[By Ron Halbrook]
Introduction:
1. Matt. 28:18-20 Christ proclaimed his authority:
we must submit to receive salvation
2
Matt. 28:18-20
18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying,
All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations,
baptizing them in the name of the Father,
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
20 Teaching them to observe all things
whatsoever I have commanded you:
and, lo, I am with you alway,
even unto the end of the world. Amen.
3
Introduction:
2. To understand & apply the authority of Christ:
I. Authority of Christ Expressed in Scripture
II. Authority of Christ as Savior
III. Authority of Christ in Local Church
IV. Gradual Departures from the Authority of Christ
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
4
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
A. Catholic Corruption Sparked Reforms
in 1400’s-1500’s
Popes exercise political power;
church full of ignorance, greed,
& immorality
5
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
A. Catholic Corruption Sparked Reforms
in 1400’s-1500’s
Indulgence: transfer merits of Christ,
Mary, & saints—remit penalties
for sin on earth & in purgatory
For the living & the dead
Granted if visit saints’ relics, pay
6
Indulgence: transfer merits of Christ, Mary,
& saints—remit penalties on earth, in purgatory
Pope Leo X offered plenary indulgence
(total pardon) to raise money
for St. Peter’s Basilica in 1517
Johann Tetzel in Germany:
“As soon as the coin in the coffer rings,
The soul from purgatory springs”
7
Indulgence: transfer merits of Christ, Mary,
& saints—remit penalties on earth, in purgatory
Inexpensive indulgence 10 days:
“In the authority of all the saints…
I absolve thee from all sins…
& remit all punishment for ten days”
More expensive: 1,902,202 years
8
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
A. Catholic Corruption Sparked Reforms
in 1400’s-1500’s
In Germany in 1517 Martin Luther
wrote 95 theses for debate,
challenged Pope’s authority,
& was declared an outlaw
9
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
A. Catholic Corruption Sparked Reforms
in 1400’s-1500’s
Bible translated into common languages
John Wycliffe, “morning star” of reform:
complete English Bible 1382
10
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
A. Catholic Corruption Sparked Reforms
in 1400’s-1500’s
Bible translated into common languages
Gutenberg printed Latin Bible 1455
11
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
A. Catholic Corruption Sparked Reforms
in 1400’s-1500’s
Bible translated into common languages
Luther: N.T. 1520, complete Bible 1534
12
Bible translated into common languages
William Tyndale: “if God spare my life,
ere many years I will cause a boy
that driveth a plough shall know more
of the Scriptures than he [the Pope] did”
(1521)
Pope Leo X
13
Bible translated into common languages
King James I: Commission scholars 1604,
47 men begin 1607,
Authorized Version or KJV published 1611
(N.T. 90% Tyndale’s 1534)
14
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
B. Efforts to Reform Catholicism,
Return to New Testament Teaching
In Germany Martin Luther a priest
wrote 95 theses for debate in 1517,
excommunicated 1520-21;
Philip Melanchthon wrote
Augsburg Confession 1530;
origin of Lutheran Church
15
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
B. Efforts to Reform Catholicism,
Return to New Testament Teaching
In Switzerland Ulrich Zwingli a priest
left Catholicism in Zurich 1522-25;
origin of Reformed
& Presbyterian Churches
16
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
B. Efforts to Reform Catholicism,
Return to New Testament Teaching
In France John Calvin studied priesthood
& law; Institutes of the Christian Religion
1536;
led Geneva, Swizlerland;
origin of Reformed
&
Presbyterian Churches
17
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
B. Efforts to Reform Catholicism,
Return to New Testament Teaching
In England King Henry VIII declared
“Defender of the Faith” by Pope Leo X
for opposing Luther;
Henry made the Church of England
independent in 1534
to secure marriage to Anne Boleyn
18
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
B. Efforts to Reform Catholicism,
Return to New Testament Teaching
In Europe Anabaptist movements:
reform ferment by lower classes;
Menno Simons priest in Netherlands,
immersed 1536;
Grebel, Hutter, Hoffman, Hut, etc.;
origin of Mennonites, Amish,
& Church of the Brethren; Baptists
from John Smyth in Holland 1607
19
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
C. Reformers Severely Persecuted
by Catholicism, Wars Fought
Reformers protest persecution:
Protestant Reformation
Declared outlaws, arrested, tortured,
Bibles burned, executed
Great struggle seeking to find & follow
the authority of Christ
20
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
D. Reformers Struggle with How to Apply
Bible Authority
Struggle to clarify restoration principle
of 1 Pet. 4:11
1 Peter 4:11
11 If any man speak,
let him speak as the oracles of God;
if any man minister,
let him do it as of the ability which God giveth:
that God in all things may be glorified
through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise
and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
21
RESTORATION PRINCIPLE
(1 Peter 4:11)
What is not authorized What is not forbidden
is forbidden
Is authorized
VS
ZWINGLI
“Reject what the Bible
did not enjoin”
“What the Bible does not
command we may not do”
Oppose images, crosses,
organs, choirs,
clerical dress, etc.
