The United
States of
Education, Media
and Holidays
Ⅰ Education
Ⅱ Media
Ⅲ Holidays and Festivals
Ⅰ Education
1. Ideals of American Education
2. Educational System
1. Ideals of American Education
As many people as possible should have
access to as much education as they want
 an outcome of the American’s assertions (主张、
断言、声明) about equality
 equality in education does not mean that everyone
receives the same education
• The Child placed in a lower-ability group does not
receive the same education as one placed in a
higher-ability group
1. Ideals of American Education
Producing a society of literacy and local
 education governed by state and local
governments, not by the national government; no
national ministry of education
 each state has its own laws regulating education
education for all
1. Ideals of American Education
Emphasis on the basic nature of
knowledge and learning
 Scholars and students should work to discover
new information or conceive (构思、设计) new
ways to understand what is already known;
 Learning is an enterprise of exploration,
experimentation, analysis, and synthesis;
 The goal of education is to teach children how to
learn and help them reach their maximum
Education is both an individual benefit and a social necessity.
Every American has the right and obligation to become
1. Ideals of American Education
☻Education is both an individual benefit and a
social necessity.
☻Every American has the right and obligation to
become educated.
Quotations concerning education:
☻Better be unborn than untaught, for ignorance is the root of
misfortune. (Plato, Ancient Greek philosopher)
☻Education is a progressive discovery of our ignorance.
(Durant, American historian)
☻The purpose of education is to replace an empty mind with an
open one. (Malcolm Forbes, American educator)
2. Educational System
2.1 Elementary and Secondary
2.2 Higher Education
2.3 Famous Universities
2.4 Multicultural Education
2.1 Elementary and Secondary Education
Elementary and secondary education—
the basis of public education, free and
compulsory, 12 grades
One academic year—from September
through June
Different divisions of school systems:
☻ elementary school—one through eight
high school—next four years
☻ elementary school—one through six
junior high school—seven through nine
senior high school—ten through twelve
2.1 Elementary and Secondary Education
Elementary education
 Courses—reading, arithmetic, language arts,
science, social studies, music, art, and physical
 Class size—20 to 30 students
2.1 Elementary and Secondary Education
Secondary education
 Two stages: junior high school and senior high
 Courses: more specialized—English, social studies,
algebra, geometry, etc.
 Nine periods for a day:
five for academic subjects
one for physical education
a lunch period
two study periods
– visiting the library
– participating in extracurricular activity
2.1 Elementary and Secondary Education
A music class in a junior high school
A classroom in a senior high school
2.1 Elementary and Secondary Education
No annual college entrance examination;
applicants are chosen on the basis of the
following 4 aspects:
high school
high school
the impression
they make
interviews at
the university
scores on the
Aptitude Test
2.2 Higher Education
The beginning of higher education—the
founding of Harvard College in 1636
 a big enterprise with a complex system
Four categories of institutions:
the university
the four-year undergraduate institution—the college
technical training institution
two-year community college
College & University
College—undergraduate institution
conferring a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) or a
Bachelor of Sciences (B.S.) degree
University—a group of colleges, each
serving a special purpose
Functions of higher education
 teaching
 research
 public service
College & University
Location of institutions
 New York—308 institutions
 California—299 institutions
 Nevada and Wyoming—only nine institutions each
The variety of subjects
 fine arts and practical, career-oriented fields
The variety of institutions
 large, comprehensive universities and small traditional liberal
arts colleges
Factors for students’ personal preferences
 size, academic quality, location
 reputation of the faculty and department
The Board
 The board of trustees (理事)—carrying out
administration of colleges and universities
 Composed primarily of laymen (非专业人士)
 Laymen—represent the public interests than professionals
 Legal body, responsible for the institution
 Responsibilities:
choosing the president;
establishing policies for administrators and faculty;
approving the budget;
the purchase and sale of real estate and other major
property items, etc.
