to
place all data in public domain
 Workers’ entitlements: Registration, job cards, muster rolls,
Employment demanded and provided
 Work data: sanctioned shelf of works, work estimates, work in
progress, measurement.
 Financial indicators: funds available/spent, amount paid as wages,
materials and administrative expenses.
• Data software engineered, for cross verification of records and
report generation.
• Data Analysis for consistency and Alerts for District/Stats
• Computerisation of Blocks: .computers& connectivity cost is additional to 4%
limit
 Personnel
 Training
 Computers
 Connectivity:
Transparency
Social Audit, Monitoring and Grievance Redressal Systems
Transparency
• Three Pronged
-Proactive Disclosure
-Information upon Payment (RTI)
- -Social Audit
• Proactive Disclosure
All NREGA-related documents to be available for public
scrutiny:
*Key information in local language at GP level
*Muster rolls to be read out & pro-actively displayed
at Gram Panchayat Office.
* Web-enabled MIS www.nrega.nic.in
• Documents to be made avaialable to public on
payment of prescribed fee.
Social Audit
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
System where local Community scrutinises all records
and procedures of a programme, verifies its authenticity
and whether the expenditure incurred has delivered its
objective .
The Implementing agency is bound to provide all
necessary documents
Social audit is in addition to the CAG audit
Should be both concurrent ( of live works) and Post
completion
Social Audit by Gram Sabha of all works in a Gram
Panchayat
GP to provide records
PO and DPC to facilitate through resource support:
planning, training, ensuring access to records, follow -up
Steps for a Social audit
Setting up a Village Resource Group for social
audit at to facilitate it
-Village monitoring and vigilance committee(5
members may be selected)
2) Training the resource group:
Initial training should be atleast a week: thorough
understanding of
-Act
-Guidelines
-Social Audit Hand book and how to use it for
collecting, verifying and recording information
3). Plan for social audit: To be drawn up by DPC
Conduct social audit twice a year: corresponding
to working seasons
1).
Steps for a Social audit
4) Prior Intimation: GPs to be informed three
months in advance by PO
5) Records to be made available atleast one month before
to the village social audit team
6) Scrutiny of records: internal cross checking & external
verification with persons/works
7) Public Hearing and evidence Reading out the findings of
social audit on a specified day in the social audit forum
Concerned Officials to attend from district administration:
engineers/accountants
8) Record of proceedings
9) Follow up by District administration. Action taken to be
reported in the next social audit forum
Monitoring Output and Outcomes
Function Activity
IEC
Output
Sarpanches
well aware of
the Act
Implementatio
n in Conformity
to legal
processes
Gram Sabha to
Wage seekers
acquaint local No of Gram Sabhas aware of their
community
held
Rights and able
with the Act
to exercise
them
Block Level
Convention for
sensitising
Sarpanches
No of conventions
held
No of Sarpanches
oriented
Outcome
Monitoring Mechanisms
• Monitors for internal and external monitoring must be
identified and trained at the State/ District and Block
levels
• 100% verification of works at the Block level, 10 % at
the District and 2% at the State level has to be ensured.
•
Local vigilance and monitoring committees to be set
up and trained
• Data Analysis and timely remedial measures
• Follow up on feed back
Grievance redressal system
• Complaints book at GP level
• PO responsible for disposing complaints
within 15 days
• DPC must review on Monthly basis
• Toll free Help Line
Fund Management
Fund Management
• Dedicated NREGA accounts in a PSU Bank at
district/Block/GP levels
• DPC/PO and GP Secretary/Gram Rogar Sewak to be
authorised to operate the account.
• Demand Based release of Funds. No fixed allocation and
installments
• No allocations on a 50-30-20 pattern to GP-IP-ZP as in SGRY
• Estimation of fund requirement by implementing agency based
on demand for employment
• Cash Flow Management: to maintain 15 day payment cycle
• Funds released by Centre :
-Initial installment on Labour Budget :Annual estimate of labour
-Incremental installments on specific proposals of districts
based on physical and financial progress
- Financial claims to be moved when 60% of available funds
used
• Proposal must be signed by District Programme Coordinator
Fund Management
• Documents needed for release of next installment:
– Proposal on prescribed form
– UCs
– Audit report for the last year(due on 30th September), in the
original form
– Bank reconciliation statement, in the original form.
– Requirement of funds to be indicated in the covering letter.
– Recommendations of State Government about specific
amount required
– MPRs on prescribed proforma should have been sent for all
months in the year.
– Non-diversion and non-embezzlement certificate.
– Compliance report of any condition imposed earlier
– Outcomes and output are mentioned in UC.
– Conformity to NREGA Processes
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