LUTHER
“Accept what the Bible
did not prohibit”
“We may do what
the Bible does not forbid”
Embrace images, crosses,
organs, choirs,
clerical dress, etc.
R.H. Bainton, The Church of Our Fathers, pp. 143-144
22
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
D. Reformers Struggle with How to Apply
Bible Authority
Luther’s looser view prevailed
Denominations multiplied
23
DENOMINATIONS
606
1520
1534
1536
1550
1607
1739
1830
1830
1866
1872
Rome
Germany
England
Switzerland
England
Holland
England
America
America
America
America
Boniface III
Martin Luther
Henry VIII
John Calvin
Robert Browne
John Smythe
John Wesley
Joseph Smith
William Miller
Mary B. Eddy
Charles Russell
Roman Catholic
Lutheran
Episcopal
Presbyterian
Congregational
Baptist
Methodist
Mormon
Adventists
Christian Science
Jehovah’s Witness
24
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
D. Reformers Struggle with How to Apply
Bible Authority
Denominations multiplied
David Barrett, World Christian
Encyclopedia (2001): 33,000
World Christian Database
(Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary)
track 9,000 denominations Jan. 2008
25
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
E. Basic Doctrines of Denominations Prevent
True Restoration
Additions to Bible Authority Rev. 22:18-19
26
Additions to Bible Authority Rev. 22:18-19
Rev. 22:18-19
18 For I testify unto every man that heareth
the words of the prophecy of this book,
If any man shall add unto these things,
God shall add unto him the plagues
that are written in this book:
19 And if any man shall take away from the words
of the book of this prophecy,
God shall take away his part out of the book of life,
and out of the holy city,
and from the things which are written in this book.
27
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
E. Basic Doctrines of Denominations Prevent
True Restoration
Additions to Bible Authority Rev. 22:18-19
Human creeds
Headquarters, hierarchy, councils, officers
New revelations
Illumination of the Holy Spirit
28
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
E. Basic Doctrines of Denominations Prevent
True Restoration
Salvation by faith only Ja. 2:24
Ja. 2:24
24 Ye see then how that by works a man is justified,
and not by faith only.
29
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
E. Basic Doctrines of Denominations Prevent
True Restoration
Salvation by faith only Ja. 2:24
Baptism not essential
Allow departures from Bible pattern:
work, worship, & organization of church
Ungodly living not affect salvation
30
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
E. Basic Doctrines of Denominations Prevent
True Restoration
Direct operation of Holy Spirit Rom. 1:16
Rom. 1:16
16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ:
for it is the power of God unto salvation
to every one that believeth;
to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.
31
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
E. Basic Doctrines of Denominations Prevent
True Restoration
Direct operation of Holy Spirit Rom. 1:16
Declare the word dead, cold, powerless
Claim power for salvation, 2nd work of grace
Claim miracles today
Claim new revelations, illuminations,
miraculous guidance
Deny all-sufficient power of original gospel!