College Life
An academic year—nine months
 two or three semesters, excluding the summer
 a “break” of one week in each semester and a 30day winter break
 earned by attending lectures (or lab classes) and
by successfully completing assignments and
 one credit—one hour of class per week in a single
 a course may last 10 to 16 weeks—a semester
Group work
Study in college
Discussion and debate
College Life
Living accommodations—not enough
residence halls
 modern and fashionable, but limited and small in
Part-time working
 to earn tuition and
living expenses
as a librarian or a
waiter in a restaurant
a stock keeper in a
College Life
Sports—significant in university life
 football—most popular
 football and basketball scholarships
 students as athletics or “jocks” (大学运动员)
receive free tuition and other financial assistance
Students’ organizations—clubs and activities
 help students become successful when pursuing
• art, music, drama, debate
• foreign languages, photography
• volunteer work
2.3 Famous Universities
Among all American universities, is there
anyone that leaves you the deepest
impression, and why?
Would you please compare American
universities with Chinese ones?
2.3 Famous Universities
Ivy League—including eight universities
(Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth,
Harvard, Pennsylvania, Princeton, and
 Stanley Woodward, a New York Herald Tribune sports writer,
coined the phrase in the early thirties.
Columbia Pennsylvania
Harvard University
 The oldest
institution of higher
learning in America
 comprehensive
university that mainly
grants degrees
 engaged in scientific
 established in 1636
 named after John
Harvard—its first
benefactor (捐助者)
Harvard University
School badge—
VERITAS (Latin):
☻The “Founder” John Harvard was actually not the founder. The
university was founded by two British truth
teachers. What John Harvard
Three Lies of the Harvard Statue:
did was donating some money when the
was about
to shut
 school
down due to financial restricts two years after founded.
☻The university was not founded in the year
1638 as is 为友,
engraved on
德 (Aristotle)
the statue. It was founded two years ago.更要以真理(truth)
1638 was nothing but为the
year he donated money.
☻The biggest joke about the statue is that the person sitting on the
of the
chair is not John Harvard himself! John
had already
when the university decided to set up Harvard
a statue andStatue
there's no picture
left of John. So they just selected a most handsome male students as
the statue's model.
Harvard University
Outstanding academic achievements
 7 presidents
John Adams, John Q. Adams
Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Rutherford B. Hayes, John F. Kennedy
George W. Bush
 more than 40 Nobel laureates
Franklin D. Roosevelt
John F. Kennedy
Yale University
 Founded in 1701 as the
Collegiate School (联合
学院) in Killingworth,
 Renamed Yale College in
1718 after the donator
Elihu Yale
 Became Yale University
in 1887
 The third oldest
institution of higher
education in America
Yale University
3 major academic components:
 Yale College (the undergraduate program)
 the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
 ten professional schools
A wide array of research organizations,
libraries, museums, administrative and
support offices
The Skull & Bones—secret student society
composed of up and coming political elites
 famous “bonesmen”: George W. Bush, John Kerry,
William F. Buckley Jr. etc.
MIT—Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Established in 1861 in Boston, moved to
Cambridge in 1916
 Institute of developing advanced administrative
talents and scientific and technological talents
 One of the teaching and research centers of
science and technology
 Composed of 5 schools
 the School of Architecture
and Planning
 the Engineering School
 the School of Humanities and
Social Humanities
 the Slogan School of
 the School of Science
Academic Achievements
 63 current or former members of the MIT community have
won the Nobel Prize, including 25 professors, 26 alumni,
14 researchers and one staff physician.
 27 of the Nobel Prizes are in physics, 12 in chemistry, 13
in economics, 9 in medicine/physiology, and 2 in peace.
Paul Samuelson
professor of economics
at MIT, sole recipient of
the Nobel Memorial Prize
in Economic Sciences in
Princeton University
Chartered in 1746, known as the College
of New Jersey
The fourth institution of higher education
in the US
Three of the physics professors won the
Nobel Prize
Famous graduates
 President W. Wilson (1879)
 James Madison (1771) and over 80 Senators
2.4 Multicultural Education
 Schools teach the experiences and values of many
ethnic cultures
 successful ethnic individuals incorporated in current textbooks
 equality
 past racism bluntly acknowledged
 Cultural pluralism—organizing principle of
 Elementary schools include
• traditional customs
• other harvest holidays around the world
 Secondary schools include
• literature from around the world, offering alternative perspectives
on social problems and significant historical events
• ethnic studies
2.4 Multicultural Education
 To solve problems and reach conclusions by trial
and error
 Culture influences classroom communication
 Americans—frank and blunt (直言的) ways of expression
 Asian-Americans—avoiding openness
 Critical thinking, judgmental questioning, active
participation, and independent and participatory
learning—expected and encouraged
 International Ss benefit from and contribute to the
American educational system
Ⅱ Media
Would you please summarize some
of the characteristics of the
American media?
