Unit 16: Teaching Theory and
Instructional Techniques
• Learning and
Teaching
• Water Class
Management
• Lesson Planning
Student Performance:
By the end of the lesson you will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Explain the learning and teaching process.
Explain testing, evaluation, and achievement.
List and define the Laws of Learning.
Describe the factors that enhance learning.
Describe methods for effective oral
communications.
Describe training aids and tell how they can
enhance communication.
Explain how to teach swimming and diving in
confined and open water.
Prepare lesson plans for classroom, confined,
and open water.
Learning and Teaching
• Learning:
– “A measurable change in an individual’s
behavior or attitude.”
– “A change in behavior based on experience.”
• Bloom’s taxonomy
– Identifies three overlapping domains important in
the learning process:
• Knowledge
• Attitude
• Skills
Bloom’s taxonomy
Cognitive Domain
Bloom’s taxonomy
Affective Domain
Bloom’s taxonomy
Psychomotor Domain
Learning and Teaching
(continued)
• Teaching:
– “Purposeful activities that
aid an individual’s
learning.”
• Testing and evaluation
– Foster effective learning
and achievement.
• Class focus
– The student is the most
important person in any
class.
Learning and Teaching
(continued)
• The “laws of learning“
– Readiness: students will learn
best when physically and mentally
ready.
– Intensity: increased sensory input
increases learning.
– Primacy: first learned is best
remembered.
– Exercise: skills are only truly
learned through participation and
practice.
– Effect: Students learn best when
they perceive the material as real
and useful.
– Recency: that which is most
recently learned is more easily
recalled.
Learning and Teaching
(continued)
• Factors that enhance
learning
– Oral
communication
• Preparing to
communicate
• Getting started
• Using the “tools of
the trade”
– voice, eyes, hands
and body
Learning and Teaching
(continued)
– Training aids
• Reinforce a point
• Increase the
intensity of the
experience
• Use it and then
put it away
Learning and Teaching
(continued)
– Empathy
– Goals and motivation
– Reinforcement
– Pacing
Learning and Teaching
(continued)
– Continuity
– Relaxation and
performance
– Physical awareness
and sensitivity
– Physical surroundings
– Anxiety and fear
Water Class Management
• Surface teaching
– Safety and communication
– Class positioning is important to the
learning process
• Line-up
• Semicircular
• Instructor centered
Water Class Management
(continued)
• Evaluating and
teaching swimming
skills
– Crawl stroke
– Breaststroke
– Elementary
backstroke
– Sidestroke
Crawl Stroke
Breaststroke
Elementary Backstroke
Sidestroke
Water Class Management
(continued)
– Underwater teaching
• Positioning is important
for safety and control
– Follow me
– Call down
– Class first, instructor
following
– Instructor first,
watching class
– Instructor and buddy
pairs in turn
Water Class Management
(continued)
– Progression
– Exercises
– Skill demonstration
• Using demonstrations
well
• “I hear, I forget; I see, I
remember; I do, I
understand.”
Water Class Management
(continued)
– Demonstration
quality skills
– Camaraderie and
competition
– Imaging and selfconcept
– Intrapersonal
communication
Lesson planning
“Failing to plan is planning to fail.”
• Benefits of Lesson Planning
• Modern Lesson Planning
• The acronym TOM I PASTA
Lesson planning (continued)
• Lesson planning from scratch
• Establishing objectives
– “If you’re not sure where you’re going,
you’re liable to end up someplace else.”
• Components of a learning objective
– Performance
– Conditions
– Standard
Lesson planning (continued)
• Classroom
– Preliminary steps of lesson preparation
– Subordinate steps
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
prepare the introduction
prepare the summary
prepare the lesson evaluation
prepare the lesson plan
“TOM I. PASTA” mnemonic
rehearse the lesson
prepare the teaching notes
Lesson planning (continued)
• Confined water
– Briefing: (introductions, session overview,
facility orientation–hazards and restrictions,
safety equipment, communications, etc.
Detailed briefing outlines are included in NAUI
instructor guides.)
– Skill review exercises
– New skills
– Activities
– Debriefing
Lesson planning (continued)
• Steps of confined water lesson preparation
– Identify the skill and any sub-components.
– Determine objectives: (performance, condition,
standard).
– Select the teaching method.
– Determine the time frame for the lesson.
– Determine the skill progression and the exercises
needed to reach the objectives.
– Determine training aids and assistants needed.
– Prepare an introduction and summary, if
appropriate.
– Prepare the training aids.
– Rehearse the skills to be demonstrated.
– Prepare teaching notes/slates.
Lesson planning (continued)
• Open water training
– Briefing: (introductions, session overview,
facility orientation–hazards and restrictions,
safety equipment, communications, etc.)
– Skill review exercises
– Skill performance
– Skill evaluations
– Application of skills
– Debriefing
Lesson planning (continued)
• Steps of open water session preparation
– Identify the dive location and an alternate; check
weather and environment, print maps and
directions.
– Verify information for briefing: hazards,
communications, and emergency procedures.
– Prepare schedule of activities.
– Determine staffing and equipment needs.
– Prepare briefing notes.
– Inventory and check equipment: personal, backup,
and emergency.
– Prepare emergency action plan.
– Prepare debriefing notes.
End of Unit 16
Teaching Theory and Instructional
Techniques
• Learning And
Teaching
• Water Class
Management
• Lesson Planning
Student Performance:
By the end of the lesson you will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
Explain testing, evaluation, and achievement.
List and define the Laws of Learning.
Describe the factors that enhance learning.
Demonstrate effective oral communications.
Describe training aids and tell how they can
enhance communication.
• Explain the learning and teaching process.
• Teach swimming and diving in confined and open
water.
• Lesson plan for classroom, confined, and open
water.
Student Performance:
By the end of the lesson you will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Explain the learning and teaching process.
Explain testing, evaluation, and achievement.
List and define the Laws of Learning.
Describe the factors that enhance learning.
Describe methods for effective oral
communications.
Describe training aids and tell how they can
enhance communication.
Explain how to teach swimming and diving in
confined and open water.
Prepare lesson plans for classroom, confined,
and open water.
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