32
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
F. Restoration Plea: Return to the Authority
of Christ by Return to His Original Teaching
Many seek remedy for denominationalism,
return to original gospel of Christ 1790-1850
Speak as oracles of God 1 Pet. 4:11
33
Speak as oracles of God 1 Pet. 4:11
1 Peter 4:11
11 If any man speak,
let him speak as the oracles of God;
if any man minister,
let him do it as of the ability which God giveth:
that God in all things may be glorified
through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise
and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
34
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
F. Restoration Plea: Return to the Authority
of Christ by Return to His Original Teaching
Many seek remedy for denominationalism,
return to original gospel of Christ 1790-1850
Speak as oracles of God 1 Pet. 4:11
Speak where the Bible speaks:
Bible authority for all we preach & practice
Be silent where the Bible is silent:
silence of Scripture prohibits
35
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
F. Restoration Plea: Return to the Authority
of Christ by Return to His Original Teaching
Many seek remedy for denominationalism,
return to original gospel of Christ 1790-1850
Speak as oracles of God 1 Pet. 4:11
Give Book, chapter, & verse
Call Bible things by Bible names,
do Bible things in Bible ways
36
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
F. Restoration Plea: Return to the Authority
of Christ by Return to His Original Teaching
Ask for the old paths Jer. 6:16
Jer. 6:16
16 Thus saith the LORD,
Stand ye in the ways, and see,
and ask for the old paths,
where is the good way,
and walk therein,
and ye shall find rest for your souls.
But they said, We will not walk therein.
37
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
F. Restoration Plea: Return to the Authority
of Christ by Return to His Original Teaching
What saith the Scriptures? Rom. 4:3
Rom. 4:3
3 For what saith the scripture?
Abraham believed God,
and it was counted unto him for righteousness.
38
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
F. Restoration Plea: Return to the Authority
of Christ by Return to His Original Teaching
Christ only head of church Eph. 1:22-23
Eph. 1:22-23
22 And hath put all things under his feet,
and gave him to be the head over all things
to the church,
23 Which is his body,
the fulness of him that filleth all in all.
39
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
F. Restoration Plea: Return to the Authority
of Christ by Return to His Original Teaching
Bible only as our guide 2 Tim. 3:16-17
2 Tim. 3:16-17
16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God,
and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof,
for correction, for instruction in righteousness:
17 That the man of God may be perfect,
throughly furnished unto all good works.
40
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
F. Restoration Plea: Return to the Authority
of Christ by Return to His Original Teaching
New Testament pattern of faith
& practice in all things 2 Tim. 1:13
2 Tim. 1:13
13 Hold fast the form of sound words,
which thou hast heard of me,
in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.
41
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
F. Restoration Plea: Return to the Authority
of Christ by Return to His Original Teaching
Christians only Acts 11:26
Acts 11:26
26 And when he had found him,
he brought him unto Antioch.
And it came to pass, that a whole year
they assembled themselves with the church,
and taught much people.
And the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch.42
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
F. Restoration Plea: Return to the Authority
of Christ by Return to His Original Teaching
Early efforts in Europe & British Isles
in 1700s-early 1800s:
Robert Sandeman, Robert Haldane,
J.A. Haldane (Social Worship, 1805)
Fruitful efforts in U.S.: New England,
middle colonies, early western frontier,
southern states
43
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
G. Restoration Plea Spread Widely in America
Middle states: James O’Kelley
& Rice Haggard leave Methodist 1793-1801
Christ only head, Christian only name,
Bible only creed
44
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
G. Restoration Plea Spread Widely in America
New England: Elias Smith leave Baptist
1802-1803
Christian’s Journal (1805),
Herald of Gospel Liberty (1808)
45
46
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
G. Restoration Plea Spread Widely in America
Kentucky frontier: Barton W. Stone
leaves Presbyterian 1803
47
G. Restoration Plea Spread Widely in America
Kentucky frontier: Barton W. Stone leaves
Presbyterian 1803
1801 Great Revival at Cane Ridge, KY
audience 10,000-20,000; weaken Calvinism
48
Kentucky frontier: Barton W. Stone leaves
Presbyterian 1803
1804 Last Will & Testament of the Springfield
Presbytery: “take the Bible
as the only sure guide to heaven”
John Smith at Lexington, KY unity meeting
Dec. 25, 1831-Jan. 1, 1832:
“Let us…be no longer Campbellites or Stoneites,
New Lights or Old Lights,
or any other kind of lights,
but let us come to the Bible and the Bible alone,
as the only book in the world
that can give us all the light we need.”
49
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
G. Restoration Plea Spread Widely in America
Western Pennsylvania: Thomas
& Alexander Campbell plead for restoration
50
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
G. Restoration Plea Spread Widely in America
Western Pennsylvania: Thomas
& Alexander Campbell plead for restoration
1808 leave Presbyterian, work with Baptists
1808 T. Campbell:
“Where the Bible speaks, we speak;
where the Bible is silent, we are silent.”