Ⅱ Media
1. Newspapers
2. Television and Broadcast
1. Newspapers
More daily newspapers than other
 high quality, views quoted all over the world
 columns by well-known journalists of different
political and social views
 “funnies (滑稽连环漫画)” or comic section
 everyone can find a comic strip appealing to him
• slapstick (闹剧、 谐趣剧) humor
• melodrama (情节剧)
• violence, adventure, or intellectual satire
Influential Newspapers
The New York Times
 established in 1851,
number one for editorial
quality and news coverage
 associated with the
Rockefeller Interest Group
and financial field
 sold especially to the upper
or upper-middle class
 reputation for its serious
attitude and great bulk (数
Influential Newspapers
The Washington Post
 established in 1877
 second biggest newspaper
 main readers—
governmental employees
closely linked to the
American Congress
 first exposing the
Watergate Scandal in
Influential Newspapers
The Los Angeles Times
 established in 1881
 third most influential
 published by the TimesMirror Company in Los
Angeles and connected with
the Morgan Interest Group
 physically huge—cover 200
pages on Sunday
 policy—not to endorse (赞同
或支持) candidates for high
2. Television and Broadcast
No government-owned television network
Major radio and TV networks
 the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)
 the National Broadcasting System (NBS)
 the American Broadcasting System (ABS)
Commercials in TV—advertisements
One channel with no commercials
 Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)
• Programs can be seen all over the US
• No Congress interference in the content of its
2. Television and Broadcast
 cable TV network
 founded in 1980 by Ted Turner
 a division of the Turner Broadcasting System,
owned by Time Warner
 based in Atlanta with four channels
 provides programs like World Report, World
Business, World Sport, World weather, World
Beat (世界音乐), Hotspots (热点问题), Insight(透
视), and Q & A (Question and Answer)
 24-hour news coverage
2. Television and Broadcast
VOA (Voice of America)
 the most famous radio station for the expansion of
propaganda to foreign countries
 supported and organized by the government, in
Washington D.C.
 originally established for war
information, now under the
leadership of the American
International Communication
 sending news to the world in
more than 40 languages 24
hours a day
Ⅲ Holidays and Festivals
Warming-up: Tips:
 When talking about
American holidays and
festivals, is there
anyone that you are
familiar with? And would
you please compare
them with some
traditional Chinese
Thanksgiving Day,
Halloween, Valentines’
Day, Easter Sunday,
Independence Day…
Spring Festival, MidAutumn Day, National
Day, Dragon Boat
Festival, Children’s
Ⅲ Holidays and Festivals
1. Thanksgiving
2. Independence Day
1. Thanksgiving
☻The 4th Thursday in
☻most important
holiday apart from
☻Schools, offices and
most businesses close
the whole weekend—a
1. Thanksgiving
 In 1620, pilgrims came to North America in Mayflower.
 A hard winter; not enough to eat; many people died.
 In the following summer, Native Americans showed
them crops safe to eat and how to plant them, so they
had a good harvest.
 They held a big
celebration to
thank God and the
Native Americans.
A Pilgrim’s Thanksgiving
1. Thanksgiving
☻Traditional dinner
 turkey (filled with stuffing or dressing)
 sweet potatoes (also called yams)
 Cranberries made into a kind of sauce or jelly
1. Thanksgiving
TV programs
Day Parade:and sports events
A long
of people
wearing fancy
 line
Parade in
York the
streets with large balloons in the shape of imaginary characters.
of the
next day people go out to shop
for Christmas
Christmas season
2. Independence Day
The national day—the 4th of July
On this day in 1776, the Continental
Congress adopted The Declaration of
Day is the most
important patriotic
Independence Hall
2. Independence Day
 the army—firing a thirteen-gun salute
 ceremonies—parades, official speeches, historic monument
visits, out-door stage shows, dancing parties, boat races and
firework displays
Independence Hall
 Thomas Jefferson presented his drafts of The Declaration of
Independence to members of the Continental Congress
 George Washington sitting as presiding over the Congress
Americans celebrate their freedom and
independence with barbecues, picnics,
and family gatherings.
2. Independence Day
firework displays
The United
States of

Chapter Four