Viet Nam experience on language
classroom mapping:
a tool for planning and managing
bilingual education
4th International Language and Education Conference:
Multilingual Education for ALL in Asia and the Pacific – Policies,
Practices and Processes
6th-8th November 2013 Bangkok
Contents of the Presentation
1) 1. Country context
2) 2. Purpose and research questions
3) 2. Process and methodology
4) 3. Results and applications
1. Viet Nam country context
Linguistic and Cultural Diversity in Viet Nam
Population: 86 million
53 ethnic minority groups (13%
of the total population of Viet
Nam;)
54 ethnic groups speaking
approximately 100 languages;
30 languages with scripts;
Rich diversity as to language
genetic affinities
Distinctive characteristic of
language situation all over the
country: mixed population
distribution
UNICEF
Sources: SIL International (www.ethnologue.com)
Multilingual education as a way towards
1.Viet Nam country context
Quality and equity in Ethnic Minorities Education in Viet
Nam
100%
9
90%
12
30
80%
Below
standards
70%
20
60%
Near
standards
50%
40%
79
30%
50
Reaching
standards
20%
10%
0%
Kinh
UNICEF
Ethnic Minority
Source: VIES and INTREC/Mekong Economics, (2008). Assessing learning results in Vietnamese Reading
and Mathematic of children grade 5, school year 2006-2007.
Multilingual education as a way towards
1. Positive Experience on Mother Tongue Based
Bilingual Education in Viet Nam
-
Vietnamese
subject: Levels
children learning, speaking;
they are good at the oral of Excellent
VN
(86-100%)
MTBBE
NonMTTBE
67,5%
29,57%
- Math: the initial result is
positive;
Very good
(66-85%)
24,78%
31,49%
- For other subjects, MTBBE
students got A+ marks;
Good (5065%)
6,03%
19,41%
1,30%
9,32%
- MTBBE students have good
behaviours in school.
Fair (30-49%)
0,75%
10,18%
Fail (0-29%)
1. Country context:
Assessment results primary level 2010-2011 school
-
MTBBE students had better learning outcomes than their
peers.
MTBBE contributed to better learning outcomes of ethnic
minority children.
6
2. Purpose and Research Questions
Purpose of Research:
- To understand the language situation in the
classroom so that education can be appropriate for
all the students and their communities.
- Students learn best when they can begin studying
in the language that they know best.
Research Questions:
-
-
-
How many classes and locations are there where all the students
speak the same language? What is the situation for these students?
How many classes and locations are there where students don't
share the same strongest language?
What are the language abilities of the teachers?
3. Process of Language Mapping
Project
Planning
Training
Data
Anlaysis/
Mapping
Data
Collection
Presenting
Results
3. Process and Methodology
- Leadership and participation from all levels of the
educational system (school, district, province, and
national).
- The data collected was carefully checked.
- Maximizing of education system to collect data.
- Training of trainers for the data collection process
– teachers collected data – Principals reviewed
data – District, Province, and National education
levels reviewed the information.
- Basic information was collected that could easily
be collected by teachers and mapped using GIS
software.
3. Process and Methodology
Reviewing Important Points in research
School
•
•
•
Main School
Satellite
Classroom
Information collected according to
•
•
•
Language
Location
Classroom
What are the other factors related to language and
location (academic performance, poverty...)?
1 Satellite School many Class Rooms
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Language Scenario at School
Language A
Language C
Language B
Is this the situation in every school, at every
location, in every classroom??
There are at least two possibilities
Multi-language
School(A) but single
language satellites
Multi-language
School(A) and multilanguage satellites
3.Statistics Primary Schools – Lào Cai
Year
Schools
Classes
Pupils
Ethnic
Minority
Pupils
2007
229
3,753
62,465
47,852
76.61%
2008
234
3,770
60,735
45,188
74.40%
2009
236
3,897
61,298
44,215
72.13%
2011
241
3,805
60,965
43,904
72.02%
Percentage
of total
GIS Project File
3. Classroom Language Scenarios
Học sinh
Giáo viên
One language shared by all students and teacher
3.Classroom Language Scenario
Students speak 2 different ethnic languages with
Kinh speaking teacher
3.Single Language vs Multi Language Classrooms
36%
51%
13%
Single
Language
(Mong, Dao,
Tay,...)
Single
Language
(Kinh)
Multi
Language
Students in 51% of Lao Cai primary school classrooms
share the same home languages - Mong, Dao, and Tay.
However, their home languages are not used for teaching.
3.Students' Strongest Language
Mong
Kinh
6%
33%
Dao
Tay
not recorded
12%
Nung
Giay
16%
Xa Pho
22%
Ha Nhi
other
languages
3.Percentage of Primary Classrooms with 1 to 8 Languages
Percent of Classes
2011 – 2012
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1
2
5
4
3
Languages per Class
6
7
8
64% of primary school classes in Lao Cai have students that all
speak the same language - Mông, Kinh, Dao, Tày -
Teacher Ethnicities
3%
5%
12%
70%
Kinh
Tay
Nung
Muong
Giay
Mong
Dao
not recorded
Phu La
Pa Di
Tu Di
Xa Pho
Thai
San Diu
Hoa
Teachers
Ethnicities
Students
Strongest Language
In Lao Cai primary schools, 70% of the teachers are Kinh and speak
Vietnamese as their mother tongue but Vietnamese is the strongest language of
only 22% of the students.
Single Language Classes with the Ethnicity of Their Teachers.
Teachers
Language of Class
Ethnicity of Teachers
All
classes
Kinh
Tay
Nung
Mong
Muong
Giay
Dao
2426
585
218
105
114
108
90
Total Classes
Teacher Student Match
Ethnic Classes Single Lg
3808
14.88%
Teacher Ethnic Student
match
4.45%
Maximum Teacher Ethnic
Student Match Possible
25.98%
Single
Mông
Lg
Classes
1565 649
392 210
135 78
73 48
63 26
60 30
51 22
2440 1122
363 48
1932
86
Dao
Kinh
Tày
Giáy Nùng
309
66
31
14
19
12
7
277
46
5
5
7
5
8
92
21
4
1
4
4
6
56
15
3
1
4
3
19
14
6
3
4
3
2
475
7
361
277
140
21
83
4
55
6
48
7
21
4
6
502 105
90
140
83
55
How many students can be helped by MTBBE in
single language classrooms?
Study Environment - Single vs Multi Language
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
Mong
Dao
Total Students
Kinh
Tay
Giay
Nung
Students at Monolingual Site
Approximately 19,000 Mong and Dao students could immediately be a part of
an MTBBE program.
Students in Monolingual Class
Percent Students in Monolingual Class per Grade
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1
2
3
4
5
Grade
Monolingual Class Mong
Monolingual Class Dao
The percentage of students in monolingual classes is farily consistent
across grades which would allow MTBBE through grade 5.
Grade 1 Academic Performance 2010-2011
60%
50%
Kinh
40%
MTBBE
30%
Province
Average
Grade 1
20%
10%
Mong
0%
Excellent
Good
Average
Weak
The MTBBE program is helping Mong children close the learning gap
between themselves and other ethnic groups.
4. Applications
Local:
Adjust teacher training and allocation especially ethnic
teachers to match student languages.
Expand for MTBBE planning.
Conduct further research, expand mapping to other levels
(Kindergarten and Secondary school).
Inform policy and plans for human resource training,
management and development to support the education
system.
Ministry of Education and Training:
Share the methods and results of language mapping with
other programs to strengthen ethnic education and make it
more effective.
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