If infant baptism “not found in the Scriptures,
we can have nothing to do with it”
51
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
G. Restoration Plea Spread Widely in America
Western Penn. & Vir.: Thomas
& Alexander Campbell plead for restoration
1809 Declaration & Address:
the Church of Christ will resume
its “original unity, peace, & purity” if we
“adopt the practice of the primitive Church,
expressly exhibited in the New Testament”
52
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
G. Restoration Plea Spread Widely in America
Western Penn. & Vir.: Thomas
& Alexander Campbell plead for restoration
Brush Run Church, Washington County, PA
formed 1810, later join Baptist association
June 12, 1812 Campbells immersed
into Christ not Baptist Church
53
Distinguished Old & New Covenants
 “How few among the teachers
of the New Testament seem to know
that Christ’s ministers are not able ministers
of the Old Testament, but of the New!
Do they not…run to Moses to prove
forms of worship, ordinances, discipline,
and government in the Christian Church,
when asked to account for their practices?”
(Alexander letter 1812)
 “Sermon on The Law”
(1816 Redstone Baptist Association)
54
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
G. Restoration Plea Spread Widely in America
Western Penn. & Vir.: Thomas
& Alexander Campbell plead for restoration
Gospel spread via journals & debates
1830 dissolve Mahoning Baptist Association
Great harvest as thousands converted,
but opposed as cult, “Campbellites,” etc.
55
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
G. Restoration Plea Spread Widely in America
Western Reserve (Ohio): Walter Scott left
Presbyterian, baptized 1819 in Pittsburg, PA
Five finger exercise: faith, repentance,
baptism, remission of sins, gift of Holy Spirit
56
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
G. Restoration Plea Spread Widely in America
Southern states (Georgia): Christian Herman
Dasher left Lutheran, baptized 1819
Dasher & S.C. Dunning (former Baptist)
in Savannah baptized each other
57
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
H. Restoration Plea Put into Practice
The Great Commission Matt. 28:18-20
58
Matt. 28:18-20
18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying,
All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations,
baptizing them in the name of the Father,
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
20 Teaching them to observe all things
whatsoever I have commanded you:
and, lo, I am with you alway,
even unto the end of the world. Amen.
59
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
H. Restoration Plea Put into Practice
The Great Commission Matt. 28:18-20
Facts to believe: death, burial,
& resurrection of Christ
Commands to obey: believe, repent,
confess Christ, be immersed in water
Promises to embrace: remission of sins,
hope of eternal life
60
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
H. Restoration Plea Put into Practice
Work of the Church Matt. 28:18-20
Preach the gospel 1 Tim. 3:15
Worship God, edify saints 1 Cor. 14:26
Benevolence to needy saints Acts 6:1
61
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
H. Restoration Plea Put into Practice
Worship of the Church Matt. 28:18-20
1st Day of the week: Lord’s Supper
Acts 20:7
1st Day of the week: Give 1 Cor. 16:2
Pray Acts 2:42
Teach Acts 2:42
Sing Eph. 5:19
62
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
H. Restoration Plea Put into Practice
Organization of the Church Matt. 28:18-20
Leadership: Elders (Presbyters),
Pastors (Shepherds),
Bishops (Overseers)
Acts 14:23; 20:17, 28
Deacons serve Acts 6:2-3
63
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
H. Restoration Plea Put into Practice
Organization of the Church Matt. 28:18-20
Evangelists (Preachers) & Teachers Instruct
Eph. 4:11
All Saints Participate in Work & Worship
Phil. 1:1
Women Not Exercise Lead Over Men
1 Tim. 2:12
64
V. Gradual Return to the Authority of Christ
H. Restoration Plea Put into Practice
Organization of the Church Matt. 28:18-20
Each Local Church Independent,
Autonomous
(No “Mother” or “Satellite” Church)
Acts 14:23
No Earthly Headquarters,
No Central or Universal Organization
65
Invitation:
1. Matt. 28:18-20 Christ proclaimed his authority:
we must submit to receive salvation
66
Matt. 28:18-20
18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying,
All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations,
baptizing them in the name of the Father,
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
20 Teaching them to observe all things
whatsoever I have commanded you:
and, lo, I am with you alway,
even unto the end of the world. Amen.
67
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THE AUTHORITY OF CHRIST (Part 3)