Factors Behind “Digital Divide”
:Income and ……..
Yoshiki Mikami
Nagaoka University of Technology
[email protected]
http://kjs.nagaokaut.ac.jp/mikami
UNU/IAS, Tokyo
June 30, 2000
Fig.1 Global Digital Divide
400
Population (million)
1500
Population
Telephone Access
Mobile Access
Internet Access
300
1000
200
500
100
0
NA
46<
100<
215<
464<
1,000<
2,154<
Per Capita Income (US$)
4,642<
10,000<
0
21,544<
Population who have access (million)
2000
Fig.2 Communication Media Access by Income
1000
Population
Telephone Access
1500
750
Population (million)
Mobile Access
Internet Access
1000
500
500
250
0
0
NA
46<
100<
215<
464<
1,000<
Per Capita Income (US$)
2,154<
4,642<
10,000<
21,544<
Number of population who have access to each media
(per 1000)
2000
Map of Writing Systems
Source: Akira Nakanishi, Writing Systems of the World, Churles Tutle Co., Tokyo
Hanzi
Indic Scripts
Fig.3 Latin & Non-Latin Population Spectrum
2000
Total
Latin+extensions
Non-Latin
1500
1000
500
0
NA
46<
100<
215<
464<
1,000<
2,154<
4,642<
10,000<
21,544<
Fig.4 Latin & Non-Latin Internet User Spectrum
2000
200
Total
Latin+extensions
Non-Latin
1500
150
1000
100
500
50
0
0
NA
46<
100<
215<
464<
1,000<
2,154<
4,642<
10,000<
21,544<
Fig.5 Internet User Density by Income and Scripts
1000
Latin
Arabic+Hebrew
Cyrril+Greek
Indian Derivatives
Hanzi+Kana+Hangul
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
100
1000
10000
100000
Fig.6 Computer Penetration requires
Character Code Standards
Region
60s
America
Europe
ASCII
ECMA
Slavic
Arabic
Hebrew
【Asia】
Japan
China
Korea
Thailand
Vietnam
India
........and more
(Kana)
JIS 6220-69
70s
80s
90s
Expansion to other European Languages
Greece
Cyril
East European Languages
CODAR
ASMO
ECMA121
(Hanzi)
JIS 6226-78
GB 2312-80
Expansion of Hanzi
Expansion of Hanzi
KSC 5601-87
TIS 620-86
TCVN 5412-93
ISSCII -83
........and more
Fig.7 Computer Penetration requires
Character Code Standards
108
JIS C6220-1969
10
7
JIS C6226-1978
Estimated Number of Computers in Use
GB2312-1980 KS C5601-1987
Japan
Korea
China
106
India
TCVN5412-1993
105
Thailand
SriLanka
104
Vietnam
ISSCII-1983 TIS 620-1986 SLS 1134-1996
Myanmar
103
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
Source : AFSIT Proceedings 1987-1993, MLIT ‘97, CICC, Computer Industry Almanac1997
©1998
Yoshiki
Mikami
Fig.8 Printing and writing Paper Concumption
4.E+07
Population
Latin+extensions
Arabic+Hebrew
Cyrril+Greek
Indian Derivatives
Hanzi+Kana+Hangul
Population (million)
1500
1000
3.E+07
2.E+07
500
1.E+07
0
0.E+00
46<
100<
215<
464<
1,000<
2,154<
Income level (US$)
4,642<
10,000<
21,544<
Consumption (t)
2000
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Factors behind 'Digital Divide'